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J^ JL Chicago and New York J^ JL 

Index to Volume XXXVI 



Authors' Index 


Ashton R. G-"Oil Burning Locomo- Gay, C. M— "San Bernardino Precool- Reece Thos _« B ritish Locomotives in 

tives 118 ing Plant * 243 1911"* 129 

Oilman, _ G R— "Head End Electric Ree ce, Thos^British Locomotive' De- 

velopments" 451 

3 Train Lighting"* 61 

Bacon Chas G Tr -"Steel Wheels" 94 Goodchild, A. A.-"The Accounting De- ReeceT^Thos.-" Petrol-Electric ' 'Motor" 
° , ' t \x/f «r. ■ • ' t, VVUCC1S , * partment in Connection with the r ' r t Western Rv " (Fn°-- 

BarkerL. M W.- Driving Boxes and Mechanical and Stores Department" 56 £„<!)* Western Ky. ^^ 

Wedges ............... . 483 Goss, W. F. M— "Fuel as a Factor in p P( ™ Tlins ' ' "PpVr'nV fnqnert'ion Car 

Braley, Berton — "The Big Fellows 213 T ..._ nt : V( , ranaoitv" s>*s Keece, inos. — retroi inspection <^ar, 

Braley, Berton-"The Hustlers" 276 Locomotive Capacity 258 North Eastern Ry „ (Eng i and) *. 2 61 

Braley, Berton— "The Traveling Engi- LJ Reid, Chas. H.— "Value of Good 

neer " 359 11 Wrought Iron" 238 

Braley, Berton— ''The Equipment Men" .'397 Harkom, J. W.— "Locomotive Boiler Ryder, Gilbert E.— "Use of Highly Su- 

Brentnall, Louis— "The Well-Eqmpped Troubles" 154 perheated Steam in Locomotives * . 47 

Master Mechanic's Office" 132 Hine, Major Charles — "Railway Oper- 

Brentnall, Louis — "The Master Median- ating Organization" . . 80 C 

ic as an Inventive Genius" 372 O 

Brentnall, Louis — "The Car Depart- I n . , ,„ , ..-, ., ,. . , 

ment » .546 ** Saunders, W. L— "Railroading Around 

Burns, Geo.' j.— "N'otable' Efficiencies' in Jacobi, H— "Vacuum Cleaning on Rail- the World" ......... ....143 

Railway Machine Shop Operation. . 24 ways"* 507 Seager, J. A— Electric Vacuum Clean- 

ing of Cars of British Railways ..234 

(^ If Shaw, J. A.— "Electric Welding"* 98 

^ , T ^ «,„ ,. ~ • , Shurtleff, A. K.— "Locomotive Fuel 

Chappie, J. C— "Watervhet Terminal, Kellogg, W. L— "What Railroads Consumption" 453 

D. & H Co." 465 Need" 523 Starke, C. M.— "Lubrication" 547 

Clark, J. J.— "Eliminating Tender De- Sullivan, Chas. L.— "Dangers of Short- 

railments" 544 i age of Railway Facilities and Pos- 

Colby J. P-"What Shall We Do With *- s f ble Preventives" 197 

the Trusts ?" 52 Larson, C. M. — 'Headlight Tests 497 

Conardson, P. H— "Locomotive Lubri- Lewis, P. S.— "Yards and Terminal of p-p 

cation in Connection with Use of the P. & R. Ry. at St. Clair, Pa."*. 398 | 

Superheat" 172 » m 

Copony, A.— "Steel Passenger Cars"... 513 JV1 Thomas, J. B— "The Coupler Problem. 88 

Cordeal, Ernest— "Locomotive Efficien- „,.„„ w -p « Tinforria1 r™h„ ct ;™ Tilt > E - B.— "Work of Railway Testing 

cy" 90 Mc Keen, W. R.— Internal Combustion Department" 67 

Cordeal, Ernest-"Locomotive Fuel En , gine ai a railway Motlve Pow " QO Tupper, C. A.-"Car Shops of the Hock- 
Economy" 239 ,,. nli, '■%;• V A V • V.™'-J V ' '/ " "n ' ' ' m S Valley Ry."* 150 

<"-„, .,„ r \It Urn 1 • i -C- •"."*"' Middleton, O. W. — Workmen s Com- a J 

Cravens, Geo. W.— "Electrical Equip- „ 17 

ment of Railway Shops"* 473 »,. P ensat J° n ■ •„•• .• • •••-• •■■ : •• ■ ■ • xt 

rv ~„ w £ «-b 1 \ t> • »* VJn. Minnick, H. J.— Terminal Tests in Air 

Cremean, W. F.- Bolster Repairs' '*. .420 Brake Pr J actice -' 558 

f\ ^v VanZandt, J. G— "Locomotive Fuel 

*^ \j Consumption and the Speed Dia- 

Downing. I. S.— "Car Shop Appren- , , gram" 537 

tices" ... 380 O 1 '^. L. C. — Car Inspection" 5o2 

P w 

Farmer, F. B.— "Terminal Brake Test- Pownall, W. A.— "Water Treatment and Walker. Win. H.— "Relative Corrosion 

ing" 21 

Boiler Troubles"* ISO of Iron and Steel Pipe"* 549 


Index to Articles 

Accident Statistics t 128 

Accidents, Relation of Condition of 

Equipment tot 126 

Accounting Department in Connection 
with the Mechanical and Stores De- 
partment 56 

Acme Sectional Diaphragm* 487 

Acme Weatherproof Window* 77 

Adjustable Car Screens, Scott* 568 

Air Brake Assn., Report of Convention. 24S 
Air Brake Equipment, Handling Long 
Trains with (T. E. A. Committee 

Report) 410 

Air Brake Practice, Terminal Tests in. 558 

Air Compressor, Bury* 163 

Ajax Reclaiming Rolls* 485 

Albina Shop Building, O-W. R. & N..138 

' All Geared Sliding Head Drill* 119 

Allen Hammer Riveter* 77 

American Railway Master Mechanics' 
Association — 

Date of 1913 Convention! 535 

Executive Committee, 1911-1912* 221 

Officers for 1911-1912* 219 

Report of 45th Annual Convention*. .316 
American Railway Tool Foremen's As- 
sociation, Report of Third Annual 

Convention 385 

American Railways 223 

"American" Sensitive Drill* 570 

Among the Manufacturers* 35, 74, 

118, 163, 205, 263, 350, 425, 483, 529, 564 
Anthracite Coal as a Locomotive Fuel* 538 

Appreciation and Suggestion 3 

Apprentices, Car Shop 380 

Argo Terminal, Oregon-Washington 

R. R. & N*.., 510 

Armored Box Car. . , 192 

Articulated Truck Electric Locomotives, 

N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R.* 519 

Associations — 
Air Brake, Report of 19th Annual Con- 
vention 248 

American Railway Master Mechanics, 

Executive Committee of* 221 

American Railway Master Mechanics, 

Officers of* 219 

American Railway Master Mechanics, 

Report of 45th Annual Convention*316 
American Railway Tool Foremen's 

Report of 3rd Annual Convention. .385 
Car Foremen's, of Chicago, Annual 

Meeting 507 

Chf. Int. Car Ins. & Car Fmn.'s Assn. f 395 
C. I. C. I. & C. R, Date of Annual 

Convention 142 

C. I. C. I. & C. F., Entertainment 

Committee for ]912 Convention 334 

C. I. C. I. & C. F.. Executive Com- 
mittee Meeting 122 

C. I. C. I. & C. F., Report of 13th 

Annual Convention 431 

C. I. C. I. & C. R, List of Members. 445 
International Railroad Master Black- 
smiths, Report of 20th Convention. .423 
International Railway General Fore- 
men's, Papers for 193 2 Convention. 147 
International Railway General Fore- 
men's, Report of 8th Annual Con- 
vention 373 

International Association for Testing 
Materials, Program for 6th Con- 
gress 250 

Master Boiler Makers, Report of 

6th Annual Convention 250 

Master Car and Locomotive Painters', 

Report of 43rd Annual Convention. 470 
.Master Car Builders, Executive Com- 
mittee of* 218 

Master Car Builders, Officers of*.... 217 
Master Car Builders, Report of 46th 

Annual Convention* 282 

Railway Equipment Manufacturers' 

List of Members* 362 

Railway Equipment Manufacturers' 

Members and Representatives ....418 
Railway Storekeepers, Committees for 

1912 Convention 54 

Railway Storekeepers, Report of 9th 

Annual Convention 251 

Railway Supply Manufacturers' An- 
nual Meeting 334 

Traveling Engineers, Report of 20th 

Annual Convention 405 

Traveling Engineers, History of 405 

Traveling Engineers, Date for 1912 

Meeting 334 

Traveling Engineers, Officers of,' 1911- 

12* 360 

Traveling Engineers, Executive Com- 
mittee, 1911-1912* 362 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry., Pre- 

cooling Plant at San Bernardino*. 243 
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry., 

Roundhouse at Riverbank, Cal.*...540 
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry., 

Smoke Abatement Tests at Chicago*133 
Atlantic City- 
Carborundum Exhibit at 206 

Conventions, List of Exhibitors 207 

Conventions, Report of* 282 

Special Train 158 

Australia, Electrification of Railways at 

Melbourne 192 

Australia, Victorian Rys., McKeen Mo- 
tor Cars for* 36 

Automatic Blue Printing Machine*. .. .565 

Automatic Brake in India 482 

Automobile Cars for C, M. & St. P. Ry.*102 
Axle, Car, Grinder* 525 

Boston & Maine R. R., Results of Elec- 
trifying the Hoosac Tunnel 31 

Box Car, Armored 192 

Box Car Door, An Unlosable* 272 

Boxes, Driving, and Wedges* 483 

Bracket, Universal Lamp* 3S 

Brake and Signal Equipment, Train 

(M. C. B. Committee Report)* 286 

Brake Head* 351 

Brake Shoes, Tests of (M. C. B. Com- 
mittee Report)* 287 

Brake Testing, Terminal! 3 

Brake Testing, Terminal 21 

Brake, Vacuum Automatic, in India.... 482 

Braziers' Age* 237 

British Locomotive Developments 451 

British Locomotives in 1911* 129 

British Railways, Electric Vacuum 

Cleaning of Cars on 234 

Buffalo Steam Hammer* 74 

Bulldozer, Wood Splitting* 163 

Busting Things Up 16 

Butte, Anaconda & Pacific Ry., Electri- 
fication of 144 


Babbitt Metal 472 

Badger Water-Oil Separator 206 

Balanced Compound Freight Locomo- 
tive, Bavarian State Rys.* 145 

Barnum's, Morgan K, Rooster* 236 

Baxter Gauge Cock* 148 

Bearing, Journal, Streeter Pivot* 569 

Belt Dressing, "Brush-bar"* 567 

Bentley's Success, The Secret of* 235 

Berlin Stadtbahn, Electrification of the*260 
Better Materials and Better Workman- 
ship Demanded! 83 

Big Fellows, The! -212' 

Big Fellows, The (Poem) 213 

Bins, Steel, in Cabinet Form 70 

Blockades, Snow, Single-Phase Rail- 
ways Break* 20 

Blow-off Valve, "Okadee"* 390 

Blue Chip Steel* 267 

Blue Printing Machine, Automatic*. .. .565 
Boiler — 
Design of a Locomotive (A. R. M. M. 

Committee Report) * 321 

Explosion at San Antonio, Tex.*.-. . .179 

] nspection Law! 4 1. 

Trouhles and Water Treatment*. .. .180 

Troubles, Locomotive 154 

Tube Expander, Quick-Acting Sec- 
tional* 389 

Washing System, 1 lot Water* 164 

I '.listers, Truck Side, Specifications for 

(M. C. B. Committee Report) 312 

Bolster Repairs* 420 

Books. (See "New Books.") 

Boring Machine, Radial Drill as a* 487 

Canadian Pacific Ry., Calgary Shops*.. 101 

Canadian Railway Statistics 93 

Canal Commission, Isthmian, Report of 

Mechanical D'Vision 28 

Capacity, Locomotive, Fuel as a Factor 

in 258 

Capacity Marking of Cars (M. C. B. 

Committee Report) 314 

Car — 

Axle Grinder, Portable* 525 

Bolster Repairs* 420 

Box, Overhead Inspection of (M. C. 

B. Committee Report) 300 

Capacity Marking of (M. C. B. Com- 
mittee Report) 314 

Cleaning on British Railways 234 

Coupler and Draft Equipment (M. C. 

B. Committee Report) 304 

Coupler and Riveting Machine* 486 

Department, The 546 

Diaphragm, Acme Sectional* 487 

Door, Box, An Unlosable* 272 

Door, Freight* '. 531 

Door, The Rumsey* 532 

Doorst 212 

End, Van Dorn* 564 

Equipment, Damage by Unloading 
Machines (M. C. B. Committee Re- 
port) 298 

Floors, Concrete, Treatment and 

Finish of 541 

Foremen's Association of Chicago, 

Annual Meeting 507 

Heating, Ventilation and Refrigera- 
tion, Moore System* 425 

Inspection ■ 552 

Interchange at Chicago* 28 

Journal Bearing. "Streeter" Pivot*. .569 

Ladder, Steel* 390 

Roofs for Rock Island Cars* 493 

Seats* 486 

Shop Apprentices 380 

Shops ol" I lurking Valley Ry. at Lo- 

gan, O.* 150 

Standards and Recommended Practice 

(M. C. B. Committee Report)*. .. .306 
Tank, Oil Tests (M. C. B. Committee 

Report)* 310 

Truck, Side Bolsters (M. C. B. Com- 
mittee Report)* 312 

Truck, Standard, Exhibit 273 

Trucks. Springs for (M. C. B. Com- 
mittee Report)* 306 


Ventilation")" 1 

Ventilation, Passenger* 11 

Water Closet, "Eckert" 270 

Wheels (M. C. B. Committee Re- 
port)* 290 

Window Screens, Scott Adjustable*.. 568 
Carbondale Roundhouse, D. & H. Co.*.. 14 
Carborundum and Aloxite Grinding Rec- 
ords 271 

Carborundum Exhibit at Atlantic City. 206 

Card Box, Repair and Defect* 33 

Cars — 
Armored Box, for Mexican Railways. 192 
Automobile, for Chicago, Milwaukee 

& St. P. Ry.* 102 

Chapel, for Catholic Church Exten- 
sion Society* 281 

Edison-Beach 268 

Freight"!" 492 

Inspection, Petrol, for North Eastern 

Ry. (England)* 261 

Laundry, in India 464 

Motor in Collision* 27 

Motor Passenger 89 

Motor, Petrol-Electric, for Great 

Western Ry. (England)* 148 

Ore, Self-Clearing, Quick Dumping*. 241 
Refrigerator for Merchants De- 
spatch* 138 

Steelt 2 

Steel, in Collision* 55 

Steel Passenger 512 

Steel vs. Wooden Construction for. . . 3 

Summers Steel* 118 

Cast Steel Truck Frame, Pittsburgh 

Steel Foundry Co.'s* 265 

Center Cab Switcher Locomotive (Elec- 
tric), N. Y, N. H. & H. R: R.*...374 
Central of Georgia Ry., Educational 

Bureau 149 

Central of Georgia Ry., Macon Shops*. 4 
Champaign Terminal, Illinois Central 

R. R.* 285 

Changes in the Rules of Interchange, 

Proposed 178 

Chapel Car* 281 

Chemically Treated Water, Benefits of 

(T. E. A. Committee Report) 406 

Chicago & Alton R. R., Shop Kinks*.. 23 
Chicago & North Western Ry., Proviso 

Terminal* , 421 

Chicago Car Interchange* 28 

Chicago, Conventions Held at During 

1912 175 

Chicago Great Western R. R., Instruc- 
tions on Use of Coal 375 

Chicago Great Western R. R., Mikado 

type Locomotives for* 419 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Ry., 

Automobile Cars for* 102 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Ry., 

Pacific Type Locomotives* 86 

Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Ry„ 

Roofs for New Cars* 493 

Chicago, Smoke Abatement Tests at, 

A. T. & S. F. Ry.* 133 

Chief Interchange Car Inspectors and Car 
Foremen's Association — 
Chf. Int. Car Ins. & C. Fmns. Assn. t. 395 

Date of Annual Convention 142 

Entertainment Committee for Annual 

Convention 334 

Executive Committee Meeting 122 

List of Members of 445 

Proceedings of 13th Annual Conven- 
tion 431 

Cincinnati Frog and Switch Planer*. . .529 
Cleaner Attachment, Vacuum, for Loco- 
motive* 384 

Cleaner, Matthews Tube* 265 

Cleaning of Cars of British Railways, 

Electric Vacuum 234 

Cleaning Outfit, Home-Made Vacuum*. 254 

Cleaning, Vacuum, on Railways* 507 

Coal, Anthracite, as a Locomotive Fuel* 538 
Coal, Economical Use of 375 

Coatesville, Pa., Program for Firebox 

Tests at* 60 

Coatesville, Pa., Progress Report of 

Jacobs-Shupert Firebox Tests at*.. 253 
Coatesville, Pa., Report of Locomotive 

Boiler . Tests at* 278 

Cold Weather, Cost oft 85 

Collision, McKeen Motor Cars in*..... 27 
Collision, Railway Officials Killed in*... 72 

Collision, Steel Cars in* 55 

Combination Disc Grinder and Drum 

Sander for Wood Patternmaking*.388 
Combination Dynamotor-Compressor*. .120 

Combination Freight Car Door* 530 

Commerce Courtt 85 

Compensation, Workmen's 17 

Compressor, "Bury"Air* 163 

Concrete Floors for Passenger Cars, 

Treatment and Finish of 541 

Conduit, Goetz Flexible Steam* 118 

Connections for Steam Heat, Train Pipe 

(M. C B. Committee Report)* 308 

Connector, Durbin Train Pipe* 353 

Considerable Improvement 189 

Considerably Less Than Nothing 54 

Contour of Tires (A. R. M. M. Com- 
mittee Report)* 327 

Control, HL, for Electric Locomotives* 59 
Convention Reports — 
Air Brake Association (19th Annual) 248 
American Railway Master Mechanics' 

Association (45th Annual) 316 

American Railway Tool Foremen's 

Association (3rd Annual) 385 

Chief Interchange Car Inspectors and 
Foremen's Association (13th An- 
nual) 431 

International Railroad Master Black- 
smiths' Association (20th Annual). 423 
International Railway General Fore- 
men's (8th Annual) .• 373 

Master Boiler Makers' Association 

(6th Annual) 250 

Master Car and Locomotive Painters' 

Association (43rd Annual) 470 

Master Car Builders' (46th Annual). 282 
Railway Storekeepers' Association 

(9th Annual) 251 

Traveling Engineers' Association (20th 

Annual) 405 

Conventions at Chicago During 1912... 175 
Conventions. List of Exhibitors at At- 
lantic City 207 

Corning, Wilpen and Western Springst356 

Correct Reportst 397 

Correspondence — 

Appreciation and Suggestion 3 

Locomotive Fuel Consumption and 

the Speed Diagram 537 

Locomotive Manufacture 357 

Steel Motor Cars in Collision* 27 

Steel vs. Wooden Construction for 

Cars 3 

Tender Derailments 493 

Corrosion of Iron and Steel Pipe, Rela- 
tive* 549 

Coupler and Draft Equipment (M. C. B. 

Committee Report)* 304 

Coupler, Car, Shearing and Riveting 

Machine* 486 

Coupler Problem, The 88 

Crane, Economical, Railway* 559 

Cut-off, Gentle Hint for a Shorter 385 

Cylinders, Locomotive, Graphite Lubri- 
cator for* . 427 

Delaware & Hudson Co., Carbondale 

Roundhouse* 14 

Delaware & Hudson Co., Watervliet 

Terminal* 465 

Delaware, Lackawanna & Western R. 

R., First Aid on the* 144 

Denver Interchange 93 

Derailments, Tender 493 

Derailments, Tender, Eliminating*. .. .544 

Design, A Suggestion in Tenderf 536 

Design, etc., of Locomotive Boilers (A. 

R. M. M. Committee Report)* 321 

DeVoy's Age* 237 

Diaphragm, Acme Sectional* .....487 

Diesel Locomotive, Experimenting with 

A 105 

Direct-Current Locomotive* 157 

Disastrous Locomotive Boiler Explo- 
sion* ». 179 

Disc Grinder and Drum Sander for 

Wood Patternmaking* 388 

Dissolution of Union & Southern Pa- 

cificf .'.-. 537 

Dixon, Joseph, A Tribute to 269 

Door, Box Car, An Unlosable* 272 

Door, Combination Freight Car* 530 

Door, The Rumsey Car* 532 

Doors, Cart 212 

Double-Cutting Planing Machines 46 

Draft Equipment, and Coupler (M. C. 

B. Committee Report) * 304 

Dressing, "Brush-bar" Belt* 567 

All Geared, Sliding Head* 119 

"American" Sensitive* 570 

Electric* 389 

One-man 77 

Radial, as a Boring Machine*. 487 

Tests 529 

Sensitive Stand for Duntley Electric*390 

Socket, Wear-ever* 163 

Driving Boxes and Wedges* 483 

Drum Sander and Disc Grinder for 

Wood Patternmaking* 388 

Drying Plant for Sand, United Rys. of 

St. Louis* 193 

Dumping Ore Car, Self-Clearing, Quick*241 

Durbin Train Pipe Connector* 353 

Dust Guard, "D. P."* 431 

Dynamotor-Compressor, Combination*. .120 


"D. P." Dust Guard* 431 

Dangers of Shortage -of Railway Facili- 
ties and Possible Preventives 107 

Daredevil, A Timid 52 

Date of Mechanical Conventions, 1913f.535 

Eckert Car Water Closet 270 

Economical Railway Crane* .559 

Economical Use of Coal 375 

Economy, Locomotive Fuel 239 

Economy Power Saw* 485 

Edison and Railway Electrification^ . . . 42 

Edison-Beach Cars 26S 

Educating the Man Higher Upt 450 

Educational Bureau, Central of Georgia 

Ry 149 

Educational Bureau, Illinois Central R. 

R.t 452 

Efficiencies, Notable, in Railway Machine 

Shop Operation 24 

Efficiency, Locomotivet 84 

Efficiency, Locomotive 90 

Electric — 

Drills, Sensitive Stand for Duntley*. 390 

Drive for Planer, Reversing 530 

Locomotive, A 10,000-Volt* 32 

Locomotives, Articulated Truck, N. Y. 

N. H. & H. R. R.* 519 

Locomotives, Center Cab Switcher, 

N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R.* 374 

Locomotive, Frederick R. R.* 201 

Locomotives, HL Control for* 59 

Locomotives, Pennsylvania R. R., 

Field Control of* 526 

Locomotives, Shipment of* 54S 





Locomotive. 27-Ton, Guelph Radial 

Rv.* 66 

Tools, High Power* 389 

Train Lighting. Head End* 61 

Vacuum Cleaning of Cars of British 

Railways 234 

Welding! 2 

Welding* 98 

Electrical Equipment of Railway Shops*473 
Electrification — 

Berlin Stadtbahn* 260 

Butte, Anaconda & Pacific Ry., Pro- 
gress of on the 144 

Hoosac Tunnel, Results of 31 

London, Brighton & So. Coast Ry.*..139 

Melbourne Railways, Australia 192 

Prussian Railroads 469 

Railway, Edison andt 42 

Terminal! 355 

Eliminating Tender Derailments 544 

Employers' Liability Decision! ^2 

Engine, Internal Combustion, as a Rail- 
way Motive Power 382 

Engine Men, School of Instruction on 

Wabash R. R.t 452 

Engineers, Locomotive, Wage Decision. 545 
Engineers' Reports at Terminals (T. E. 

A. Committee Report) 413 

English Superheaters 143 

English Train Lighting Equipment*. .. .556 

Equipment Men. The (Poem) 397 

Equipment, Relation of Condition of to 

Accidents! 126 

Erie R. R., Mikado Type Locomotives 

for* 44 

Excellent Advice . 33 

Executive Committee, 1911-1912, Amer- 
ican Railway Master Mechanics' 

Association* 221 

Executive Committee, 1911-1912, Mas- 
ter Car Builders' Association* 218 

Executive Committee Meeting, C. I. C. 

I. & C. F. Assn ..122 

Executive Committee, Traveling Engi- 
neers' Association* 362 

Exhibit, Permanent Railway Supply*... 74 

Exhibit. Standard Car Truck 273 

Exhibitors at the Atlantic City Conven- 
tions 207 

Exhibitors and Representatives at the 

Mechanical Conventions* 335 

Expander, Boiler Tube, Quick-Acting 

Sectional* 389 

Experimental Workt 492 

Experimenting with a Diesel Locomo- 
tive 105 

Explosives 56 

Explosion, Locomotive Boiler, at San 
Antonio. Tex.* 179 

Floors, Concrete, for Passenger Cars, 

Treatment and Finish of 541 

Force Feed Lubrication* 266 

Forged Steel Wheelst '. . . . . 125 

Forging Press, Mesta* 566 

Frame Truck, Cast Steel* 265 

Franklin Mfg. Co., New Plant of* 26S 

Frederick R. R., Electric Locomotives*. 201 

Freight Car Door, Combination* 530 

Freight Car Heating and Refrigeration, 

Moore System* 425 

Freight Carst 492 

Freight Locomotives, Balanced Com- 
pound, for Bavarian State Rail- 
ways* 145 

Frog and Switch Planer 1 " 529 

Front End Arrangement, Slater* 472 

Fuel and Lubricants, Economical Use of 

(T. E. A. Committee Report) 414 

Fuel as a Factor in Locomotive Capac- 
ity 258 

Fuel Consumption, Locomotive 453 

Fuel Consumption, Locomotive, and the 

Speed Diagram 537 

Fuel Economy, Locomotive 239 

Fuel Economy, Relation of Mechanical 

Appliances to (T. E. A. Report) . . .408 
Fuel, Locomotive, Anthracite Coal 

as a* 538 

Future of Locomotive Construction. .. .560 

Hollow Staybolt Iron* 350 

Home-made Vacuum Cleaning Outfit*.. 254 
Hoosac Tunnel, Results of Electrifying 31 
Hospital Management, Missouri Pacific 

Ry.t ! 452 

Hot Water Boiler Washing System*. . .164 

"Hunter" Metal Saw* 568 

Hustlers, The (Poem) 276 

Hydraulic Locomotive Box Press* 76 


Gage, Shrouded Glass Water* 78 

Garstang's Requisitions* 236 

Gauge Cock, Baxter* 148 

Geared Screw Jacks, "J. C."* 120 

General Foremen'sAssociation. (See In- 
ternational Railway General Fore- 
men's Association.) 

Gentle Hint for Shorter Cut-off 385 

German Portable Sand Blast* 100 

Goetz Flexible Steam Conduit* 118 

Good Principle to Enforcet 276 

Grand Trunk Ry., Pacific Type Engines 

for* 171 

Graphite as a Locomotive Lubricant. .. .539 
Graphite Lubricator for Locomotive 

Cylinders* 427 

Greaser, Locomotive* 529 

Grinder, Electric* 389 

Grinder, Improved Little Giant* 351 

Grinder, Portable Car Axle* 525 

Grinding Records, Carborundum and 

Aloxite 271 

Grouchest 43 


"Ideal" Machine Reamer* 36 

Ideas Purchased! 43 

Illinois Central R. R., Champaign Ter- 
minal* 255 

Illinois Central R. R., Educational Bu- 
reau! 452 

Industrial Notes 39, 79, 

122, 166, 209, 263, 392, 430, 489, 533, 571 
Ingenious Overspeed Limit Device* ...153 

Inspection, Car 552 

Inspection Car, Petrol, for North East- 
ern Ry. (England)* 261 

Inspection, Locomotive, at Terminals!. .395 
Inspection of Box Cars, Overhead (M. 

C. B. Committee Report) 300 

Inspection, Use and Abuse of 103 

Interchange — 

Car, at Chicago* 28 

Car, at Denver 93 

Rules, Proposed Changes in 178 

Rules, Revision of (M. C. B. Com- 
mittee Report) 294 

Internal Combustion Engine as a Rail- 
way Motive Power 382 

Internal Combustion Locomotive, The!. 355 
International Association for Testing 
Materials, Program of 6th Con- 
gress 250 

International Railroad Master Black-, 
smiths' Association, Report of Con- 
vention 423 

International Railway General Fore- 
men's Association, Papers for 1912 
Convention 147 

International Railway General Fore- 
Men's Association, Report of Con- 
vention 373 

Interstate Commerce Commission De- 
cisions! 128 

Inventive Genius, The Master Mechanic 
as an 372 

Inventor, The 31 

Iron, Hollow Staybolt* 350 

Iron, Wrought, The Value of 238 

Isthmian Canal Commission, Report of 
Mechanical Division 28 

Facilities, Railway, Dangers of Short- 
age of, and Possible Preventives. . .197 
Ferguson Locomotive Superheater*. .. .559 
Field Control of Pennsylvania Electric 

Locomotives* 526 

File Tests* 389 

Firebox Tests, Jacobs-Shupert, Pro- 
gram for* 60 

Firebox Tests, Jacobs-Shupert at Coates- 

ville, Pa., Progress Report* 253 

Firebox Tests, Jacobs-Shupert at Coates- 

ville, Pa., Report of* 278 

Fireboxest 275 

Fire Fighting Locomotives, Pennsylva- 
nia R. R 460 

First Aid on the Lackawanna* 144 

Flange Lubrication! 276 

Flange Lubrication (A. R. M. M. Com- 
mittee Report)- 329 

Flexible Steam Conduit* LIS 

Hammer, Buffalo Steam* 75 

Hammer Riveter, Allen* 77 

Hanger, Reservoir* 482 

Head End Electric Train Lighting*.... 61 

Headlight Tests 497 

Headlights! 491 

Heard in the Outer Office* 235 

Heating System Pressure Regulator, 

Train, Tests of* 165 

Heating System for Freight Cars, 

Moore* 425 

High Duty 'American" Lathe* 75 

High Duty "American" Lathe* 269 

High Power Electric Tools* 389 

Highest Voltage Direct-Current Loco- 
motive* 157 

Hisey-Wolf Machine Co.* 270 

HL Control for Electric Locomotives*. 59 
Hocking Valley Ry., Car Shops at Lo- 
gan, O.* 150 

Jacks, "J. C." Geared Screw* 12» 

Jacks, Mosher* 121 

Jacobs-Shupert Firebox Tests, Program 

of* 60 

Jacobs-Shupert Firebox Tests at Coates- 

ville, Pa., Progress Report* 253 

Jacobs-Shupert Firebox Tests at Coates- 

ville, Pa., Report of* 278 

Jacobs-Shupert U. S. Firebox Co., New 

Officers for* 353 

Journal Bearing "Streeter" Pivot* 569 

Journal Box Wedges 386 

Joyce-Cridland Geared Screw Jacks*... 120 



Karpen Building, Exhibit of Railway 
Supplies at the* 74 

Labor and Material, Prices for (M. C. 

B. Committee Report) 296 

Ladder, Steel Car* 390 

Lamp Bracket, Universal* 38 

Lathe, "American" High Duty* 75 

Lathe, ;' American" High Duty* 269 

Lathe. "Modern" Flat Turret* 428 

Laundry Cars in India 464 

Letter, An Open 176 

Letter Ballot, M. C. B., Specialt 449 

Liability Decision, Employerst 42 

Lighting Equipment, English Train*... 556 
Lighting, Train, Head End Electric*... 61 
Lighting, Train (M. C. B. Committee 

Report) 307 

Little Giant Grinder, Improved* .351 

Loading Material, Rules for (M. C. B. 

Committee Report) 297 

Loan Shark Victimst 128 

Locomotive — 

Air Reservoir Hanger* 483 

Boiler Explosion at San Antonio, 

Tex.* 179 

Boiler Troubles 154 

Boiler Tests at Coatesville, Pa., Ja- 

cobs-Shupert, Report of* 278 

Boilers, Design, etc. (A. R. M. M. 

Committee Report) * 321 

Box Press, Hydraulic* 76 

Capacity, Fuel as a Factor in 258 

Construction, Future of 560 

Cylinders, Graphite Lubricator for*. 427 

Developments, British 451 

Diesel, Experimenting with a 105 

Driving" Boxes and Wedges* 483 

Efficiency! 84 

Efficiency 90 

Engineers' Wage Decision 545 

Engineers' Wage Increase! 128 

Front End Arrangement* 473 

Fuel, Anthracite Coal as a* 538 

Fuel Consumption and the Speed Dia- 
gram .537 

Fuel Consumption, Conditions Affect- 
ing 453 

Fuel Economy 239 

Fuel Economy, Relation of Mechani- 
cal Appliances to (T. E. A. Report) 408 

Greaser* 529 

Inspection at Terminals! 395 

Inspection at Terminals (T. E. A. 

Committee Report) 413 

Lubricant, Graphite as a 539 

Lubrication 547 

Lubrication in Connection with Use of 

Superheat 172 

Main and Side Rods (A. R. M. M. 

Committee Report)* 319 

Manufacture! 211 

Manufacture (Correspondence) 357 

Manufacture in the Railway Repair 

Shop 83 

Sander, Pratte Vacuum* 531 

Stokers (A. R. M. M. Committee Re- 
port) 317 

Superheater, Ferguson* 559 

Superheater, Maintenance of (A. R. 

M. M. Committee Report) 331 

Superheater, Valves for 386 

Treated Water for the! 396 

Vacuum Cleaner Attachment* 384 

Locomotives — 
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry., 
Recent for* 461 

Balanced Compound Freight, on Bava- 
rian State Railways* 145 

British, in 1911* 129 

Electric, Articulated Truck, N. V., N. 

H. & H. R. R.* 519 

Electric, Center Cab Switcher, N. Y., 

N. H. & H. R. R* 374 

Electric, Direct Current of High 

Voltage* .' 157 

Electric, Field Control for on Penn- 
sylvania Locomotives* 526 

Electric, Frederick R. R.* 201 

Electric, HL Control for* 59 

Electric, Shipment of* 548 

Electric, 10,000 Volt* 32 

Electric, 27-Ton, Guelph Radial Ry* 66 
Fire Fighting, Pennsylvania R. R....460 

Internal Combustion! 355 

Mikado Type, Chicago Great Western 

R. R.* 419 

Mikado Type, Erie R. R.* 44 

Of 1911, Remarkable 447 

Oil Burning (Tehuantepec National 

Ry.)* 106 

Oil Burning (Standard Practice)* 

223, 364 

Over-cylindered, and the Superheater! 41 
Pacific Type, C, M. & St. P. Ry.*... 86 

Pacific Type, Grand Trunk Ry.* 171 

Pacific Type, Louisville & Nashville 

R. R.* 280 

Pacific Type, St. Louis & San Fran- 
cisco R. R.* 480 

Use of Highly Superheated Steam in* 47 
Logan, Ohio, C?r Shop of the Hock- 
ing Valley at* 150 

London, Brighton & South Coast Rail- 
way, Electrification of* 139 

Loss of the Titanic* 1 90 

Louisville & Nashville R. R., Heavy Pa- 
cific Type Locomotives for* 280 

Low Water Tests on Locomotive Boil- 
ers, Coatesville, Pa.* 278 

Lubricant, Graphite as a Locomotive. . .539 
Lubricants and Fuel, Economical Use 
of (T. E. A. Committee Report). ..414 

Lubrication 547 

Lubrication, Flange! 276 

Lubrication, Flange (A. R. M. M. Com- 
mittee Report) * 329 

Lubrication, Force Feed* 266 

Lubrication, Locomotive, in Connection 

with Use of Superheat 172 

Lubricator, Graphite, for Locomotive 
Cylinders* 427 

M. C. B. Special Letter Ballot! 449 

Master Mechanic as an Inventive 

Genius 372 

Master Mechanics' Association. (See 
American Railway Master Mechan- 
ics' Association.) 
Master Mechanics' Office, The Well- 
Equipped 132 

Materials and Workmanship, Better 

Demanded! 83 

McGrath's Present* 235 

McKeen Motor Cars for Victorian Rys., 

Australia* 36 

McKeen Motor Cars in Collision* 27 

McKees' Paint Sprayer* 236 

Mechanical and Stores Department, Ac- 
counting Department in Connection 

with the 56 

Mechanical Conventions, Exhibitors at 

the* 335 

Mechanical Conventions, 1913, Date 

of! 535 

Mechanical Operating Officials, Mistakes 

of! 170 

Mechanical Stokers (A. R. M. M. Com- 
mittee Report) 317 

Melbourne, Australia, Electrification of 

Railways at 192 

Members of the Chief Interchange Car 
Inspectors and Car Foremen's As- 
sociation 445 

Merchants' Despatch Refrigerator 

Cars* 138 

Mesta Forging Press* 566 

Metal Saw, Hunter* ...568 

Mikado Type Locomotives, Chicago 

Great Western R. R.* 419 

Mikado Type Locomotives, Erie R. R.* 44 
Missouri Pacific Ry., Hospital Manage- 
ment! 452 

Missouri Pacific Ry., Report 478 

Mistakes of Mechanical Operating Offi- 
cials! 170 

"Modern" Flat Turret Lathe* 428 

Moore System of Freight Car Heating 

and Refrigeration* 425 

Mosher Jacks* 121 

Motive Power, Internal Combustion En- 
gine as a Railway 382 

Motive Power Statistics 176 

Motor Car, Petrol-Electric for Great 

Western Ry. (England)* 148 

Motor Cars for Victorian Railways, 

Australia* 36 

Motor Cars in Collision* 27 

Motor Cars, Passenger 89 

Motor Drive, Reversing, for Planer. ., .530 



Machine Tools and Passage-ways! 127 

Macon Shops, Central of Georgia Rail- 
way* 4 

Mail, U. S.! 127 

Main and Side Rods (A. R. M. M. 

Committee Report)* 319 

Man Higher Up, Educating the! 450 

Manchester's Obstinacy* 237 

Marking, Capacity, of Cars (M. C. B. 

Committee Report) 314 

Master Blacksmiths' Association. (See 
International Railroad Master Black- 
smith's Association.) 
Master Boiler Makers' Association, Re- 
port of 6th Annual Convention 250 

Master Car and Locomotive Painters' 
Association, Report of 43rd Annual 

Convention 470 

Master Car Builders' Association — 

Date of 1913 Convention! 535 

Executive Committee, 1911-1912* 218 

Officers for 1911-1912* 217 

Report of 46th Annual Conventionf . .282 
M. C. B. Repair and Defect Card Box*. 33 

New Books 35, 73, 387, 528 

New Literature 39, 79, 

121, 163, 205, 264, 391, 429, 488, 528, 570 

New York, New Haven & Hartford R. 
R., Electric Locomotives with Ar- 
ticulated Trucks* 519 

New York, New Haven & Hartford R. 
R., Electric Locomotive* 374 

North Eastern Ry. (England), Petrol 
Inspection Car for* 261 

Notable Efficiencies in Railway Machine 
Shop Operation 24 


Obituary* 72, 162, 190 

Office. The Well-Equipped Master Me- 
chanics' 132 


Officer, The Presiding! 396 

Officers of the American Railway Mas- 
ter Mechanics' Association, 1911- 

1912* 219 

Officers of the Master Car Builders' As- 
sociation, 1911-1912* 217 

Officers of the Traveling Engineers' 
Association, 1911-1912* 360 

Officers, New, of the Jacobs-Shupert 
U. S. Firebox Co.* 353 

Officials Killed in Collision* 72 

Officials, Mistakes of Mechanical Oper- 

atingt 170 

Oil Burning Equipment! 212 

Oil Burning Locomotives (Tehuantepec 

National Ry.)* 106 

Oil Burning Locomotives (Standard 

Practices)* 223, 364 

Oil Carrying Tank Cars, Tests (M. C. 

B. Committee Report)* 310 

Okadee Blow-off Valve* 390 

Omaha Shops! 170 

One-Man Drill 77 

Open Letter, An 176 

Operating Organization, Railway. . .80, 111 
Ore Car, Self-Clearing Quick Dumping*241 
Ore Handling Plant, Philadelphia & 

Reading Ry.* 378 

Oregon-Washington R. R. & N., Albina 

Shop of 138 

Oregon-Washington R. R. & N., Argo 

Terminal* 510 

Over-Cylindered Locomotives and the 

Superheater! 41 

Overspeed Limit Device* 153 

Ownership, Statement of 534 

Pipe, Iron and Steel, Relative Corro- 
sion of* 549 

Pipe Rack* 142 

Pittsburgh Railways Steel Car Trains*.. 158 
Pittsburgh Steel Foundry Co.'s Cast 

Steel Truck Frame* 265 

Pivot Journal Bearing, Streeter* 569 

Planer Drive, Reversing 530 

Planer, Frog and Switch* 529 

Planing Machines, Double-Cutting 46 

Plant of the Franklin Mfg. Co.* 268 

Plows (See "Snow Plows"). 

Policy, A Question of! 275 

Poor Judgment in Snow Bucking* 201 

Port Richmond Ore Handling Plant, 

P. & R. Ry.* ..378 

Portable Car Axle Grinder* 525 

Portable Sand Blast, German* 100 

Portable Saw Rig* 570 

Power Saw, "Economy"*.. 485 

Pratte Vacuum Sander* 531 

Precooling Plant at San Bernardino, 

Cal* 243 

Presiding Officer, The! 396 

Press, Locomotive Box* 76 

Press, Mesta Forging* 566 

Prices for Labor and Material (M. C. 

B. Committee Report) 296 

Principle, A Goo 1, to Enforce! 276 

Proceedings of the 13th Annual Con- 
vention, C. I. C. I. & C. F. Associa- 
tion -.431 

Proposed Changes in the Rules of Inter- 
change 178 

Protective Devices 56 

Proviso Terminal, Chicago & North 
Western Ry.* 421 

Prussian Railroads, Electrification of.. 469 

Refrigeration for. Freight Cars, Moore 
System* 425 

Refrigerator Cars for Merchants' Dis- 
patch* 138 

Regulator, Pressure, for Train Heating 
System* 165 

Relation of Condition of Equipment to 
Accidents! 126 

Relative Corrosion of Iron and Steel 
Pipe in Service* 549 

Remarkable Locomotives of 1911 447 

Repair and Defect Card Box* 33 

Repair Shop, Locomotive Manufacture 
in the! 83 

Reports, Correct! 397 

Reports of Conventions (See "Conven- 
tion Reports"). 

Reservoir Hanger* 482 

Resiliator, Streeter* 532 

Responsibility, Your 216 

Results of Electrifying the Hoosac Tun- 
nel 31 

Reversing Motor Planer Drive 530 

Riveter, Allen Hammer* 77 

Riveting and Shearing Machine, Car 
Coupler* 486 

Robinson Superheater* 196 

Rolls, Ajax Reclaiming* 485 

Roofs for Rock Island Cars* 493 

Roundhouse at Riverbank, Cal., for the 
Santa Fe* 540 

Roundhouse, Carbondale, D. & H. Co.*.. 14 
Roundhouse Smoke Washing Device*.. 479 
Rubber 158 

Rules for Loading Material (M. C. B. 

Committee Report) 297 

Rules of Interchange, Proposed Changes 

in the 178 

Rules of Interchange, Revision of (M. 

C. B. Committee Report) 294 

Rumsey Car Door* 532 

Pacific Type Locomotives — 

C, M. & St. P. Ry.* 86 

Grand Trunk Ry.* 171 

Louisville & Nashville R. R.* 280 

St. Louis & San Francisco R. R.* 480 

Packing Cutting Machine* 156 

Panama — Report of Mechanical Divis- 
ion, Isthmian Canal Commission. 28 

Passage-ways, Machine Tools and! 127 

Passenger Car Ventilation* 11 

Passenger Cars, Steel 512 

Patents. (See "Recent Railway Me- 
chanical Patents.") 
Patterson, Bob, and the Clock* 236 

Pennsylvania Electric Locomotives, 
Field Control of* 526 

Pennsylvania R. R. Fire Fighting Loco- 
motives 460 

Pennsylvania R. R., Speed of Trains. .509 

Pere Marquette Receivership 153 

Permanent Railway Supply Exhibit*... 74 

Personals* 33, 70, 116, 

161, 204, 262, 349, 387, 425, 482, 527, 562 
Petrol-Electric Motor Car, Great West- 
tern Ry. (England)* 148 

Petrol In pection Car, North Eastern 
Ry. Hid)* 261 

Philadelphia & Reading Ry., Ore Han- 
dling Plant- 378 

Philadelphia & Reading Ry.. Yards and 
Terminal at St. Clair, Pa.* 398 

Piedmont Traction Co., Electric Loco- 
motives for* L57 

Question of Policy! 275 

Quick-Acting Sectional Boiler Tube Ex- 
pander* 389 


Radial Drill as a Boring Machine*. .. .486 

Railroading Around the World 143 

Railroads, What They Need 523 

Railway Equipment Manufacturers' As- 
sociation* 362 

Railway Equipment Manufacturers' As- 
sociation, List of Members 418 

Railway Motor Passenger Cars. 89 

Railway Operating Organization ..80, 111 

Railway Storekeepers' Association, Com- 
mittees for 1912 Convention 54 

Railway Storekeepers' Association, Re- 
port of 9th Annual Convention. .. .251 

Railway Supply Manufacturers' Associa- 
tion, Annual Meeting 33 l 

Recent Santa Fe Locomotives* 461 

Reamer, "Ideal"* 36 

Receivership, Pere Marquette R. R. . . .153 

Recent Railway Mechanical Patents*.. 

40, 82, 124, 168, 

210, 274, 354, 394, 448, 490, 534, 572 

Reclaiming Rolls, Ajax* 485 

Safety First! 492 

San Antonio, Disastrous Boiler Ex- 
plosion at* 179 

San Bernardino Precooling Plant* 243 

Sand Blast, German Portable* 100 

Sand-Drying Plant, United Rys. of St. 

Louis* 193 

Sander, Pratte Vacuum* 531 

Saw, "Economy" Power* 485 

Saw, Large Metal* 568 

Saw Rig, Portable* 570 

Scott Adjustable Car Screens* 568 

Screw Jacks, "J. C." Geared* 120 

Seats, Car* 486 

Sectional Boiler Tube Expander, Quick- 
Acting* 389 

Self-Clearing Quick Dumping Ore Car*. 241 

Sensitive Drill, "American"* 570 

Separator, "Badger" Water-Oil 206 

Shaper, with Swiveling Knee, "Stock- 
bridge"* 206 

Shearing and Riveting Machine, Car 

Coupler* 486 

Shipment of Electric Locomotives* 548 

Shop — 

Apprentices in the Car 380 

Electrical Equipment of the Railway*.473 
Kinks* 23, 142, 156, 420, 482, 525 


Operation, Notable Efficiencies in 24 

Railway Repair, Locomotive Manufac- 
ture in thet 83 

Small, Thet 449 

Song of the 93 

Shops (See also Terminals) — 

Central of Georgia, at Macon* 4 

Hocking Valley, Car, at Logan, O* . .150 

Omahat 170 

Oregon-Washington R. R. & N., at 
Albina, Ore 138 

Shortage of Railway Facilities and Pos- 
sible Preventives 197 

Shrouded Glass Water Gage* 78 

Side Rods, and Main (A. R. M. M. 
Committee Report) * 319 

Signal and Brake Euipment, Train (M. 
C. B. Committee Report)* 286 

Signst 170 

Single-Phase Railways Break Snow 

Blockades* 20 

Slater Front End Arrangement* 472 

Sliding Head Drill, All Geared* 119 

Sliding, Wheelf .' 535 

Small Shop, Thet . 449 

Smoke Abatement Tests at Chicago, A., 

T. & S. F. Ry.* .". 133 

Smoke Washing Device for Round- 
house* 479 

Snow Blockades, Single-Phase Railways 
Break* 20 

Snow-Bucking, Poor Judgment in* 201 

Snow Plows for Exacting Service*.... 35 

Socket, Wear-Ever Drill* : 163 

Some. Engine 88 

Song of the Shop 93 

Southern Pacific Co., Locomotive Boiler 
Explosion at San Antonio, Tex .*. .179 

Specifications for Truck Side Bolsters 
(M. C. B. Committee Report)* 312 

Speed Diagram, Locomotive Fuel Con- 
sumption and the 537 

Springs for Car Trucks (M. C. B. Com- 
mittee Report) * 306 

St. Clair, Pa., Yards and Terminal of 
the P. & R. Ry. at* 398 

St. Louis & San Francisco R. R., Pacific 
Type "Locomotives* 480 

St. Louis, Sand-Drying Plant for United 
Rys. of* 193 

Standard Car Truck Exhibit i . .273 

Stanwood Steel Car Step* 352 

Starting Somethingt . 84 

Statement of Ownership 534 

Statistics, Canadian Railway 93 

Statistics, Railway Motive Power 176 

Staybolt Iron, Hollow* .' 350 

Steam Conduit, Flexible* 118 

Steam Hammer, Buffalo* 74 

Steam Heat, Train Pipe and Connec- 
tions for (M. C. B. Report)* 308 

Bins in Cabinet Form 70 

Blue Chip* 267 

Car Step* 352 

Car Trains for Pittsburgh Railways*. 158 

Car Ladder* 390 

Cars in Collison* ' 55 

Motor Cars in Collison* ', ... 27 

Passenger Cars 512 

Tires (A. R. M. M. Committee Re- 

PorO ■ 328 

Truck Frame, Cast* 265 

Versus Wooden Construction ' ' for 

Cars 3 

Wheels* 94 

Wheels, Forgedt .., '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.125 

Step, Stanwood Steel Car* 352 

Stockbridge Shaper with Swiveling 

Knee* 206 

Stokers, Mechanical (A. R. M. M. Com- 
mittee Report) 317 

Storekeepers' Association, Railway.... 54 
Stores and Mechanical Department, Ac- 
counting Department in Connection 

with the 56 

Streeter Pivot Journal Bearing* 569 

Streeter Resiliator* 532 

Strikesf 536 

Suggestion in Tender Designf 536 

Summers Steel ■ Cars* 118 

Superheat, Locomotive Lubrication in 

Connection with Use of 172 

Superheated Steam, Use in Locomo- 
tives* 47 

Superheated Steam, Increased Power 
with (A. R. M. M. Committee Re- 
port) 327 

Superheater, Ferguson* 559 

Superheater Locomotives, Valves for 386 
Superheater Locomotives, Maintenance 
of (A. R. M. M. Committee Re- 
port) 331 

Superheater, Over-Cylindered Locomo- 
tives and thet 41 

Superheater, Robinson* 196 

Superheaters, English 143 

Superheatingf 536 

Surface Table and Universal Vise* 264 

Switcher Locomotive, Electric, Center 
Cab, N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R 374 

Tank Cars, Oil Carrying, Tests (M. C. 

B. .Committee Report)* .310 

Taper Turning Tool* 75 

Tasmanian Railways 192 

Telpherage Systemt 537 

Taylor's Reputation* 235 

Tennessee Central R. R., Eliminating 

Tender Derailments 493 

Tender Derailments, Eliminating* 544 

Tender Design, A Suggestion! 536 

Tender Derailments, Eliminating* 544 

Tender Design, A Suggestion inf 536 

Tennessee Central R. R., Eliminating 
Tender Derailments on* 544 

Terminal — 

Brake Testingt 3 

Brake Testing 21 

Electrificationt .355 

Inspection of Locomotivest 395 

Tests in Air Brake Practice ,.558 

Terminals — 

Argo, Oregon-Washington R. R. & 

N* 510 

Carbondale, Delaware & Hudson Co.*. 14 
Champaign, Illinois Central R. R.*..2§5 
Proviso, Chicago & North- Western 

Ry.* 421 

St. Clair, Philadelphia & Reading Ry *.398 
Watervliet, Delaware & Hudson Co.*.465 

Testing Department, Work of 67 

Testing Materials, International Asso- 
ciation for, Program of 6th Con- 
gress 250 

Testing, Terminal Braket 3 

Testing, Terminal Brake 21 

Tests — ■ 

Brake Shoes (M. C. B. Committee 

Report)* 287 

Drill 529 

File* 389 

Headlight, by R. R. Commission of 

Wisconsin 497 

Jacobs-Shupert Firebox, Program 

for* 60 

Jacobs-Shupert Firebox at Coates- 

ville, Pa., Progress Report* 253 

Jacobs-Shupert Firebox at Coatesville, 

Pa., Report of* 278 

Oil Carrying Tank Cars (M. C. B. 

Committee Report) * 310 

Pressure Regulator for Train Heating 

System* 165 

Smoke Abatement at Chicago, A., T. 

& St. F. Ry.* 133 

Terminal, in Air Brake Practice 558 

Time Monopoly, A 236 

Timid Daredevil, A 52 

Tires, Contour of (A. R. M. M. Com- 
mittee Report)* .' 327 

Tires, Steel (A. R. M. M. Committee 
Report) 328 

Titanic, Loss of the* 190 

Tonnage Rating 406 

Tool Foremen's Association (See Amer- 
ican Railway Tool Foremen's As- 
Train — - 

Atlantic City Special 158 

Brake and Signal Equipment (M. C. 

B. Committee Report) * 286 

Heating System Pressure Regula- 
tor, Tests of* 165 

Lighting Equipment, English* 556 

Lighting, Head End, Electric* 61 

Lighting (M. C. B. Committee Re- 
port) 307 

Pipe and Connections for Steam 

Heat (M. C. B. Report)* 308 

Pipe Connector, Durbin* 353 

Speed, Reducing on Pennsylvania 

R. R 509 

Steel Car, for Pittsburgh Railways* . . 158 
Transformer, Separator for Water arid 

Oil. 206 

Traveling Engineer, The (Poem) 359 

Traveling Engineers' Assn. — 

Convention, and Others 175 

Date of 1912 Convention 334 

Executive Committee, 1911-1912* 362 

Officers of for 1911-1912* 360 

Report of 20th Annual Convention. .405 
Treatment and Finish of Concrete 
Floors for Passenger Cars 541 

Treatment, Watert 169 

Treatment, Water, and Boiler Trou- 
bles* 180 

Tribute to Joseph Dixon 269 

Truck Frame, Cast Steel, Pittsburgh 

Steel Foundry Co.'s* 265 

Truck Side Bolsters, Specification for 

(M. C. B. Committee Report)* 312 

Trucks, Springs for Car (M. C. B. 
Committee Report) * 306 

Trusts, What Shall We Do with the.. 52 

Tube Cleaner, Matthews* 265 

Tube Expander Boiler, Sectional* ....389 

Turret, Flat, Lathe* 428 

Twenty-seven Ton Electric Locomo- 
tive, Guelph Radial Ry.*.... 66 


Union & Southern Pacific, Dissolu- 
tion oft 537 

United Rys. of St. Louis, Sand-drying 
Plant for* 193 

United States Mailt 127 

Universal Lamp Bracket* 38 

Universal Vise and Surface table* ....264 


Unloading Machines, Damage to Cars. 

by (M. C. B. Committee Report)*. 298 

Use and Abuse of Inspection 103 

of Highly Superheated Steam in 

Locomotives* 47 


Vacuum — 

Automatic Brake in India 482 

Cleaner Attachment for Locomotive*. 384 
Cleaning of Cars of British Railways. 234 

Cleaning on Railways* 507 

Cleaning Outfit, Home-made* 254 

Sander, Pratte* 531 

Value of Good Wrought Iron 238 

Valve, "Okadee" Blow-off* 390 

Valves for Superheater Locomotives. .386 

Van Dorn Car End* 564 

Ventilation, Cart 1 

Ventilation, Freight Car, Moore Sys- 
tem* 425 

Ventilation, Passenger Car* 11 

Victorian Rys., Australia, McKeen Mo- 
tor Cars for* 36 

Vise and Surface Table, Universal*. .. .264 

Wabash R. R., Instruction for Engine 

Ment 452 

Wage Decision, Locomotive Engineers' 545 

Water, Chemically Treated, Benefits (T. 

E. A. Committee Report) 406 

Water Closet, "Eckert" Car 270 

Water Gage, Shrouded Glass* 78 

Water-Oil Separator "Badger" 206 

Water Treated, for Locomotives! ....396 

Water Treatment! 169 

Water Treatment and Boiler Troubles*. 180 
Watervliet Terminal, D. & H. Co.*.... 465 

Wear-ever Drill Socket* 163 

Weatherproof Window, Acme* 77 

Wedges, Journal Box 386 

Welding, Electrict 2 

Welding, Electric* 98 

Well-Equipped Master Mechanic's Of- 
fice, The 132 

Western Railway Club, Election of Of- 
ficers 253 

Western Springs, Wilpen, Corning andt.356 

What Railroads Need 523 

What Shall We Do with the Trusts 52 

Wheel Slidingf 535 

-Wheels, Car (M. C. B. Committee Re- 
port)* 290 

Wheels, Forged Steelt 125 

Wheels, Steel Car* 94 

Wildin and the Green Brakeman* 235 

Wilpen, Corning and Western Springsf.356 

Window, Acme Weatherproof* 77 

Window Screens, Car, Scott Adjust- 
able* .' 568 

Wisconsin, Headlight Tests by R. R. 
Commission of 497 

Wood Splitting Bulldozer* 163 

Work of Railway Testing Department. 67 , 

Workmanship and Materials, Better De- 
manded! 83 

Workmen's Compensation 17 

Wrought Iron, The Value of Good.... 238 

Yards and Terminal of the P. & R. Ry., 

St. Clair Pa.* 399 

Your Responsibility 216 

[January, 1912.] 


The World's GreatestRailway Mechanical Journal 

Published at the World's Greatest Railway Center 

Established 1878 


WILLIAM E.MAGRAW, Pres.andTreas. 
CHAS. S MYERS, Vlce-Pres. LYNDON F. WILSON, Managing Editor 

C. C. ZIMMERMAN, Bos. Mgr. OWEN W. MIDDLETON, Assoc. Editor 

J. M. CROWE, Mgr. Central Dlst. KENNETH L. VAN AUKEN, Assoc. Editor 

Office of Publication: Manhattan Building, Chicago 

Telephone, Harrison 4948 

Eastern Office: 50 Church Street, New York 

Telephone Cortlandt 5765 

Central Office: House Bldg., Pittsburg, Pa. 
A Monthly Railway Journal 

Devoted to the interests of railway motive power, car equipment, 

shops, machinery and supplies. 
Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are solicited. 
Subscription price, $2.00 a year; to foreign countries, $2.50, free of 

postage. Single copies, 20 cents. Advertising rates given on 

application to the office, by mail or in person. 
In remitting, make all checks payable to The Railway List Company. 
Papers should reach subscribers by the 16th of the month at the 

latest. Kindly notify us at once of any delay or failure to 

receive any issue and another copy will be very gladly sent. 

Entered as Second-Class Matter June 18, 1895, at the Post Office 
at Chicago, Illinois, Under Act of March 3, 1879. 

Vol. XXXVI Chicago, January, 1912 No. 1 


Editorial — 

Nothing Stands Still .... 1 

Car Ventilation 1 

Electric Welding 2 

Steel Cars 2 

Terminal Brake Testing 3 

Steel vs. Wooden Construction for Cars 3 

Appreciation and Suggestion 3 

Macon Shops, Central of Georgia Ry 4 

Passenger Car Ventilation : 11 

Carbondale Roundhouse, D. & H. Co 14 

Busting Things Up (Poem) 16 

Workmen's Compensation '. 17 

Single Phase Railways Break Blockades 20 

Terminal Brake Testing 21 

Shop Kinks, C. & A. R. R 23 

Notable Efficiencies in Railway Shop Operation 24 

Steel Motor Cars in Collision 27 

Chicago Car Interchange 28 

Report of Mechanical Division, I. C. C 28 

Results of Electrifying Hoosac Tunnel 31 

10,000- Volt Electric Locomotive 32 

M. C. B. Repair and Defect Card 33 

Excellent Advice 33 

Personals 33 

New Books 35 

Among the Manufacturers 35 

Snow Plows for Exacting Service 35 

"Ideal" Machine Reamer 36' 

Motor Cars for Victorian Railways 36 

Universal Lamp Bracket 38 

New Literature 39 

Industrial Notes • 39 

Recent Railway Mechanical Patents 40 

Nothing stands still. Each of us is either going forward 
or backward. We see examples of this all about us, for na- 
ture itself is constantly building up or tearing down, some- 
times slowly but always surely. A locomotive in active op- 
eration out on the line is constantly depreciating in value 
and efficiency, and if it is standing boarded up on a siding 
the depreciation is perhaps still greater. A trip to the shop 
where it is given a complete inspection and repaired, again 
appreciates its value. 

On the first of the year we start on another trip around 
the circle. It is a good time to take a complete inventory 
of ourselves, to balance up the books, to see what we have 
gained and what we have lost. Have we gone forward or 
backward? If we can't show that we have gone forward it 
is a safe bet we have slid back a notch. How about it — has 
the work over which you have had charge during the past 
year been done better and more efficiently than ever before 
— do you know that you are a bigger man than you were in 
January, 1911? Nothing stands still. 


Fresh air is a subject in which the American people are 
greatly interested nowadays. Nearly every one is a fresh air 
fiend or thinks he is. Cities are fighting against undue pollu- 
tion of their air, and a great deal of attention is being paid to 
the ventilation of schools and other buildings. Coupling to 
this the fact that we are traveling more and more each year, 
it seems that the ventilation of the passenger car has not kept 
pace with the demands upon it. The ventilation of the av- 
erage railway coach until recently has been no better than 
it was thirty years ago. It is true that ventilation is a sub- 
ject of which we do not know a great deal at present, but 
we have not even applied what we do know to the passenger 
car. We do have ventilation for removing bad air from the 
car, which of course means that fresh air takes its place, but 
the difficulty is in heating and introducing this air at the 
proper place. Heating and ventilation are one subject; the 
two must go hand in hand and not separately. 

The general way of introducing cold air through windows, 
doors and deck sashes is not in accord with the principles 
of ventilation as applied elsewhere, for the cold air should 
enter at the bottom. While it is fairly practicable and pleas- 
ureable to have windows open during the warm months, they 
should remain closed during the cold season. Occasionally 
of course there are persons who desire to open them even 
in the winter, but their wishes should not be gratified on ac- 
count of the inconvenience caused to other passengers. The. 
interior of a car is narrow and symmetrical; people are placed 
close together and at regular intervals; therefore it is the 
feeling of the occupants as a whole that must be taken into 
consideration. We need pure air in our cars, and we need 
it at the proper temperature. Over-heated cars are more 
unhealthy than under-heated ones. 

Two systems of ventilation are now being used; one de- 
pendent on the velocity of the train, the other a system of 
natural ventilation through the deck sash. One of the diffi- 
culties has been the comparatively short distance through 


[January, 1912.] 

which the air travels in being raised to the required tem- 

The problem of properly heating the air, however, is one 
which will still require much experimentation. The grow- 
ing use of the steel car has still further increased problems 
of this nature; being a good conductor of heat, it is more 
difficult to keep it at the required temperature. 

Another problem is where to take the air into the car so 
that it will have a minimum amount of cinders and impuri- 
ties. Certainly the air coming in at windows does not have 
this characteristic. As will be seen in an article on the sub- 
ject published on another page, the contamination of air in 
passenger cars is relatively small, with the exception of still 
sleeping cars. The problem is then to introduce and maintain 
the air at a satisfactory temperature. The logical place for the 
intake seems to be on the roof, and the proper place to intro- 
duce the air into the car is at the floor. The Pennsylvania has 
been experimenting with a system along these lines, the air 
being lead in ducts underneath the car and passing through 
heating coils into the car at the floor level. This insures 
pure air at the breathing level, and with the use of good ven- 
tilators would seem to be the logical way to work out the 
problem. Taken separately, some good ventilating and heat- 
ing devices have been brought out, but there is still much 
to be done in making them work together. Each is depend- 
ent upon the other. 


With respect to the use of electrical welding apparatus in the 
boiler shop; J. A. Shaw, electrical engineer of the Canadian 
Pacific Ry., is authority for the following comparison between 
between the oxy-acetylene and electric processes : 

"1st. The quality of the work performed by the 
electric system is of a higher grade because firebox 
or other boiler seams are not only securely welded 
together but the sheets are reenforced at the point 
welded by the addition of metal approximating 
y 2 in. in thickness by 2 ins. to 3 ins. in width, thus 
greatly strengthening the sheets where they are 
united. 2nd. The ' absence of heat in the sur- 
rounding parts of sheets welded precludes th pos- 
sibility of setting up strains of any kind in the metal 
and therefore the chance of cracks developing after 
the work has been completed. 3rd. There is en- 
tire absence of danger either from explosion, 
shocks to workmen or any other cause. 4th. One 
workman is required on each individual electric 
job while with the oxy-acetylene a helper is always 
necessary. 5th. For heavy work, such as welding 
mud rings, the cost is less with the electric weld- 
ing than with the use of oxy-acetylene, while for 
building out sheets or welding up seams, there is 
but little difference in labor and material costs of 

Although the method is not new, some of the claims of su- 
perior results are new. As in the use of air and electric power 
for portable tools there are cases which are peculiarly adapted 
to either one or the other of the general welding processes. 
Mr. Shaw's results are, however, so strongly in favor of elec- 
tricity for the great majority of boiler shop welding jobs, as 
to warrant considerable interest. 

One of the most valuable of the possibilities of electric weld- 
ing is the substitution of the process for that of riveting in join- 

ing seams on either new or old boiler work including the ap- 
plication of patches. Of course there is a prime drawback to 
the use of electricity for welding purposes, in that unless one 
particular class of work is to be turned out in large quantities, 
a heavy primary expenditure is required by the necessity for 
special electric welders and apparatus. 


The moment unfair tactics are introduced into a controversy 
either between individuals, classes or organizations, unprejudi- 
ced interest departs. It would not seem that the use of steel in 
the construction of railway equipment, limited as it has been, 
-would be particularly objectionable to the far-seeing lumber 
interests. The howl (as a correspondent puts it) of the lum- 
ber interests can, however, hardly be ignored "as it is heard 
from one end of the country to the other. 

Not entirely without reason the use of steel in the construc- 
tion of both passenger and freight cars has provoked protest 
from the displaced wood "industry. When, however, the repre- 
sentatives of this industry stoop to malicious misrepresentation 
in their fight against the encroachments of the newer material, 
they lose not only the sympathy but the attention of the fair 

A lumber trade organ, the Hardwood Record, has made a 
blundering attempt to go into the subject technically and even 
goes so far as to reproduce photographs of steel cars which have 
failed supposedly from structural weakness. A pressed steel 
sill is shown distorted by an excessive buffing shock and at- 
tention called to the asserted fact that wooden sills would not 
have suffered. A steel gondola with a bulged side forms an- 
other illustration. 

This line of argument resembles nothing so much as that 
of the man who wishes to equip locomotives with a fake smoke 
consumer. This man shows the motive power official two photo- 
graphs, one representing a locomotive producing dense smoke 
while the other shows the same locomotive with a stack en- 
tirely clean. He then informs the official that the first picture 
was taken before and the other after the installation of his de- 
vice. This man is surprised and hurt when told that his argu- 
ment is not to be considered convincing to the technical man, 
and that further proof of efficacy must be made before further 
move is made. 

Had the writer of the attack in question shown interest 
enough to inquire he would have learned that any kind of a car 
can be smashed into any kind of a wreck depending entirely 
on what happened to it. Weaknesses are, of course, found by 
examination of wrecked cars. These are sometimes avoidable 
and sometimes not, but they are found and remedied only by 
the technically qualified and not by the revengeful knocker at 
the progress of modern methods. 

The excerpts below, clipped from the columns of the above- 
mentioned lumber trade periodical, show the bold and unsub- 
stantiated position of those whose interests are affected by the 
advance of the steel car industry: 

"The promoters of steel car building and use are 
well aware of the frailties and the dangerous char- 
acter of this type of equipment. They know that 
the danger to the traveling public is increased by 
the use of these cars ; they know that these cars 
represent an extravagance in original cost, extraor- 
dinary expense in maintenance and haulage ; that it 

[January, 1912.] 


is with the utmost difficulty that they are kept on 
the track; that they have frequent derailments at 
switches and cross-overs; that they are uncomfort- 
able vehicles in which to house passengers; that 
they are extravagant in the use of steam ; that they 
are inimical to health; that they are deficient in 
resiliency; and that altogether they represent an 
unsafe, extravagant and fraudulent type of car. 

"The public, and especially the lumber manufac- 
turing and railroad public, should not fail to recall 
the fact that several very iniquitous bills are pend- 
ing in Congress at the present time, making it ob- 
ligatory on the part of railroads to employ full 
steel car equipment on their passenger trains with- 
in a very short time. An organized effort should 
be made to have the true facts of the character of 
steel cars thoroughly threshed out, and presented 
to Congress in such a forceful manner as to insure 
the defeat of these prospective pernicious enact- 
ments. Congress is again in session, and the steel 
trust will leave no stone unturned, and will not 
hesitate to spend every dollar necessary to secure, 
if possible, the enactment of these bills. It is time 
for a public awakening. It is time that a well- 
directed effort be made to defeat this pending leg- 

"The fight against the steel car is but one of the 
many necessary campaigns that should be under- 
taken by lumbermen." 


A paper on Terminal Brake Testing was read before the 
Western Railway Club, December 19, by F. B. Farmer. Con- 
siderable discussion was provoked by Mr. Farmer's statement 
that yards testing plants are not necessary for the efficient 
testing of freight car brake apparatus. Among those who 
discussed the subject was C. P. McGinnis, general air brake 
inspector, of the Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste. Marie, 
who was practically the only person heard to agree with Mr. 
Farmer. Mr. McGinnis explained the methods of his road' 
in testing all incoming trains for defective brakes by means 
of a twenty pound brake pipe reduction from the engine 
before uncoupling it, and a close inspection of each car im- 
mediately following. By this means a check on the cars with 
defective brakes is obtained and in making up trains little 
or no switching is required to secure the minimum effective 
braking power per train. The opinions expressed by others, 
in discussing the subject, were, as stated above, not in agree- 
ment with Mr. Farmer and Mr. McGinnis. Some were 
frank to say that the plan described called for co-operation 
on the part of the transportation department, which could 
not be counted on. 

To the unpredjudiced person it would seem that a refuta- 
tion of the positive statements made by Mr. McGinnis would 
be well nigh impossible, the fact, however, that classificatiqn 
yards vary greatly in layout and that organizations of dif- 
ferent stamps must be dealt with may be held partly ac- 
countable. The claim of lack of cooperation between the 
transportation and mechanical departments is, however, too 
severe an indictment to be seriously considered. 

endeavoring to show that railway cars constructed of steel 
are unsafe on account of their rigidity and lack of torsional re- 
siliancy. They seem to loose sight of the demand for cars of 
greater capacity and of the necessity for such cars having 
rigid construction in order that they will not shake to pieces 
in service. 

The writer does not even agree with them that all steel cars 
lack torsional resiliancy. For instance, flat cars, low sided 
gondola cars and hopper cars having large bottom openings, 
lack in structure enough to permit the load to twist the car 
body in conformity with unevenness of the road bed. On the 
other hand, steel passenger cars, mail and baggage cars and 
all steel box cars are of such shape and rigidity that in run- 
ning the car over a twisted track, the load is carried on two 
diagonally opposite side-bearings. The same is also true of 
new refrigerator cars and box cars when built of wood or 
combined wood and steel. 

The comparatively soft and yielding nature of the wood, 
however, is such that these cars soon warp, and twist, and 
screech with all track irregularities. It results in box cars hav- 
ing leaky roofs, in refrigerator cars having their insulation torn 
and separated to such extent that air circulation in and out of 
the car lowers its efficiency as a refrigerator and adds very 
much to the icing cost. The operating departments of all rail- 
ways which handle new refrigerator and other rigid cars know 
of the difficulties resulting from derailments until such cars 
have been distorted and twisted by rough usage. 

This is all wrong, the cars should remain rigid, the roofs and 
sides should be maintained without distortion. Why shake a 
car to pieces and send it to the scrap pile years before it should 
be worn out? With the use of the new and better material 
{steel) in car construction it is only necessary to give greater 
flexibility between the truck and car body. In other words to 
permit of track irregularities without causing the car bodies to 
conform thereto. The Summers balanced side bearing truck 
carries a car over uneven track without distortion and without 
wheel flange wear. Any rigid car body can be carried more 
safely than a flimsy one; the reason being that the inclined 
truck hangers make vertical and horizontal adjustment, accom- 
modating the rigid car or superstructure to any kind of twisted 
or distorted track. 

The howls of the lumber interests are lost in the underbrush 
of the one-time forest. We are in the age of steel and are con- 
forming to new conditions. The rigid steel car can now be and 
is being carried over rough tracks, the car body finding its own 
level as readily as a boat does floating in water. 

E. W. Summers. 


Pittsburgh, Pa. Dec. 28, 1911. 
Editor Railway Master Mechanic: 
Some of the lumber interests have recently published articles, 


Editor Railway Master Mechanic : 

During the course of our daily routine we have occasion to 
patronize a road which probably offers the best suburban service 
in Chicago. There is a certain train on which we always like 
to ride — it is a positive pleasure to have your fare collected. 
Why? Because the conductor of that train has a smile and a 
cheery word for everybody. It is "Fine morning," "Nice morn- 
ing," and if he takes the last ride of your commutation ticket 
its "Guess you'll have to walk back." If you have your ticket 
punched for a friend also, he leans over in a confidential man- 
ner and says: "He's easy, isn't he?" That conductor enjoys 
his work, and is one of the best advertisements that road could 
have. Probably ninety-five per cent of the patrons of his train 
don't now his name, but they do now that he is the representa- 
tive of the road, and to them he typefies the spirit of the rail- 
road. The outsider who comes in contact with a railroad em- 
ployee whether he be conductor, master mechanic or superin- 
tendent of motive power, considers that man the railroad. What 
do people think of your railroad? W. O. M. 


[January, 1912.] 

Macon Shops, Central of Georgia Ry. 

The Central of Georgia Ry. operates three shops, one at 
Savannah, one at Columbus and one at Macon. The Macon 
shop has been completed and in operation a few months. The 
old shop at Macon occupied the same site, as the new one 
and every effort was made to continue operations without 
delay while the new buildings were being erected and the 
machinery installed. The buildings are grouped to facilitate 
what inter-communication is necessary and to employ the 
ground space to the best advantage. In planning the lay- 
out of the buildings especial attention was given to ease and 
economical handling of material. The buildings are of steel 
and brick construction, with slow burning wooden roofs, the 
general design being clearly shown in the accompanying 
illustrations. The windows are large and numerous so that 
plenty of light is to be had at all times. 

The power plant' is located at about the center of the shops. 
The slope of the land is such that an exceptionally deep 
basement could be obtained' without raising the engine room 
floor to an undesirable height above the general grade of 
the rest of the plant. Five 250-horsepo'wer Stirling boilers 
are installed with an underground flue leading to the stack 

The engine room contains two 300 k. w. and one 500 k. w. 
Westinghouse turbines direct connected to alternating cur- 
rent generators, a Corliss cross compound Chicago Pneu- 
matic Tool Company air compressor with a capacity of 
2,000 feet of air a minute and the necessary auxiliary ap- 
paratus. The air compressor is direct connected to a fore- 
cooler from which piping conducts what air is needed to 
the various shops. The entire water supply is obtained from 
a private pumping station located on the Ocmulgee river 
about a mile from the plant. This plant was described on 
page 113 of the Raihvay Master Mechanic for April, 1910. 
An interesting feature is that the pumps, located at that 
river, are motor driven and directly controlled from the 
switch board in the power plant. The only attention given 
them is an occasional inspection and renewal of the oil for 
the bearings of pumps and motors. The buildings are 
equipped with an abundance of artificial illumination by 
means of Cooper-Hewitt mercury vapor lamps and portable 

The compressor and turbines may be run either condensing 
or non-condensing as desired. This enables the use of ex- 

General View of Macon Machine Shop, Cent, of Ga. Ry. 

which is 9 feet in diameter and 175 feet high. Coal is de- 
livered to the boiler room direct from cars on an elevated 
trestle and a narrow gauge railroad is provided for removing 
the ashes. Suitable provision is made for the installation of 
additional equipment in case it is needed. 

* The illustrations published with this article were ob- 
tained by courtesy of the editor of Southern Machinery, At- 
lanta, Ga., which journal printed a similar article in its No- 
vember issue. 

haust steam in the winter for heating purposes. The auxil- 
iaries are steam driven and the exhaust used for heating the 
feed water. The auxiliaries, except the vacuum pumps, are 
located in the basement. The plant is provived with fire pro- 
tection by means of a 1,000 gallon fire pump, located in the 
basement of the power house, and a 50,000 gallon high pres- 
sure elevated tank erected near the power house. In case of 
emergency the service pumps at the river can be used for 
fire fighting. 

The master mechanic's office is a substantial red brick 

[January, 1912.] 


Balcony of Macon Machine Shop, Cent, of Ga. Ry. 

structure arranged for the offices of the shop executives and 
general clerical force of the works. The blacksmith shop is 
100 feet wide and 260 feet long with a two-story annex. The 
first floor of the annex is used for lavatories and the sec- 
ond floor for housing the volume and pressure blowers sup- 
plying air to the forges. A general view of the interior of 
the blacksmith shop is shown herewith. There are no travel- 
ing cranes installed, but the different forges and hammers 
required for heavy work are served by revolving jib cranes 
which also reach the narrow gage industrial railway shown 
in the illustration. The forges for light hand work are set 
at an angle in two rows down the center of the shop. Each 
forge is double with the fires facing in opposite directions. 

The blast is furnished by a blower located in the annex. 
The machines such as rod heating furnaces, bulldozers, bolt 
machines and hammers are located around the building wall 
near the windows and the furnaces for this work are all oil 
burners obtaining the air pressure from the blowers in the 
annex. In this illustration is shown a 3,000 pound double 
frame steam hammer aa«5 a 400-ton steam hydraulic forging 
press. This shop is connected with the storage yard and the 
machine shop by the industrial railway. ' A monitor roof is 
provided for the blacksmith shop to provide suitable lighting 
and ventilation. 

Blacksmith Shop Tools. 

Description. Maker. Drive. 

Steam Hammer, 3,000 Pounds Bement Steam. 

Steam Hammer, 1,000 Pounds Bement Steam. 

Steam Hammer, 800 Pounds Bement Steam. 

Steam Hammer, S. F., 800 PoundsRyerson Steam. 

Steam Hammer, S. F., 600 PoundsRyerson Steam. 

Steam Hammer, S. F., 400 PoundsMinningham Steam. 

Steam Hammer, S. F., 2,000 Lbs. .Ryerson Steam. 

Steam Hammer, S. F., 400 PoundsMinningham Steam. 

Steam Hammer, S. F., 2000 Lbs.\. Ryerson Steam. 

Steam Hammer, S. F., 200 PoundsRyerson Steam. 


Steam Hammer, 1,000 Pounds Chambersburg Steam. 

Steam Hammer, 1,600 Pounds Chambersburg Steam. 

Gorging Press, 400 Ton Chambersburg Steam Hyd. 

Scrap Rolls. Ajax Motor. 

Guillotine Shear, outside stock. .. .Hilles & Jones Motor. 

Guillotine Shear (Gantry) Hilles & Jones Motor. 

Trimming Press, No. 7 White Motor. 

Forging Machine, 4" Ajax Belt. 

Forging Machine, 2Yz" National Belt. 

Forging Machine, 1" National Belt. 

Bolt Cutter, 2" Triple Head Acme Belt. 

Pressure Blower (Furnaces), 45 A. B. Co Motor. 

H. P. 

Volume Blower, (Forges), 25 H. P. A. B. Co Motor. 

Eye Bender, No. 2 * Obeymayer Hand. 

Eye Bender, No. 3 Obeymayer Hand. 

Bolt Header, 2y z " Ajax Motor. 

Oil Furnace, No. 1 Ferguson Oil. 

Oil Furnace, No. 1 Ferguson Oil. 

Oil Furnace, No. 184. (for 400 ton Ferguson Oil. 

Oil Furnace, No. 143, (for 3,000 Ferguson Oil. 

Lb. Hammer). 

Oil Furnace, No. 136, (for 1,000 Ferguson Oil. 

Lb. Hammer). 
Oil Furnace, No. 3, (for Bolts) . . 
Oil Furnace, No. 2, (for Bolts) . . 
Oil Furnace, No. 2, (for Bolts) 

Ferguson Oil. 

Ferguson Oil. 

Ferguson Oil. 

Oil Furnace, Sheet, 111., (Spring Ferguson Oil. 

Banding). J 

Oil Furnace, Bulldozer (Scrap Ferguson Oil. 

Rolls). j 

Oil Furnace, Combined Case, Ferguson Oil. 

Hardening and Spring. ] 

Oil Furnace, Special for Spring Ferguson Oil. 

Pointing Rolls. | 

Punch & Shear (Spring Work) . . . Evans Motor. 

Point Rolls (Spring Work) Evans '. Motor. 

Gas Furnace, No. 60, Chloro Stewart Gas. 

Gas Furnace, No. 1, Preheater Stewart Gas. 

(Tool Dresser). 
Gas Furnaces (High Speed Steel Chicago. Gas. 

Tool Dresser). 

Pyrometer, (Tool Dresser) Hoskins 

Punch and Shear Hilles & Jones Motor. 

Air Bender 

Spring Bending Machine 

Bolt Cutter, Triple Head Acme Belt. 

Bolt Cutter, Single Head National Belt. 

Oil Furnace, No. 135 Ferguson Oil. 

Bolt Cutter, Double Head Steele-Harvey. . . . . .Belt. 

The machine shop is 510 feet long, and is divided long- 
itudinally into three sections; one for the machine shop, 70 
feet wide; one for cleaning and storage small parts, 45 feet 
wide; and one 60 feet wide for an erecting shop. The ma- 
chine tool arrangement is shown in drawing. The erecting 
shop contains two crane runways, one above the other. The 
upper one carries a 120-ton crane, used for lifting the loco- 
motives and other heavy work, while the lower crane has 
a capacity of 10 tons and may be considered as a general 
utility crane. The lower runway extends uninterrupted into 
the boiler shop at one end of the machine shop building. 
Thus the lower crane is able to transfer boilers, tubes, cabs, 
etc., from one shop to the other without rehandling. 

The locomotive stalls are on 13 foot centers, thus leaving 
sufficient room between locomotives being repaired, for 
the workmen. Just back of the erecting floor a number of 
tanks are embedded in the floor, containing lye water for 
removing the grease and dirt from the parts stripped from 
the locomotives. These tanks are equipped with drainage 
and steam pipes for heating the lye water. After cleaning, 
the parts are washed and stored in the storage space until 
they are again wanted. Heavy wooden covers are provided 
for. the lye tanks so that the whole floor is available and 
there is no danger of workmen falling into the lye water 
while passing to and fro. The floor is cement and the dis- 
tance to the roof girders is 50 feet. The windows extend 
to the roof and the roof contains large skylights, affording 
excellent light during the day and seldom if ever are the 
electric lights required. 


[January, 1912.] 






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Power such as electric, air, and steam for use in operat- 
ing portable tools is obtained from a tunnel extending the 
full length of the shop in front of the engine stalls. Wiring 
for portable electric lights such as are required in the pits 
and boilers is also laid in this tunnel, as well as the piping for 
oil. Provision is made by means of service boxes at each 
stall for cutting out any one or all circuits as desired. This 
arrangement has been found very convenient as each en- 
gine can be repaired independently of those in the imme- 
diate neighborhood and no time is lost in waiting for an- 
other repair crew to finish an operation. 

The lower floor of the storage space is used for fitting en- 
gine driving boxes before wheeling engines-, and other 
medium heavy hand work. The upper floor is given over 
to light machinery operations, such as tool manufacture, and 

Plan of Macon Machine and Erecting Shop 

is in direct communication with the distributing tool room 
on the main floor by means of an electric elevator. The re- 
pair departments for electrical apparatus, air brake equip- 
ment, injectors, lubricators and gages, and the tin shop are 
also located in this balcony. Two small electric elevators 
are provided for lifting material from the main floor to the 
balcony. The balcony is very completely equipped for the 
work to be done there and would excite the envy of many 
owners of shops doing small and, medium sized work. 

The main machine shop is well arranged with tools ranged 
along the sides of a main passage way down which is laid 
the tracks of the industrial railway. The power required in 
this shop is generated in the central power plant and all 
tools are either direct connected to electric motors or oper- 
ated from short line shafts in groups. The larger tools are 

[January, 1912.] 







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with Balcony, Central of Ga. Ry. 

all direct connected to electric motors equipped with suitable 
starters and speed controllers. This shop is well provided 
with cranes for handling work on the floor and at the ma- 
chines. An interesting feature in connection with the engine 
wheel lathes is that the speed of cutting is automatically regu- 
lated according to the hardness of the tire being turned. This 
is regulated by a series of switches, shunts and resistances 
governing the current supplied to the motors. 

Throughout the shop the convenience and comfort of the 
employes have received careful attention. Numerous drinking 
fountains and urinals are conveniently installed, while clean 
light lavatories and wash rooms are situated at suitable points. 
Janitors are constantly in attendance and every effort made 
to maintain the best possible sanitary conditions. Ventilated 

lockers for employes' clothing are suitably placed within 

easy reach of the machines and are sufficiently plentiful so 

that each man has his individual compartment. The floor is 

made of creosoted blocks which has proved very satisfactory. 

The general tool arrangement has been selected with a view 

to eliminating handling of the work as much as possible. This 

result has been obtained by grouping machines according to 

the classes of work rather than according to the kinds of 

machines. Thus each group of machines forms a complete 

unit and is constantly employed upon one kind of work. 

Machine Shop Tools. 

Cylinder Heads and Castings. 

Description. Maker. Drive. 

Planer, 26"x26"x8'0" Niles Motor. 

Boring Mill, 36" Vertical Turret . . . Billiard Belt. 



[January, 1912.] 

Steam Chests and Valves. 

Lathe, 26" Lodge & Davis Belt. 

Planer. 36"x36"xl0'0" Pond Motor. 

Miller, No. 4 Brown & Sharpe . . Belt. 

Grinder, Magnetic Chuck P. & w Motor. 

Tires, Wheel Centers, Axles, Smoke Box Fronts. 
Wheel Lathe, 80," Quartering and 

Journals Niles Motor. 

Boring Mill, 84" Niles Motor. 

Boring Mill, S4" Niles. Motor. 

Tire Lathe, 90" Putnam Motor. 

Axle Lathe, Driving, 24" Schumaker & Boye. Motor. 

Boring Mill, 72" Niles Motor. 

Wheel Press, 600 Ton R. D. Wood Motor. 

Surface Plate 

Lathe, 42" Steel Tired Car Wheel. Putnam Motor. 

Oil Furnace, Heating Tires Ferguson 

Keyseater, Driving Axle Ryerson Motor. 

Rod Work. 

Shaper, 26", Keys and Liners 

Lathe, 24", Rod Brasses 

Lathe, 18"x8'0", Crosshead Pins... 

Sensitive Drill, 12" 

Guide Grinder, 30" 

Shaper, 32", Single Head 

Boring Bill, 36" Rod Bushings 

Grinder, No. 12, Spiral Groove, 

Shear Cut 

Grinder, No. 6, Spiral Groove 

Shear Cut 

Hydraulic Bushing Press, 100 ton. 

Radial Drill, 4'0" Back Geared 

Vertical Miller, 66" small table and 


Swing Frame Grinder, No. 2 

Floor Grinder, No.-d 

Cold Saw, No. 16 Higley 

Vertical Drill, 44" heavy 

Center Drill, 5" Stock 

Laying Off Surface Plate 

Two Work -benches, Standard with 

Merritt 6" Vises. 

Norton .' Belt. 

Reed , Motor. 

LeBlond Belt. 

Knecht Belt. 

Bridgeport Motor. 

Cincinnati Belt. 

Bullard Motor. 

Gardner Belt. 

Gardner Belt. 

Watson-Stillman. . .Belt. 
Bement Motor. 

Bement Motor. 

Springfield Belt. 

Bement Belt. 

Bement Motor. 

Foote-Burte Motor. 

Packard Belt. 

Link Work. 

Link Grinder 

Universal Grinder (Bushings) 

Radius Planer Attachment 

Crank Planer, 16"x24"x40" 

Lathe, 24"xl0'0" 

Lathe, 14"x5'0" 

Lathe, 14"x5'0" 

Sensitive Drill, 12" 

Vertical Drill, 36" 

Miller, 5-B, Heavy Plain 

Link Grinder, Heavy 

Grinder, Double Spindle, Hori- 
zontal Attachments 

Miller, No. 5 Vertical 

Bushing Press, 25 ton Hydraulic... 

Cut-off Saw, No. 16 Q and C 

Three Work-benches, Standard 
Merritt 6" vises. 

Three Shelves, 36"x20", New 

Radial Drill, 3 ft 

Arbor Press, No. 3% 

Arbor Press, No. 3% 

Arbor Press, No. 3% 

Arbor Press, No. 3% 

Hammett Belt. 

B. & S Belt. 


Bement Motor. 

Reed Motor. 

Reed Motor. 

Reed Motor. 

Knecht Belt. 

Foote-Burte Motor. 

LeBlond Motor. 

Hammett Belt. 

Springfield Belt. 

Ingersoll Motor. 

Wood Motor. 

Higley Motor. 

N. B. M. Co. 

Bement Motor. 





Brass Foundry. 

Melting Furnace, No. 360 Steele-Harvey 

Ladle Heater Steele-Harvey 

Pressure Blower Steele-Harvey 

Tumbling Barrel and Sieve Cap. . Globe M. & S 

Driving Boxes. 

Shaper, 32" Special Draw- stroke. . Morton 

Bushing Press, 100 ton Watson-Stillman. . 

Vertical Drill, 44" Compound Table. Foote-Burte 

Boring Mill, 56" Bullard 

Slotter, 15" High Speed Movement. Drill 

Planer, 48"xl2'0," 4 head Woodw'rd & Powell 

Boring Mill, 44" old car wheel with 
double chuck Rogers 

Radial Drill, Double Base, 6' Semi- 
radial Bickford 










Pipe Group. 

F'pe Threader, 6" Wieland 

Pipe Bender, Pneumatic Underwood Air. 

Pipe Threader, 3" Coxe Motor. 

Oil Furnace, Small Brazing and 
Bending Ferguson Oil. 

Babbitt and Tin Work. 

Furnace, Heating Metal Tate-Jones Oil. 

Furnace, Melting Off and Heating. Tate-Jones Oil. 

Pistons, Piston Packing and Piston Rods. 

Grinder, Piston Rod Landis Motor. 

Vertical Turret 36" Bullard Motor. 

Lathe, 18"x5'0" Schumaker & Boye. Belt. 

Vertical Turret, 36" Bullard Motor. 

Lathe, 36" to swing 23" Over Car- 
riage Pond Motor. 

Lathe, 20" High Speed Reducing. . . LeBlonde Motor. 

Center Drill, 5" Stock O. L. Packard Belt. 

Keyway Mortiser Bement Belt. 

Lathe, 30" LeBlonde Motor. 

Staybolt Group. 

Bolt Threader, 4 Spindle Lassiter Belt. 

Tell-tale Drill, 4 Spindle Lassiter Belt. 

Engine Bolts-Down Stairs. 

Lathe, 18" Lodge & Shipley.. Belt. 

Lathe, 14" (do) Belt. 

Center Drill, small p. & w. . Belt 

Bolt Pointer, 2" National Belt' 

Bolt Cutter, y 2 x3" Triple Head National Belt 

Grinder, No. 12 Spiral Groove Gardner Belt 

Nut Facer, 3-8 to 1%" Victor Belt' 

Nut Facer, iy 2 to 3" Victor Belt' 

Bolt Alterer w. H. Foster Belt'. 

Center Drill, 2 Spindle, 4" Whiton Belt 

Bolt Machine, 4 Spindle Lassiter Belt' 

Grindstone c. of Ga Belt 

Shelves, 36"x20" New Britian N. B. M. Co 

Grinder, Double Spindle, Horizon- 
tal Attachment Springfield Belt. 

Turret Lathe Group. 

Flat Turret, 2" Jones & Lamson . . . Belt. 

F at Turret, 3" Jones & Lamson. . . Belt. 

Flat .Turret, 3" P. & W Belt. 

Heavy Turret, 6" p nd Belt 

Turret, Chucking Outfit, 6" -. ..Steinlee Motor 

Turret, Set Screws, 1" p & w Belt 

Turret, 1" Set Screws p &w.. . Belt' 

Turret, 1%" Patch Bolts P. & w Belt' 

Turret, 3" w. & S Belt.' 

D Grinder Springfield Belt. 

Shelves, 36x20" New Britian N. B. M. Co 

Air Brakes — Lubricators. 

Steam Gauge Tester Crosby 

Auto. Cock Grinder, 8 Spindle 

(For Car Shop) Crosby Belt. 

Two Triple Rollers Westinghouse Hand. 

Two Triple Racks (1 for car shop) . Westinghouse Hand. 

Vertical Cylinder Grinder Saxon Mach. Co... Belt. 

Sensitive Drill, 12" Knecht Belt. 

Lathe, 14" Taper Attachment LeBlond. . .-. Motor 

Lathe, 14" Taper Attachment Lodge & Shipley. . Belt. 

Vertical Drill, Back Geared Foote-Burte Belt. 

Center Drill, 2", Spindle, 4" Stock. .Whiton Belt. 

Cut-off Saw No. 16 Q. & C Motor. 

Test Rack, air pumps Westinghouse 

Test Rack, injectors Westinghouse 

Test Rack, lubricators Westinghouse 

Test Rack, Engineers' Valves Westinghouse 

Six Work Benches, Standard C. of Ga 

Four Revolving Racks, No. 172 New Britian 

Cleaning Vat C. of Ga 

Driving Brakes. 

Vertical Drill, 36" Foote-Burte Belt. 

Lathe, 26" c. of Ga Belt. 

Sensitive Drill, 12" Knecht Belt. 

Floor Grinder, D Springfield Belt. 

Work Bench, Standard C. of Ga 


Planer, Special Draw-stroke Cyl- 
inder Morton Motor. 

Drill, 6 ft. Semi-radial Bickford Motor. 

Cyl. Boring Machines, Plain Newton ". . . Motor. 

Shoes and Wedges. 

Cold Saw, No. 20, 36" Higley Motor. 

Shaper, 24" D Head Cincinnati Belt. 

Miller, 36"x36"xl2'0" (Locate near 

Rods) Ingersoll Motor. 

Planer, High Speed 24"x24"xl2'0". . Pond Motor. 

Grindstone C. of Ga Belt. 

Engine Trucks. 

Drill, 6 ft. Semi-radial Bickford Motor. 

Planer, 48"x48"xl2'0" Open Side. .. Cleveland Motor. 

Brass Work. 

Turret Lathe, 18" Brass Fox Belt. 

Turret Lathe, 18" Fox, Brass Fox Belt. 

"D" Grinder Blount : Belt. 

Lathe, 18" Quick Change Gear LeBlond... Motor. 

Lathe, 18" Quick Change Gear LeBlond Motor. 

Brass Separator, Electro-magnetic. Gen'l Electric Motor. 

Lathe, 14" Taper Attachment Niles Motor. 

Lathe, 14" Taper Attachment Niles Motor. 

Sensitive Drill, 12" Knecht Belt. 

Turret, 18" Fox W. & S Belt. 

Six Shelves, 36x20" New Britian N. B. M. Co 


Slotter, 18" (2 Independent Tool) . . Drill r. . Motor? 

Planer, Low Rail, 60"x60"xl8', 4 Pond Motor. 

Radial Drill, 7 ft. Heavy Double Dresses Motor. 

Base. § 

Tool Room. 

Tool Room Grinder, Universal Walker Belt. 

Cutter Grinder, No. 2 Cincinnati Motor. 

Grinder, Twist Drill Sellers Belt. 

Grinder, Tool, Universal Sellers Motor. 

Tool Room Grinder, 12" Universal. Walker Motor. 

Miller, Universal, Rack Cutting Hendy Belt. 

Sensitive Drill, 12" Knecht Belt. 

Radial Drill, 3 ft Bement Motor. 

Shaper, 15" Universal Potter & Johnson . . .Motor. 

Grinder, Double Spindle, Horizon- Springfield Belt. 

tal Att. 

Lathe, 16" Hendey-Norton .... Motor. 

Lathe, 18" Hendey-Norton .... Motor. 

Center Drill, 3" Single Spindle Whiton Belt. 

Filing Machine, No. 2 Cochrane-Bly Belt. 

Grinder, Staybolt Dies Modern Tool Co . . . Belt. 

Grinder, Auto Saw Higley Belt. 

Eight Racks, No. 172, Revolving. .New Britian 

Four Shelves, 36x20" New Britian 

Eccentric Straps and Blocks. 

Eccentric Mandrel Underwood 

Boring Mill, 61" Niles Motor. 

Boring Mill, 42" Rapid Reduction . . Bullard Motor. 

Keyway Morticer Norton Motor. 

One Laylng-off Table C. of Ga 

One Work Bench Standard C. of Ga 

Radial Frill, 6 ft Niles Belt. 

[January, 1912.] 



Miscellaneous — Stationary. 

Lathe, 37" C. of Ga Belt. 

Palmer, 36"x36"xl4" Bement Belt. 

Boring Mill, Horizontal Niles Belt. 

I. at he, 24" Le Blond Belt. 

Drill, 36" Vortical Foote-Burte Motor. 

Power Hack Saw, SmalJ Q. & C Belt. 

Belt Lacer Jackson Hand. 

Cold Saw, 11" Combination Newton Motor. 

Slotter, 14" Sellers Belt. 

Oil Separator American Cent. . . . Belt. 

Scale, 5 ton, Compound Suspension. Fairbanks 

Center Drill, 4" Stock Whiton Belt. 

Three Time Recorders International 


Vertical Drill, 36" Foote-Burte Motor. 

Vertical Drill, 36" Foote-Burte Motor. 

Portable Furnace, Braces, etc Furguson Oil. 

Portable Furnace, Braces, etc Furguson Oil. 

Floor Grinder, "D" Springfield iviotor. 

shop by a fire wall with two main entrances, and through 
which the industrial railway enters, and the other through 
which the lower crane from the locomotive erecting floor 
enters. As previously stated this runway extends uninter- 
rupted through both shops. Every facility has been provided 
for the rapid handling of work. In the end of the 60-foot bay 
nearest the erecting shop is located the equipment for making 
boiler repairs. The other end is used for flue work. In the 
end of the 70-foot bay nearest the machine shop, flanging, 
etc., is done, while at the other end tender and tank repairs 
are made. This shop is provided with riveters, hammers, 
shears, flanging and flue machines. The roof is saw-tooth 
construction, permitting excellent natural illumination at all 

.General View of Macon Blacksmith Shop, Cent, of Ga. Ry. 

Floor Grinder, "D" Springfield Motor. 

Valve Setter Farringtbn-Mills. . . Air. 

Crank Pin Press, 100 ton, Hy- Dudgeon 


Dome Facer Underwood 

Crank Pin Turner Underwood 

Valve Seat Facer Underwood 

Cylinder Boring Bar, 4" Ryerson Motor. 

Four Air Drills, Close Corner, No. 8. "Thor" 

One Air Drill, No. 6 Non-Reversible. "Thor" 

Two Air Drills, No. 1 Piston "Thor" 

One Air Drill, No. 2 Piston "Thor" 

One Breast Drill, No. 10 "Thor" 

Three Chipping Hammers, No. 5 . . . "Thor" 

Twenty-one Work Benches, Spe- 

cial with 2 each Merritt 6" Vises. 

Six Vise Stands, 5" Portable iw P i. ^r't'in 

One Burner for Testing Loco- Tate- Jones Oil. 


The boiler and tank shop is 260 feet long and 130 feet wide, 
and is divided into two bays, one 60 feet wide used for erect- 
ing and the other 70 feet wide used for flanging, punching, 
shearing and other work of a similar nature. The boiler 
and tank shop is divided from the locomotive and machine 

times. This shop is amply provided with cranes, to facilitate 
handling, of work. 

Boiler Shop Equipment. 

Description. Maker. Drive. 

Vertical Drill, 44" Foote-Burte Motor. 

Horizontal Flange Drill Peaman Smith Motor. 

Radial Drill, 6 ft Bickford Motor, 

12 ft. Plate Planer Cleveland Motor. 

Large Annealing Furnace Ferguson Oil. 

Hydraulic Pump, .Triplex R. D. Wood Motor. 

Hydraulic Pump, Triplex R. D. Wood ...Motor. 

Hydraulic Accumulator R. D. Wood Hydulic. 

Hydraulic Flanging Press, 200 tons. R. D. Wood Hydraul. 

Hand Clamps C. of Ga Hand. 

Bending Rolls, 12 ft Cleveland Motor. 

Horizontal Punch Cleveland Motor. 

Punch, 60" Gap Cleveland Motor. 

Shear, 60" Gap Cleveland Motor. 

Angle Shear Long & Allstatter. .Motor. 

Rotary Bevel Shear Lennox Motor. 

Punch W Plate Lennox Motor. 

Friction Saw Ryerson Motor- 
Rotary Shear Kling Motor, 

Rollers, 8 ft .' Belt. 

Drill Grinder, No. iy 2 Champion Belt, 



[January, 1912.] 

Boiler and Tank Department. 


Sensitive Drill, 12" Knecht 

Vertical Drill, 36" Foote-Burte. . . 

Hand Rolls C. of Ga 

Grinder Springfield Motor. 

Flue Cutter Fox Motor. 

Flue Cutter Fox Motor. 

Welding Machine, Flues McGrath Air. 

Welding Machine, Flues Ferguson Oil. 

Safe End Furnace, Flues Ferguson Oil. 

Rivet Furnace Calorex Belt. 

Rivet Furnace Calorex Belt. 

Rivet Furnace (Tanks) Ferguson Oil. 

Flue Rattler C. of Ga Motor. 

Port Rivet Furnace Ferguson 

Port Rivet Furnace Ferguson 

Mud Ring Riveter Ryerson Hyd. Air. 

Staybolt Nipper W. H. Foster 

Double Punch and Shear, Tanks. .Hilles & Jones Belt. 

Drill Grinder, No. 1, 2 Champion Belt. 

Extending along the side of the blacksmith shop, the ma- 
chine shop and the boiler and tank shop is a material plat- 
form served by a 15-ton gantry crane. Suitable magnets for 
handling scrap, plates and other material are provided. All 
heavy material used in the department mentioned is removed 
directly from cars onto this platform from which it is taken 
into the shops as needed. This platform is also used for sort- 
ing and storing scrap. The tire furnace is located on this 
platform opposite the large wheel lathes in the machine shop. 
At the end of this platform nearest to the flue department is 
located a flue rattler of the old cylindrical style, but arranged 
to be automatically filled after the flues are lifted into a cradle 
above the machine by the gantry crane. After being cleaned 
the flues are delivered to a somewhat similar cradle lower 
than the one mentioned from which they can be collected 
and removed by the crane. 

The roundhouse is located some distance from the erecting 
and machine shop. This was partly necessary owing to the 
property lines. The outside walls are carried out to form a 
building of rectangular shape, the corners of which are util- 
ized for the roundhouse machine shop. All the tools neces- 
sary for the work to be done are installed and no necessity 
has been found for carrying work to and from the main shop 
unless of extremely unusual character. The roundhouse is 
connected to the rest of the works by switch and industrial 
tracks and standard parts arc carried in stock in the round- 
house store room. 

An interesting feature of the roundhouse is an electrically 

operated drop table by means of which all the drivers or any 
of them may be dropped at one time. An electric mono-rail 
hoist is provided for carrying the wheels to the lathe in the 
machine shop for truing the journals. Two other tracks are 
provided for with wheel pits for handling single wheels and 
outside is located a pit for tender wheels. 

Roundhouse Equipment. 

Description. Maker. Drive. 

Lathe, 24" Le Blonde Motor. 

Volume Blower, Heating System.. A. B. C Motor. 

Lathe, 14" Reed Motor. 

Vertical Drill, 36" Foote-Burte Motor. 

Hydraulic Press, 100 Ton Watson-Stillman . . Motor. 

Shaper, 30" Draw Cut Morton Motor. 

Cylinder and Valve Seat Facer Underwood 

Air Valve Setter Farrington Mills. 

Hydraulic Crank Pin Press Watson-Stillman. 

Sensitive Drill, 12" Knecht Belt. 

Turret Head, Bolt Cutter, No. 4...P & W Belt. 

Pipe Machine, 3" B. & K Belt. 

Drop Apron Grinder, No. 5 Bridgeport Motor. 

Punch and Shear, No. 17 White Motor. 

Double Head Grinder Bridgeport Belt. 

Center Drill, 2" 2 Spindle P. & W Belt. 

Saw, No. 16 Higley Motor. 

Crank Pin Turner Underwood 

Dome Facer Underwood 

Boring Mill, 72" Niles Motor. 

Wheel Lathe, 80" Niles Motor. 

Rolls, No. 1 Hilles & Jones Motor. 

Vertical Turret, 36" " Bullard Motor. 

Pipe Bender „ Underwood Air. 

Bolt Alterer Potter & Johnson. . Belt. 

Motor (New Shop), 15 H. P Westinghouse 

Motor (Tool Room), 15 H. P Westinghouse 

Motor, Portable, 3 H. P Westinghouse 

Crane, 5 Ton Trolley Niles Motor. 

Vacuum Pump, Heating System 111. Engr. Co Steam. 

Turbine Pump, Boiler Washing Alberger Motor. 

Turbine Pump, Boiler Washing Alberger Motor. 

Grease Forming Machine Underwood Air. 

Hose Mounting Outfit, 20th Cen- 
tury Buker & Carr Air. 

Turn Table Travtor Nichols Motor. 

Sand Dryer Robertson 

Time Recorder International 

Time Recorder International 

Boiler Tester Bellfleld 

4y 2 " Boring Bar Underwood Belt. 

In the drawing of the machine shop floor plan the electrical 
wiring is designated as follows: O is a motor; A is a dis- 
tributing hand-hole; B is a motor controller; C is distributing 
board; D is circuit under floor; E is circuit above floor on 
benches or machines; F circuit on ceiling; G' is circuit under 
balcony floor; H is a switch, I is receptacle, 100 volts D. C; 
J is a type F Cooper-Hewitt lamp; K is an incandescent 

[January, 1912.] 




Up to the past few years practically no advance has been 
made in the ventilation of passenger cars, the ventilation be- 
ing little better than it was in the old fashioned stage coach. 
Not but that study and attention have been given to the sub- 
ject. About 1868 Prof. Nichols, of the Massachusetts Insti- 
tute of Technology, made some investigations of a system 
whereby air entered the car at the front end under the hood 
and again passed out under the rear hood. This system, 
however,' never proved a success. In 1875 two Germans, 
Wolfhugel and Lang, made a study of the subject and fur- 
ther investigations were carried on in 1887. About 1890 
the Pennsylvania R. R. took up the subject and a brief in- 
vestigation was made; a more extended one being made in 
1894. The Master Car Builders' Association has had a num- 
ber of committees on the subject, the first in 1874, another 
in 1894 and still a third in 1908. It will be remembered that 
in the Reminiscences of a Master Car Builder published in 
the November issue of the Raikvay Master Mechanic, it was 
stated that a member replied to a circular letter on the sub- 
ject at the 1874 convention saying that "the amount of air 
required to keep the car pure depends on the class of stock 
carried. In some of our trains if you were to take out both 
ends of the car I doubt if the air of the rear end would be 
fit to breathe." The report of 1908 was very complete and 
handled the subject clearly; nevertheless the information on 
the subject is not very extensive. 

At the present time considerable interest is being shown 
in heating, ventilating and pure air problems in general and 
especially as applied to the passenger car. The traveling 
public expects cars which are well ventilated and in which 
the heat is well regulated. The road which caters to these 
desires and lets the people know that it does, is going to get 
the business. Those who have much occasion to use the 
sleeping cars of today know only too well that their present 
condition is far from ideal. But when you lay a carefully 
assorted lot of people along next to each other in regular 
rows, it is hard to satisfy everybody. In the dressing room 
one morning a few weeks ago, a fellow passenger said: "Suf- 
fering Moses, I nearly baked in my berth last night." "Dat 
so, bos," said the porter, "dat's funny; you know I had to 
get two extra blankets for dat fellow in upper ten; yes sah." 
Something certainly should be done to improve the ventila- 
tion and heating - so as to obviate such extreme opinions. 

During the past year a number of interesting and valuable 
papers on this subject have appeared. Among these are 
"Recent Developments in Car Heating and Ventilation," a 
paper by L. C. Ord, general car inspector of the Canadian 
Pacific, read before the Canadian Railway Club; a committee 
report on the Ventilation of Cars read before the American 
Medical Association and a paper entitled, "A Study of the 
Ventilation of Sleeping Cars," by Thomas R. Crowder, of 
Chicago. We are indebted to the later for the illustrations 
and much of the test data given below. It is worthy of note 
that in these papers, heating and ventilation are closely in- 
terwoven and each is treated with respect to the other. 

The amount of carbon dioxide in pure air is about 4 parts 
in 10,000, but this runs a trifle higher in cities. The amount 
in air exhaled from our lungs runs very high, being about. 
400 parts in 10,000. An ordinary railway coach with no ven- 
tilation and containing twenty people would have about 34 
parts per 10,000 of carbon dioxide at the end of an hour 
and this of course could continue to increase with the time. 
The M. C. B. report of 1894 in the results of tests, found an 
average of 18 parts of carbon dioxide in 10,000, in sleeping 
cars containing an average of 12.5 passengers and 10.7 parts 
in chair cars containing an average of 17.4 passengers. It 
is presumed that these observations were made while the 
cars were in motion. Dr. Dudley's report on. Pennsylvania 
cars in 1894 stated that he found from 10 to 18 parts in run- 

ning cars and about 20 parts in cars that had been standing 
for 20 minutes. 

Knowing the amount of carbon dioxide in pure air, the 
amount in the air of the car and the number of cubic feet 
of carbon dioxide exhaled per hour by each person, the num- 
ber of cubic feet of air required per person to keep the con- 
tamination of the car air constant may be readily figured out. 
Figure 1 is a curve showing this relation as computed by 
Dr. Crowder. 

There are two general classes of ventilation, the natural 
or deck sash method and the exhaust method. 
Deck Sash Ventilation. 

The natural method is the one used on the majority of 
cars and really is not a system of ventilation at all as the 
deck sash windows are simply opened to let out as much of 


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Fig. 1. 

the heated air as necessary and let in the cold air, as the 
case may be. The practical results of deck sash ventilation 
are highly variable. The openings may act as either inlets or 
outlets, and are liable to change with every shift of the 
wind. They are thus liable to demand constant supervision. 
That trains running at high speed with the deck sashes open 
generally receive a fairly large quantity of air is beyond 
question; but downward draughts are liable to cause discom- 
fort and the irregular action to determine unreliability. 

An average of 153 determinations made by Dr. Crowder 
in cars without ventilators, with open decks, and with doors 
and windows closed, show 7.19 parts- of carbon dioxide per 
10,000 and an average hourly air supply to maintain this 
ratio of 283,000 cubic feet. The average number of people 
in the car was 15 and the proportion of decks open varied 
from one-fourth to all of them. The determinations were 
made at the breathing level. Observations under the same 
conditions but with deck sashes closed as well, showed a pro- 
portion of 8.33 parts per 10,000. With windows and deck 
sashes open the amount of carbon dioxide becomes practically 
the same as in the surrounding air. Therefore the problem 
of summer ventilation is one to which little attention need 
be paid, other than keeping out cinders and dirt, for the 
volume of air admitted is so great as to take away all 
trace of contamination. 

Exhaust Ventilation. 

Exhaust ventilation is being used very extensively at pres- 
ent and one of the best-known types of this ventilator is the 
Garland. This works somewhat on the principle of the in- 
jector and draws air out through the deck sash. Its oper- 
ation, of course, is dependent on train motion. Each ven- 
tilator will remove about 15,000 cubic feet per hour at ordi- 
nary train speeds although at lower speeds its action is not 
as efficient. Six to ten of these ventilators are applied to 
each coach and as no special inlets are provided, the incom- 



[January, 1912. J 

ing air must find its way through doors and cracks as best 
it may. Cars so equipped are much more comfortable than 
those with natural ventilation as the cold air is not forced 
down on the heads of passengers. The fact, however, that 
no special intakes are provided for the air may cause a por- 
tion of the air to enter through the upper part of the car 
where it would play no part at the breathing level; in other 
words it may be short-circuited. The results of carbon diox- 
ide determinations of air at the breathing level show that to 
a certain extent this must happen since the air supplied to 
the breathing zone as computed from carbon dioxide de- 
terminations is considerably less than the amount which 
leaves the ventilators as determined by actual measurement. 

the air into the forward opening and exhausts it from the 
rear one. This ventilator is in use on the Central of New 
Jersey, the Lackawanna and a number of other roads, but no- 
tests have been made to show how efficient it is in keeping 
the contamination low at the breathing level. It does remove 
a large amount of air but it is very probable that a greater 
part of it is taken from the upper part of the car and it is- 
probably not as efficient as the Garland type. 

Pennsylvania System. 

The Pennsylvania began experimenting with its present 

system about ten years ago and considerable work has been 

spent in improving and perfecting it. It is entirely different 

in principle from other ventilating systems in use and fol- 

Fig. 2. 

Daytime readings in cars equipped with exhaust ventilators, 
with all doors and windows closed showed 6.01 parts of 
carbon dioxide per 10,000, necessitating an hourly air supply 
of 38,400 cubic feet. This was the average of 115 readings 
and the average number of people in the car was 12.88. An 
average of 294 readings taken through the night in the same 
sleeping car and under similar conditions showed an average 
of 6.20 parts in 10,000, requiring 40,600 cubic feet of air per 
hour. The average number of people in the car was 14.88 
and the readings were taken from the air in the center of 
the aisle. 

A number of simultaneous determinations made in berths 
and aisles of cars without' exhaust ventilators with all doors 
and windows closed and with about half the decks open, 
showed an average at the lower berths of 7.32 parts in the 
aisle and 8.32 parts in berths. The average at the 
upper berths was 8.37 parts in the aisle and 9.17 
parts in the berths. In both cases the contamina- 
tion of the air in the berth is greater than that in the aisle. 
Under the above conditions and using exhaust ventilators, 
the results were as follows; at the lower berths 6.33 parts 
in the aisle and 6.96 parts in the berth, at the upper berth 
5.95 parts in the aisle and 6.51 parts in the berths. You hear 
many persons say, "I thing you get more air in an upper," 
and the popular impression is that they are better ventilated. 
The above results show the reverse, that the lower berth is 
the better ventilated. It also shows that the air contamina- 
tion is nearly the same on either side of the curtain and 
that the curtain offers very little resistance to the passage 
of air. It is found that the carbon dioxide rapidly increases 
when a train is brought to a standstill and that the propor- 
tion in still sleeping cars is between 15 and 20 parts in 

Automatic Ventilators. 

This method uses the deck window both as an inlet for 
fresh air and an outlet for bad air. The space of the deck 
sash is occupied by two openings with a space of about 12 
inches between them. At the center of this space is located 
the deflector, a metal strip, about 4x6 inches, which forces 

lows more closely the general idea of indirect ventilation as ' 
applied in buildings. Air is scooped in through hoods loca- 
ted at diagonally opposite corners of the car, conducted, 
downward through vertical pipes to ducts which run under- 
neath the floor throughout the whole length of the car. The 
heater pipes are incased just above these ducts, and the air in 
passing into the car passes through these heater pipes to a 
pipe under each seat and is delivered into the aisle. There 
is a valve or damper in the intake pipe whereby the amount 
of air passing through can be regulated. Globe ventilators- 
are placed in the roof which remove the foul air and com- 
plete the chain of circulation. The system is easily able to 
supply 1,000 cubic feet of air per person when the car is 
completely filled. While the operation of this system is to 
a large extent dependent on train movement, it does provide 
a circulation when the train is standing still because of the 
fact that it provides a natural circulation, the cold air en- 
tering at the bottom and passing out through the top. When 
the train is at a stand still it is said that this system provides 
about one-third of the air necessary for a crowded car. 

But little has been done along the lines of forced draughts 
by mechanical means, although it has been used with some 
success where electric power is constantly on tap. It is not 
necessary when trains are moving at the usual rates of speed 
but it certainly would be of great benefit in sleepers which 
often stand on a track for three or- four hours at a time. As 
stated above, the proportion of carbon dioxide under such 
conditions ranges between 15 and 20 parts per 10,000. The 
Pennsylvania system is the logical one in principle and it 
certainly is one to which forced draughts could be applied 
with the least number of changes. In the M. C. B. report 
of 1908, it was suggested and recommended that a limited 
number of cars used in such service as above, could be 
equipped with blowers and maintained in that service. 


No article dealing with ventilation is complete which does 
not involve also heating, for the two are closely interwoven. 
A study of figure 3 shows that in general the relative purity 
of air in railway coaches is better than in street cars, res- 

[January, 1912.] 



taurants and offices, but that the ventilation in the still car 
(not shown in figure 3) is very poor, the average probably 
being worse than that of street cars and restaurants. How- 
ever while we think we are very sensitive as to the degree 
of purity of air, as a matter of fact, we are really sensitive 
to relative degrees of heat and cold. The following, taken 
from Dr. Crowder's paper, probably expresses this as well 
as anything: 

"It was suggested, long ago, by Hermans, a German in- 
vestigator, that the discomfort was not so much the chemical 
changes in the air as it was the thermal. Heat and aqueous 
vapor increase rapidly in the ill-ventilated places with many 
occupants, and thus prevent the usual dissipation of body 

tion to pure air we must have air which is in the proper 
physical condition to enable it to carry off the orders of 
the body. 

For most passengers an average temperature of 68 degrees 
will be found very comfortable and 64 degrees can be stood 
with comfort. In the berth of sleeping cars 50 degrees is a 
comfortable and healthy temperature. The problem in the 
railway coach is to be able to control the heat quickly. The 
two systems of heating in common use on railway passenger 
cars are steam and hot water and although many improve- 
ments have been made in various devices of this nature, it 
still remains a difficult problem to quickly and effectively 
regulate the heat by this means alone. Regulating the 

Fig. 3. 

heat to the surrounding air. In experiments performed at 
the Institute of Hygiene in Breslin, Germany, it was shown 
that a healthy person placed in a closed cabinet could stand, 
with no symptoms of illness or discomfort, carbon dioxide as 
breathed out by himself, up to the amount of 100 or 150 
parts in 10,000, provided that the temperature and moisture 
were kept low. However, when the temperature and mois- 
ture were allowed to increase, depression, headache, dizzi- 
ness, and a tendency to nausea were experienced. Under 
these conditions the normal dissipation of body heat was in- 
terfered with. The investigations presented by investigators 
is such as to be convincing. It seems to be established be- 
yond any reasonable doubt that discomfort is not due to any 
change in the chemical composition of the air, but to 
physical changes only; and that to maintain a normal heat 
interchange between the body and the air is to- avoid the 
development of those symptoms which are commonly attrib- 
uted to poor ventilation. A certain amount of fresh air 
must be supplied, of course; but the most vital element of 
the ventilation problem becomes that of regulating the tern-' 
perature of the air. 

"It seems probable that one main cause of the complaint of 
poor ventilation in the sleeping car berth is purely psychic. 
We are used to sleeping rooms with walls and ceilings very 
far from us. In the berth they are very close. Their very 
nearness is oppressive. It seems as if there can not be air 
•enough in this small space to supply our wants. The sensa- 
tion is often quite independent of the amount of air sup- 
plied, and even of the temperature. The average carbon 
■dioxide in the air of running cars rarely shows more than 
10 parts in 10,000. No danger to health is to be apprehended 
under the conditions ordinarily obtained, even in steel cars. 
"Overheating is the paramount evil; it is the thing chiefly to 
"be guarded against in the effort to maintain comfort and 

The air renders two services to us — it supplies us with the 
oxygen which it is necessary for us to burn up in our body 
and it serves as a medium to carry away the heat and mois- 
ture which is given up by our bodies. Therefore, in addi- 

amount of heat by varying the amount of air passing in, is 
the general method employed in heating many large halls 
and this should be the logical method of effectively heating 
the passenger car. It should be even more feasible for the 
passenger car, for its heat cannot be. controlled and regu- 
lated by means of opening windows, such as is the case 
with large halls. Arranging the heating system in multiple 
units with separate control is an effort from the opposite 
side of the question; instead of changing the amount of air 
passing over the pipes, the number of heated pipes around 
which the air circulates is changed. Of course, if it were 
possible to add to this heating system an automatic thermo- 
static control, the heat might still further be controlled. 
However, it does not seem that thermostatic control would 
be practicable for passenger cars. The regulation of heat 
to satisfy the occupants of each seat or section would be a 
long step ahead and the only system which would admit of 
this development at present would be the Pennsylvania or a 
similar system. The only objection to the latter system is 
that the air is dried before entering the car. 

The most efficient ventilation is that which renews the 
air without perceptible momentum, and gives a steady even 
current of air. On the other hand the amount of air sup- 
plied to the car can be so great that the expense of heating 
it will be out of all proportion to the benefits derived. As 
far as keeping the air pure is concerned, the exhaust system 
of ventilation is quite satisfactory. The present problem, 
however, is to supply air and to heat it in such a manner 
that it will carry off the heat and oder of the body and 
leave it in a comfortable condition. 

The Chicago Great Western is one of the latest roads to es- 
tablish a bureau of safety. A general executive committee has 
been appointed and sub-committees are to be appointed on 
each operating division in which the operating 1 , mechanical 
and engineering departments will be represented. Local 
committees are to be appointed and an effort will be made 
to find dangerous spots and forestall accidents. 



[January, 1912.] 

Carbondale Roundhouse, D. & H. Company. 

The Delaware and Hudson Company is just finishing the 
construction of a round house at Carbondale, Pa., for the hous- 
ing of its Mallet locomotives, and has made a number of other 
improvements greatly enlarging the facilities and bettering the 
conditions at this point. Carbondale, in the heart of the anthra- 
cite coal fields, is the division headquarters of the Pennsylvania 
division and its principal yard point, from which an extremely 
heavy tonnage goes out daily both to the north and to the 
southward. The new Mallets are employed to bring in ship- 
ments from the lower portions of the division, but especially 
are they effective in the pusher service to the summit of 
Ararat, north of Carbondale. 

Until the recent improvements, the shop facilities at Carbon- 

The new structure is a forty-one stall house, the inner circle 
having a diameter of 199 ft. 8^4 in., the outer diameter being 
407 ft. 11^4 m., giving a stall depth of 104 ft. l l / 2 in., adequate 
for the largest locomotives in the service of this company, or 
contemplated for this division. The foundation and substructure 
is of concrete, the concrete extending to the top of the water 
table at a height of four and one-half feet above the elevation 
of the finished floor. The superstructure is of brick with steel 
columns and roof girders, provision having been made in the 
plans for a concrete protection encasing the steel work. The 
roof, supported on the steel structure by heavy wooden purlins, 
is constructed of two-inch matched spruce sheathing over which 
is placed a five-ply slag covering. 

View of Carbondale Roundhouse Under Construction, D. & H. Co. 

dale consisted of a machine shop, car repair shops, coaling 
station, etc., and two round houses, one built about 1884, and 
the other a larger one of more recent construction, but neither 
of sufficient length of stall or turntable capacity to permit their 
being used for housing the new power equipment secured to 
the increasing amount of heavy traffic. This class of locomotive 
is amply provided for, however, in the new roundhouse located 
south of the present machine shops between the local freight 

A commendable feature of the design is the generous pro- 
vision made for natural light, a very large percentage of the 
wall space being made of windows, each stall having approxi- 
mately four hundred square feet of window area in the outer 
wall in addition to the windows and louvred openings in the 
clere story. The wall space under the large windows is taken 
up with a reenforced concrete slab carried upon projections from 
the piers supporting the brickwork, in such a manner that both 


tew Pouna House 
41 j'Wj 

General Layout of Carbon 

yard and the Lackawanna river, and over the site of the older 
of the two original structures, the south roundhouse, which 
was torn down and removed during the progress of the new 
construction this season. To provide the necessary space for 
this building and the other improvements, the car repair shops 
are now all located on the east side of the river, the old ash 
pit is removed and two new double pits built a short distance 
from the present machine shops and near the northern approach 
to the new engine terminals. Also a portion of the old classi- 
fication yard was taken up, a rearrangement of portions of the 
trackage in the yard being contemplated. 

dale Terminal, D. & H. Co. 

this slab and the window series above it are practically inde- 
pendent of the roof supporting structure, eliminating as far as 
possible danger of damage to the general structure should an 
engine run beyond the pits into the outer wall. 

Three drop pits are provided, two for pony trucks, and one 
for the drivers, while directly to the rear of these drop lean- 
to for machine tools which is 20 ft. deep and extends along 
the width of five stalls. This lean-to will have a standard shop 
floor, but the roundhouse proper will be floored with vitrified 
paving block laid on a 5-in. concrete base with 2-in. sand cush- 
ion. This floor will be laid with proper slopes towards catch- 

[January, 1912.] 



basins, of which there are three to each stall, these in turn 
communicating by vitrified tile drains to the main drainage 
conduit and thence to the main trunk sewer leading to the 
river. This conduit is reenforced concrete, and receives also 
the roof drainage, this being carried in cast iron conductors to 
the floor line, and in tile lines below the floor. The brick floors 

Attached to the roundhouse is a rest house and locker room 
for the engineers and trainmen, and the upper stories of this 
same building will serve as offices for the master mechanic and 
his supervising force. This building has concrete and brick 
walls, closely following the lines of the roundhouse design, 
and will be completely equipped for the convenience and corn- 

End of Carbondale Roundhouse, Showing Partially Completed Rest House, Oil House at Right. 

are arched slightly between the rails of the tracks to the pits, 
but laid level between the rails of the 24-in. track, which, 
to facilitate repairs, follows the entire circumference of the 
outer circle between the end of the pits and the outer wall. 

The cast iron smoke jacks used were made by Paul Dickinson, 
Incorporated, Chicago. The building is heated by a direct sys- 

fort of the employes while at the same time providing for the 
expeditious handling of the business of the department. 

The oil house provided is a two-story reenforced concrete 
structure with brick exterior walls above the second floor, but 
with concrete floors and roof, all windows being protected by 
heavy wrought iron shutters and the doors all tin-lined. The 



^5"kl6"x2Q' ,5-Ply gravel roof 

2" Plank /6Q# eoof load 

S-P/y gravel roof b0# Roof load 

"■ . '4"x'4"*/S' 





All steel to be covered 
with concrete 




■Boiler Washing Pipe I 
Air and dteam 

(bO 1 Pits with heating coils 


91' 2?" 610800 Total weight Mallet engine 

Section of Carbondale Roundhouse, D. & H. Co. 

tem with coils along the pits and walls, the mains being carried 
in the concrete conduit around the inner ends of the engine pits. 
The boiler washing system was installed by the National Boiler 
Washing Company, of Chicago, the mains of this system, to- 

building is surrounded by a platform on two sides and con- 
tains a very complete system for oil distribution furnished by 
Gilbert & Barker. 
Near the roundhouse is located the new power plant, which 

gether with the air pipes, being carried on supports suspended is housed in a concrete and brick structure approximately 66x 
from the steel roof girders, with drops at every other column. 90 feet in size, with roof of construction similar to the round- 

Inner Circle, Carbondale Roundhouse, D. & H. Co. 

The roundhouse is served by a ninety-foot, cone-roller center house, supported on steel girders. The boiler room at present 

turntable made by the American Bridge Company, and equipped contains 800 H. P. of Babcock and Wilson boilers, with foun- 

with a Nichols electric tractor. The turntable is mounted on dation space provided for double this capacity in the present 

a reenforced concrete foundation sunk to hardpan, and the pit building, while for future needs, ground space is reserved for 

is walled and paved with concrete. the extension of the entire building to the north. The boilers 



[January, 1912.] 

are served by a reenforced concrete chimney built by the Gen- 
eral Concrete Construction Co. The engine room adjoining 
the boiler room contains the air compressor and blower equip- 
ment, with an ample capacity traveling crane; while in the 
pump room below is installed the general pumping equipment 
and the tanks and equipment incident to the boiler washing 
system. All the floors in the power plant are of concrete or 
reenforced concrete. 

Fuel for the boilers is delivered to the bunkers at the power- 
house by gravity from hopper cars spotted on the trestle over 


There was a fellow got a hunch 

That he was strictly "It," 

Just to get even with his boss 

He quit. 

The boss he bore it wondrous well, 

He never wailed or moaned or swore; 
But said, "As you go out don't slam 
The door." 

Ash Pits Under Construction, Carbondale Terminal. 

the bunkers, and the ashes are handled by special equipment 
from the tunnel below the fireboxes to empty cars on this same 
elevated track. For coaling engines the new coaling tipple 
of large capacity is constructed of wood on concrete founda- 
tions, the light grade of the long trestle approach to the bins 
greatly facilitating the ease of placing cars over the bins. Spe- 
cial measuring pockets will be used for the coal. Sand stor- 
age bins with drying house will be reached by this same ele- 
vated track. 

The water supply and fire protection are afforded by the city 

The other boys about the place 

Did not go moping much that day. 
They laughed and said good-bye, and drew 
Their pay. 

He thought: "They do not realize 

That I have left them to their fate. 
So much the better; let them laugh; 
But wait!" 

And then he ambled down the street 

And confidently told the town: 
"Now, fellows, watch and see the boss 
Fall down." 

Somehow or other, things went on; 
The business did not go to smash; 
The boss went smiling as he grabbed 
The cash. 

And every day the fellow met 

Some friend who didn't know he'd quit, 
And didn't care, and wasn't sore 
A bit. 

It rather stunned him that the world 

Went booming on through day and night 
As -well as when he used to keep 
It right. 





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< J ' 

Construction View of Coaling Plant, 

The work was done by G. E. Scott, of Pittsburgh, Pa., under 
the supervision of V. Z. Caracris'i, consulting engineer for the 
Delaware & Hudson Company. 

The United Car Co., with offices in the Commercial Na- 
tional Bank building, Chicago, which has- recently been or- 
ganized, has purchased the entire plant and equipment of 
the American Car & Equipment Co., Chicago Heights, 111., 
including a large erecting shop, blacksmith shop, offices, etc. 
It will build and rebuild cars and handle railway supplies in 
general, making a specialty of steel underframes and tank 
cars. C. H. Thomas is president of the company. 

A railway supply salesman with ten (10) years' experience 
would like to represent manufacturers in Chicago and the 
West. References. Address W. C, care Railway List Co., 
431 So. Dearborn St., Chicago. 

Carbondale Terminal, D. & H. Co. 

Somehow there isn't any man 

For whom the whole creation squirms; 
And good men cluster round a job 
Like germs. 

And when you up and leave your place 

And think the whole blame works will quit, 
The joker hollers, "Tag, old man, 
You're it!" 

The world goes plugging, plodding on, 

As unconcerned as it can be; 
If you are mentioned some one asks, 
"Who's he?" 

— St. Paul Dispatch. 

[January, 1912.] 



By O. W. Middleton. 

The relation existing between employer and employee 
is one of the perplexing questions of the day which has 
grown in magnitude as our industries have developed in 
size. Strikes and labor difficulties are in a measure an in- 
direct effort on the part of employees to be reckoned with as 
men, not as mere units of work, and with the growing dis- 
tance which exists between an employer and his men, this 
becomes more and more difficult to do. One of the factors 
which has aggravated the labor question is that if by 
chance the employee is cast into the scrap heap by a bod- 
ily injury, he may expect little or nothing from his em- 
ployer and in the past this has been only too true. There- 
fore any plan which to a certain extent relieves the worker 
of an uncertainty which he knows he may meet and which 
he is all too poorly prepared to meet, should better the 
relations between him and his employer. 

During the past year or two much active interest has 
been taken in this country in the matter of employers' lia- 
bility and workmen's compensation and at the last session 
of Congress a joint resolution was passed authorizing the 
appointment of an Employers' Liability and Workmen's 
Compensation Commission to make an investigation of this 
subject and to submit a report to Congress through the 
President. This committee has been taking testimony since 
May of the past year and is composed of the following 
members: Senator George Sutherland, chairman; Senator 
George E. Chamberlain ; Representative William G. Brant- 
ley, Representative Reuben O. Moon; W. C. Brown, pres- 
ident of the New York Central; D. L. Cease, editor "The 
Railroad Trainman," and the secretary, Launcelot Packer. 
The railroads of the country have been represented before 
this committee, by a committee of twenty-one which has 
been chosen from the counsel of roads in all sections of 
the country. The recommendations of the federal committee 
will be mentioned later. 

The railroads of this country should be and are, we be- 
lieve, tremendously interested in accident prevention and 
workmen's compensation, for the proportion of accidents in 
this one industry is startling. It is a question which ap- 
peals especially to the operating and mechanical depart- 
ments because it is in these departments that the greater 
number of accidents occur. A comparison of the railway 
employees killed and injured in various countries, together 
with the ratio to the number employed is shown in Table 1. 






British India 











United Kingdom 
United States... 





















Number of 

employees to 

1 injured. 





Number of 

employees to 

1 killed. 






Number of 


69, 129 
119, 845 






Table I — Comparison of Casualties in Various Countries. 

These are five-year averages in each case except that of 
the United Kingdom, which is a fourteen-year average. It 
will be noted that in the United States one employee in 
■every 421 is killed, which shows a relative casuality record 
about three times as great as most countries and five 
times as great as Austria, where but one employee in 2,205 
is killed. During the year 1910 a more stringent law re- 

garding the reporting of accidents was passed and the report 
of the Interstate Commerce Commission for the year end- 
ing June 30, 1911, which is the first report under the new 
law, shows 3,602 employees killed and 126,039 injured. Over 
thirty-five hundred killed in one industry — that would make 
quite a fair-sized town — perhaps as large as the one you 
live in. Out of this number there were 439 killed and 79,239 
injured in "industrial" accidents in shops and elsewhere. 
Thus it will be seen that the proportion killed in shops is 
low, but it should also be remembered that dangers there 
are proportionally less. Not so with the injured, however, 
as about two-thirds of these are credited to the industrial 
—end, although it must be conceded that quite a number of 
these injuries are of a minor nature. But what about the 
man who is injured and disabled? He is temporarily or 
permanently thrown on the junk pile. He is given first aid 
and medical attendance but if he attempts to collect dam- 
ages, he has to settle for a small sum or fight it through 
the courts, and statistics show that in the latter event 
about 30 per cent of the money expended actually reaches 
the victim. There is an old story about a workman 
employed on building construction, who was injured in 
a fall. He was soon hustled into an ambulance, but not 
too soon for a contingent fee lawyer to be on the job and 
get authority to start a suit for damages for him. About 
four months later this lawyer called at the house and said: 
"Well, I won that suit and got an award of $1,500;" then 
he handed the man $500 and a receipt for $1,000. The work- 
man looked dissatisfied and surprised, whereupon the law- 
yer said, "Well, what's the matter, don't you think I won 
a good case?" "O, yes, you won a good case, all right, but 
I was just wondering which one of us fell off that building," 

The general plan carried out by industrial concerns at 
present, which have no other plan of compensation, is to 
insure themselves against damage suits in some casualty 
company making a specialty of this business. In case of 
an accident the employer furnishes first aid and then the case 
is turned over to the casualty company which endeavors to 
settle the claim for as small an amount as possible, or pre- 
pares to defend the damage suit. It is'a business proposi- 
tion with the casualty company to settle this case for the 
least amount of money possible; it has no scruples in threat- 
ening and browbeating the victim or his family to settle at its 
figure. If he carries it to court, the trained legal machinery 
of the company is brought against him and if he does get an 
award, it is less than a third of what the employer had 
expended for protection through the casualty company. The 
employee on his part, or his family if he is killed, knows 
that he is not dealing with his employer but with an agent 
which his employer has paid for protection, and he will 
deceive and get the best of this agent if it is possible. The 
employer regards it more or less as a business proposition to 
kill his men as cheaply as possible. So the employer and 
employee are pushed farther apart. 

The Employers' Liability Commission of Illinois recently 
made an investigation of over 5,000 accidents, 614 of which 
were fatal. The families of 214 of these victims received 
not a cent for the loss of the man who had supported them. 
Over a hundred suits were still pending in court, twenty- 
four cases had been settled in court, and 281 families settled 
with the employers. In the average amount received for 
death claims in the various occupations it is creditable to 
the railways that skilled railway employees stood first with 
about $1,000, while railway laborers were third with $617. 
But out of this must come lawyer fees and the remainder 
will not save a family from being wrecked in a short time, 
unless it is possible for the widow to find employment of 
some sort. One of the self-sustaining, self-respecting units 
of society has been broken up. Who pays the bill? Certain 
members of the community. This is the work that our in- 



[January, 1912.] 

creasing number of charitable organizations are doing in 
part; this is the work that our poorhouses are doing. The 
fact that certain members of a community must accept the 
support of charity is not tending towards democracy in this 
country and a better understanding between employer and 

As a general proposition the railways take care of the 
interests of their injured, and deceased employees in better 
shape than most industrial concerns. Notable among roads 
which have been doing this is the Pennsylvania, which has 
a mutual pension and relief fund, the administration and 
deficit of which is borne by the company. On the Pennsyl- 
vania proper, there was paid from the relief fund, during the 
month of June, 1911, $132,186. Of this amount, $43,301 was 
paid to families of members who died, and $88,885 to 
those incapacitated for work. The total amount paid out on 
the Lines West for the same period was $52,122. That the 
system is satisfactory, is indicated by the fact that a very large 
percentage of employees are members. Incidentally, it might 
be said, that the Pennsylvania is a leader among American 
railways ; its experimental work is of the most advanced kind 
and its employees are satisfied. 

Employers' liability and workmen's compensation are sim- 
ply two different angles of the same question, and the im- 
portant subject is the compensation of workmen. In con- 
nection with employers' liability two of the terms which 
have played important parts in legal discussions, are the 
"fellow servant" and "assumption of risk" doctrines. These 
features have made the law a protection to the employer 
only and are relics of the days, when the men at the head of 
a factory or shop were pioneers in the business. Briefly 
stated the "fellow servant" clause in law holds that the 
employer is not liable for damages, when an employee is 
killed or injured, as the result of negligence on the part of 
one of his fellow workmen. The "assumption of risk" doc- 
trine holds that inasmuch as a man is free to choose his 
occupation, he enters a certain field of employment at his 
own risk. There are industries in which a certain number 
of accidents are unpreventable, through the nature of the 
work, and therefore if he chooses to enter these occupations, 
because of a higher financial remuneration or for other 
reasons, he assumes the risk. That is, if a man loses an arm 
by getting it drawn into gearing, the employer's attitude 
is, "You knew that this might happen; therefore, it is not 
a thing in which I am responsible or concerned." These 
two defenses together with that of contributary negligence 
on the part of the employee have been taken from the em- 
ployer in practically all foreign countries, and the attitude 
now is that the employer in creating shops, locomotives and 
cars, has set a more or less dangerous force in motion, for 
which he is responsible. 

The United States is the last great country to take up 
this subject; it may be that this bears some relation to our 
high proportion of casualities. Practically all foreign coun- 
tries have abandoned the old employers' liability system and 
have adopted various forms of workmen's compensation, 
Germany and England being the two which have been most 
prominent in this connection. The Germans abolished em- 
ployers' liability laws, similar to ours, over twenty-five years 
ago and compulsory accident insurance and compensation is in 
the hands of associations of employers organized into groups, 
the group to which an employer belongs being determined 
by the amount of natural danger connected with his 
plant. In the accident feature the employer contributes 
83 per cent, the workers contribute 17 per cent, while the 
government contributes a sum which approximately pays the 
expense of administration. The fact that both sides inter- 
ested arc contributors has worked for better relations be- 
tween the employer and employee, and this in connection 
with an excellent system of shop inspection has worked to 

decrease the number of accidents. In the sickness feature 
which is also compulsory in this country, the employer and 
employee contribute equally. Of the total sum expended for 
insurance in Germany 77.7 per cent is paid as compensation, 
12.8 per cent is paid for administration, and 9.5 per cent goes 
into the reserve fund. This 77.7 per cent is more than double 
the amount which reaches the injured worker in this country 
where it will be remembered that only from 25 to 40 per 
cent of the money expended reaches him. The German sys- 
tem in case of death, pays a pension equal to 67 per cent 
of the yearly wage of the deceased and a pension of 67 per 
cent of the yearly wage in case of total disability, which is 
increased to 100 per cent if the regular aid and attendance 
of another person is required. 

The plan which has been in effect in England up to a re- 
cent date has been quite different from the German plan; 
that is its adoption was not compulsory and if the employer 
choose to come under its provision, he insured in private com- 
panies as before, although he might join with others in a 
mutual indemnity society. However, if he did not come under 
its provisions, the law took away all defenses from the em- 
ployer except that the accident was caused by wilful miscon- 
duct on the part of the employee. For death a sum equal to 
three years„wages is paid; for total and permanent disability, 
a pension equal to 50 per cent of the wage. On December 15 
just past, Parliament passed a compulsory sickness and 
unemployment insurance bill, which is even more advanced 
than that of Germany, inasmuch as it also provides un- 
employment insurance. Under its terms the employer 
contributes about 66 per cent, the worker 11 per cent, and 
the government contributes the remainder. Sickness allow- 
ances will be $2.50 a week for three months and $1.25 a 
week up to the end of six months. The compensation for 
permanent infirmity is $1.25 per week. The act covers all 
trades and businesses, and the workers' contributions are to 
be deducted from his wage. 

Insurance against unemployment applies only to the build- 
ing and engineering trades, which are most liable to flucta- 
tion. In this feature the employer and the worker contribute 
equally, and the benefits are $1.50 and $1.75 per week, but no 
payment is to be made in case of a strike. This insurance 
feature is an entirely new departure, and will be watched with 

Other European Countries have various forms of compul- 
sory accident insurance. Norway has a system of state in- 
surance in which under wise and careful management 
only about 11 per cent, is spent for its operation. This is 
the best example of state insurance in the world but even 
this ran short at one time. In Italy the employer has three 
options: a State fund, an insurance company, a mutual 
association or a private employers' fund. Sweden has option- 
al State insurance. Austria-Hungary has compulsory in- 
surance in associations of employers within prescribed dis- 
tricts, thus differing from the German plan which groups em- 
ployers according to their risks. France has a state insurance 
institute, with a capitalized reserve which competes with pri- 
vate companies. The employer is responsible to his employees 
for a certain sum but he may substitute State insurance or a 
recognized insurance upon payment of the premium. 

The following are the compensations paid in the above 
countries: Norway, for death, a pension of from 20 to 50 
per cent of the yearly wage; for total and permanent dis- 
ability a pension of 60 per cent. Italy, for death, a sum equal 
to five years' wages and for total and permanent disability a 
sum equal to six years' wages. Sweden, for death, a pension 
of from $32 to $80; for total and permanent disability, a pen- 
sion of $80.40. Austria-Hungary, for death, a pension of 
from 20 to 60 per cent of the yearly wage and for permanent 
and total disability a pension of 60 per cent of the yearly 
wage. France, for death, a pension of 20 to 60 per cent of the 

[January, 1912.] 



wage and for total and permanent disability a pension of 
67 per cent. In all these countries payment for partial dis- 
ability is in proportion to the payment for total disability, and 
various provisions are made for sickness insurance. 

In our own country a number of private corporations have 
worked out efficient schemes of compensation for their em- 
ployees and notable among these is the International Har- 
vester Co. The International Harvester Co. compensates 
for all injuries, waiving all defense the corporation had, 
provided the employee accepts the compensation. From the 
date of the accident the company pays 50 per cent of the 
average wages for a period not exceeding two years, and 
if the worker is permanently incapacitated he is paid a 
pension of 8 per cent of the death benefit. The maximum 
death benefit is $4,000 and therefore, the maximum pension 
is $320 per year. The men contribute but a very small 
amount to this fund, the maximum amount being 10 cents 
per month. The company claims that this system is costing 
it three or four times what it did under the old system of 
settle or take it to the courts. 

At present eleven states have adopted legislative measures 
on the subject of workmen's compensation, namely: — Cali- 
fornia, Illinois, Kansas, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New 
Jersey, New York, Nevada, Ohio, Wisconsin and Washing- 
ton. Maryland and Montana have compensation acts apply- 
ing to particular industries. Fourteen states have abolished 
the "fellow servant" rule and seven or eight have modified the 
other common law defenses of the employer. In only one 
of these states has compensation been made compulsory. 
This is in the state of Washington, and the supreme court 
of that state has declared the act constitutional. This law 
covers a large number of so-called hazardous employments, 
and when the worker is employed he waives the right to sue 
and is compelled to accept the compensation provided for. 
This compensation varies from $1,500 to $4,000 in case of 
death or total disability. Injuries are compensated at about 
60 per cent of the loss of wage which the employee sustains. 
The plan is a mutual one; the employer contributes 4 cents 
per workday to the first aid fund and he is also authorized 
to deduct 2 cents per workday from the wage of the em- 

New Jersey during the past year has passed an act, which 
gives the employer the option of coming under the provisions 
of the workmen's compensation features or if he does not 
so elect, practically all the usual defenses such as "assump- 
tion of risks" are removed. The compensation under the act 
is as follows: for temporary disability, 50 per cent of wages; 
for total and permanent disability, 50 per cent for 400 weeks; 
for death compensation depends on the number of actual de- 
pendents, the maximum being $10 per week for 300 weeks. 

New York legislation on this subject was declared un- 
constitutional during the spring of 1911. Under the New 
York act the injured workman had the right to choose the 
compensation system, or to take the matter to the courts. 
If he elected compensation, the employer had' no defenses and 
the compensation during disability was half wages for not more 
than eight years, and three years' wages for the dependents 
in case of death. 

Wisconsin has passed an act similar in many, ways to 
the New Jersey act, giving the employer the option of com- 
ing under the compensation provisions, but removing all de- 
fenses if he does not. The law provides for a compensation of 
65 per cent of the average wage in case of disability. Other 
state legislation has followed along similar general lines. 

The federal Employers' Liability and Workmen's Compensa- 
tion Commission has recommended a general plan of legisla- 
tion to the present Congress along these lines : 

"The law to provide for payment of compensation by in- 
terstate carriers engaged in interstate commerce to employees 
sustaining injury by accident while engaged in such com- 

merce, except in cases of wilful misconduct to be hereafter 

"The compensation to be paid by the employer directly, 
and not out of a general fund created by any form of taxa- 

"That the law shall be in form compulsory, and not subject 
to election by either employer or employee. 

"The remedy provided by such law to be exclusive of any 
common-law or other statutory remedy. 

"To apply to all accidents resulting to the employee while 
in the course of his employment, except those where the 
disability continues for a period of two weeks or less, the 
employer, however, to furnish medical and surgical assistance 
to an amount not exceeding $200. 

"The amount of all payments to be based upon a percent- 
age of the wages received by the injured employee, at the 
time of his injury. Payments of compensation to be made 
under the law shall be made periodically, and not in lump 
sums, with however, appropriate provision for commutation 
at any time after a lapse of six months upon application to 
either party. 

"The amount of payments to be limited to a minimum and 
maximum sum, and not to continue beyond a specified term 
of years, to be hereafter fixed. The question as to whether 
or not this limitation shall apply to permanent total dis- 
ability is left open. 

"All claims arising under the law shall be nonassignable 
and exempt from levy. 

"In case of death, payments to be made to dependants, 
including alien dependents. 

"All claims under the law to be made preferred lien. 

"Whenever any railway company and its employees have 
agreed or shall hereafter agree upon a plan of compensation 
which is as favorable to the employees as the provisions of 
this law, such plan may be substituted for the law, provided 
that wherever in any such plan the employees contribute 
to the compensation fund the plan shall contain beneficial 
provisions, in addition to the schedule of payments, equiva- 
lent to such contribution." 

The question of administration features of the law has been 
left open to future determination, and it will be seen that 
only the very general features of the law, have been decided 

There has been much discussion indulged in by the legal 
profession, regarding the constitutionality of employers' 
liability and workmen's compensation legislation and the 
basis of the decision of the courts which declared the New 
VTork act unconstitutional, rested on that amendment of the 
constitution which says "No person shall be deprived 
of life, liberty, or property without due process of 
law." The view is held that in contributing to the com- 
pensation of workmen injured, without regard to cause, the 
employer is thus deprived of a certain amount of property 
without due process of law. Others hold the view that such 
legislation is in accord with the spirit of the constitution, 
which is given us "to establish justice, insure domestic tran- 
quility and promote the general welfare." The discussion 
of this phase of the question is a legal one, and will not be 
gone into here. However, it is probable that legislation of 
this character if carefully and wisely framed, will be upheld. 

An attempt has been made in the foregoing to give a brief 
outline of the features of this question together with a 
sketch of what has been done up to the present, in our own 
and other countries. Workmen's compensation generally has 
proved successful in European countries, and has resulted 
in greater efficiency for the nation. Statistics collected over 
a term of ten years in Germany, show that there has been 
a decrease in accidents causing death, total permanent dis- 
ability and partial permanent disability, and this is in a large 
measure due to the interest in safety by both employer and 



[January, 1912.] 

employee which has been brought about by the mutual plan 
of compensation. On the other hand, there has been a no- 
table increase in the number of minor accidents, resulting in 
disability lasting a few weeks. This is due to the efficient 
manner in which accidents are reported. It is true that it 
is better not have the accident than to have to compensate 
for it. However, a certain number of accidents are unavoid- 
able, and a system which makes compensation compulsory and 
an item in the cost of production is certain to result in 
greater care and a decrease in the number of accidents. Of 
course, the expense to which the employer is put for com- 
pensation means an increased cost of production, and that 
a slightly higher price must be charged for the product. 
Thus it will be seen, that workmen's compensation means a 
more even distribution of the cost of human wreckage on 
the community as a whole. 

If federal legislation is enacted, and it seems certain that 
it will come sooner or later, most railroads will have to 
meet the increased expense with an increase in rates, and it 
is reasonable to suppose that these will be granted. It will 
also be noted that the recommendations of the present com- 
mission state that any road which agrees upon a plan of 
compensation as favorable to its employees as the contem- 
plated plan, shall be allowed to substitute it for the law 
Large roads and corporations can efficiently handle a private 
plan of compensation, if they wish, but the small manu- 
facturer or railroad, cannot carry out such a plan on account 
of the large reserve necessary. At present, several successive 
and heavy damage suits could easily bankrupt some concerns 
and if the proposed legislation results in the combination of 
employers into groups, it should give greater security to each. 

The laws which some of our states have enacted on the 
subject are good, but we are in need of national legislation 
in order to securer greater uniformity and that all states may 
have equal advantages. For instance, the rates charged by 
casualty companies in New Jersey to employers, are now 
many times higher than they were before the passage of 
the New Jersey law, because a greater protection must be 
guaranteed. Therefore, the employer might find it to his 
advantage to move over into Pennsylvania, where there is 
no compensation law and where consequently insurance rates 
are much lower. The New Jersey law has not done away 
with the system of private insurance, a thing highly to be 
desired for efficient compensation. 

A system of insurance, which consists of contributions 
by the employer and employee, administered by the s-tate 
seems preferable to the system whereby the state issues the 
insurance after the manner of the private company. It 
does not seem that insurance issued by the state would be 
feasible, one reason being a tendency of powerful forces to 
drag it into politics. Then, too, it detracts from the interest 
of the employer in the safety of his plant, as he knows that 
his premiums are already fixed. Furthermore, it is very pre- 
carious business for the state to engage in unless it has at 
its command all the knowledge of private companies, for this 
insurance is a much more complicated problem than life or 
fire insurance, as claims for damages may arise years after 
an accident, and it is much harder to classify the risk. The 
German plan of banding the industries into groups and hav- 
ing both parties pay into a common fund, administered by the 
state, is the one being largely adopted today. 

Optional insurance, where the employer has the choice of 
conforming to the provisions of a compensation act, or re- 
sorting to the regular method of the courts, is not likely 
to prove as satisfactory as compulsory insurance, which is 
recommended by the federal commission. The very fact 
that it would allow one of two paths to be taken, would force 
the employer to be prepared to defend both roads, and it is 
probable that he would choose to defend that which would 
result in the least expense to him. Furthermore, it would 

still continue to throw a large number of damage suits into 
the courts, and one of the things claimed for practical com- 
pensation is that it will relieve congestion of the courts and the 
expense which damage suits are at present causing. However, 
certain state legislation at present' enacted though optional in 
form is practically compulsory. For instance, in Wisconsin the 
usual defenses are removed for the employer, who does not 
elect the compensation feature and so the International 
Harvester Co. has decided to come under the compensation 
feature and to drop their own private plan of compensation 
in this state. When an employee is hired there, unless he 
otherwise states, he agrees to accept compensation in ac- 
cordance with the state regulations. If he does not so agree, 
the company will probably find him an "undesirable" em- 

This subject contains many problems which will take 
some time to work out satisfactorily, and even then they 
must be adjusted to suit the change in conditions. Although 
there are various plans, and theories covering it we believe 
that the only practical plan for workmen's compensation will 
be that one which brings the employers together, and which 
also, brings employer and employee into mutual cooperation 
to prevent and provide for losses in human efficiency. 


That the single-phase system is inherently fitted for elec' 
trie railways is well illustrated by some experiences that the 
Spokane and Inland Empire R. R., which operates a 11,000- 

S. & I. E. Single Phase Train After Riding Out Storm. 

volt, single-phase line in the state of Washington, has had 
during the last two years. 

It has been found that during the winter when the steam 
trains, operating on routes paralleling that of the single- 
phase, are unable to get through without considerable de- 
lay, single-phase trains hold very closely to their schedules. 
The principal reason for this is that on a single-phase road 
the voltage is so high that it holds up to almost normal 
even when the motors on the locomotives or cars are draw- 
ing very heavy currents. Upon an ordinary 600 volt road 
when the car must "buck" snow, the current consumption 
is so great that the line voltages usually drop to a value 
too low for effective operation. On a steam road the ability 
of a steam locomotive to haul loads is actually reduced in 
cold weather because of the greater losses of heat from the 

[January, 1912.] 



locomotive. The reverse is true with an electric locomotive 
because in cold weather the motors are maintained at a 
much lower temperature than in warm weather, hence their 
ratings are increased. 

As indicated In the illustration the only plough used on 
the Spokane and Inland trains was one of the usual shield 
type mounted on the pilot. This has proven to be entirely 
effectual in keeping the line clear enough of snow for sat- 
isfactory single-phase operation. 

The winter of 1909 and 1910 was one of the most severe 
ever experienced in that vicinity. The Spokane and Inland 
was said to be the only local road that maintained its regu- 
lar scheduled service through this trying winter. At no time 
during the worst storms were its trains more than 20 minutes 
behind its schedule. This excellent showing was maintained 
even when there was a foot or more of snow on. the ground 
and six to ten feet of it in cuts. 

The illustration shows a train just after arriving in Spo- 
kane 20 minutes late after riding through a storm that com- 
pletely tied up the steam roads in the vicinity. The Spo- 
kane and Inland Empire motor car shown in the illustration 
is equipped with four No. 132 Westinghouse single-phase mo- 
tors and Westinghouse HB control. 

By F. B. Farmer. 

While having in mind the ideal of 100 per cent of brake 
efficiency at all times, I recognize that we can never attain 
it, and also that the average is far less, that the percentage 
varies greatly between various railways, but that we can 
now consistently ask for a general improvement, especially 
as the roads with the lower efficiency come . nearer to those 
with the higher. 

Our major and controlling limitation is the dollar. Rail- 
ways are built and run for profit and the measure of gain 
attained is mainly dependent on the safe, expeditious and 
economical transportation of freight and passengers. With- 
out safety, wrecks, loss of life and minor damages increase; 
without expedition, a relative term, the business goes to 
other roads, for "Time is Money"; and without safety and 
comparative expedition there cannot be economical transpor- 
tation. All else being the same, the relative degree of safety 
is manifestly measured by the comparative efficiency of 
the brakes. Expedition cannot mean higher speeds, as that 
implies less safety and higher cost per ton and per pas- 
senger mile: Hence, it is obviously dependent, in the 
practical sense, on avoidance of unnecessary delays. True 
economy, then, is in spending no more in either dollars 
or time than necessary to obtain a relatively high, safe and 
expeditious movement of traffic, but to spend that much. 
The problem is to determine what these expenditures of 
time and money should be and how to make every dollar 
spent, and each hour consumed, go as far as possible. It 
is the writer's desire to contribute a little toward this end. 
Freight brakes only will be considered. 

As faults cannot be remedied until located, the first requi- 
site towards repairs is to locate the defective brakes. The 
next is to so mark the cars as to insure the earliest prac- 
ticable repairs. While the use of the air brake defect card 
by train-men can help much, yet experience shows that 
we must depend mainly on the car men, including those in 
car shops and on repair tracks as well as yard inspectors. 

As we seek efficient train brakes and as the standard set 
by law is based on the train, it is obvious that terminal 
brake tests of trains must be made. Stated differently, the 
requirements could not be met by confining inspecting, test- 
ing and repairing to shops and repair tracks. 

Consideration of overtime and the sixteen-hour law, as 

*From a paper read before the Western Ry Club. 

well as expeditious train movement, demands the minimum 
lapse of time between that for which the crew is called 
and that when the train departs. Hence, a train prepared 
for departure should require no more brake work after the 
engine is coupled than, at the most, stopping a few leaks 
in hose couplings and making the formal test. But often 
today there are greater delays due to making other repairs, 
or the train proceeds with less efficient brakes than it 
should have. 

To avoid this, the repairs required must be determined 
with arriving trains. The incoming engineer should add 
to the reduction required for stopping enough. to fully apply 
the brakes, and the brakeman should await his advice that 
this has been done before cutting off the engine. Car in- 
spectors should be present to make an immediate examina- 
tion and to bad order all defective brakes. Such repairs 
as ordinary brake pipe leaks, defective hose and wrong pis- 
ton travel, those requiring little time, should next be made, 
but cars requiring heavy brake repairs should be marked 
for the repair tracks. 

Here is where judgment must be exercised, as perishable 
or other very important loads as well as empties needed 
at once for such lading, must not be delayed. Neither 
should other less important cars be held in numbers far 
greater than the local force can repair in a day if such 
force is as great as the regular amount of work, including 
such repairs, would keep busy. The car foreman and the 
yard master should consult to adjust the foregoing, but 
whemthe former removes bad order marks without repairs 
having been made, he should fill out and apply an air 
brake defect card to better insure prompt repairs at the 
earliest practicable date. 

However, it does not follow that the repairing of defect- 
ive brakes cannot be done without delay to cars which 
should go forward promptly. The Minneapolis, St. Paul 
& Sault Ste. Marie has largely solved this problem at an 
important terminal yard by assigning a short track in the 
yard for air brake repairs to such cars. With a few men 
and needed repair materials, such cars received in trans- 
fers are often ready for the first train out, are never actual- 
ly delayed, and few of such are allowed to go forward with- 
out repairs. This is but one detail of a very comprehensive 
scheme of improvement in freight brake maintenance ef- 
fected by this road, and it is hoped that their C. P. McGin- 
nis, general air brake inspector, will contribute the valuable 
information which he can regarding this and other details 
coming under the subject of this paper. 

As one repair point on a large system cannot maintain 
all freight car brakes, it is obvious that each terminal, with 
needed facilities, should do its share, but this does not 
mean that other than the outgoing test should be made on 
through trains at the points with small facilities. A brake 
well repaired will go for a long period without becoming 
defective, but the too common failure to do so, is due to 
inadequate repairs. To reduce the cost of brake cleaning 
by leaving cylinders and auxiliary reservoirs loose on the 
car is to insure leaky pipes. The same result follows if 
the brake pipe and retaining valve pipe are not well secured. 
That most serious fault, brake cylinder leakage, will devel- 
op sooner than it should, sometimes immediately after the 
cleaning, unless a suitable lubricant is employed and pack- 
ing leathers are replaced when a good inspection and a 
careful test would show that they should be. The practice 
often followed of cleaning and testing triple valves on the 
cars cannot insure good work. Neither is it common prac- 
tice to test hose with soap sups while under maximum 
pressure and remove those found porous, or to examine 
the retaining valve weight and clean the case and small 
vent port. Until these and other details are given better 
attention in shops and on repair tracks, it will not be 



[January, 1912.] 

possible to effect the economy in time and money in ter- 
minal brake testing and the consequent repairs that will 
otherwise follow. 

The M. C. B. requirement that cars in interchange must 
have retaining valves should imply the maintenance of this 
part and its pipe by the owning road. It is not sufficient 
to say that the mountain road may make needed repairs at 
the owner's expense as this means undue delay to traffic. 
However, inspections show that the average efficiency of 
brakes is otherwise much lower on the cars of level grade 
roads, a condition for which there is no warrant as that 
of the average mountain grade road is enough below 100 per 
cent efficiency to justify making it the minimum. 

That the regular terminal test of freight train brakes 
misses many of the defects which nullify the object sought 
in attaching air brakes, is conclusively demonstrated by 
the following: Within a few months competent parties 
made this test on several freight trains at the summit of 
a mountain grade, following a similar test by regular inspec- 
tors at the preceding division terminal, and out of which 
trains bound down this grade were supposed to leave with 
100 per cent efficient brakes, based on such test. The test 
consisted of charging to 70 lbs., making a service reduction 
of 20 lbs. and rapidly examining for any brakes failing to 
apply or leaking off and incorrect piston travel. To show 
conclusively the oversights of the ordinary terminal brake 
test the infallible thermal brake test was made on each 
train at the foot of the grade. The customary plan was ' 
there followed of considering three cars with "warm" 
wheels equal to one with "normal" wheels; that is with a 
good brake. In addition to showing the results in per- 
centage, they are given in "Tons per Good Brake," de- 
rived by dividing the train tonnage by the nuaaber of good 

The first train given was a test train and had 2,501 tons. 
The other six were regular trains and ran from 2,252 to 
2,367 tons, averaging 2,286 tons. Each train had a consid- 
erable percentage of foreign cars. No tests of or repairs 
to retaining valves were made: 

Per Cent Good Tons per Good 

Brakes by Test Brake by Test Cars per 

Standing Thermal Standing Thermal Train 

97.7 68.8 42.6 59.5 61 

91.0 75.0 45.0 54.6 56 
100.0 60.0 40.7 67.6 -58 

98.1 53.7 42.5 77.6 54 
98.1 52.8 43.8 81.5 53 
96.4 # 53.5 41.7 75.0 56 
88.9 67.2 46.2 61.2 55 

The big returns from good brakes are mainly concealed, 
consisting, of the more expeditious train movement they 
make possible and the avoidance of accidents, neither of 
which can ordinarily be shown in dollars and cents. Their 
observable expenses, consisting of initial cost, maintenance, 
flat and cracked wheels and delays to cars and trains for 
brake testing and repairs, are so readily seen and tabulated 
as to generally render even more obscure their great but 
intangible credit account. The pressing need is for a more 
accurate and practical appreciation of the facts, that good 
brake maintenance is economy and for better directed ef- 
forts toward improved brake maintenance with a mini- 
mum increase in time and money spent. In this the active- 
co-operation of the yardmaster and the superintendent will 
aid greatly. Too often their efforts are directed toward 
showing why trains cannot be held or switching done for 
brake work, rather than how to acomplish the desired re- 
sults with the least delay or additonal switching. 
Air Brake Test Plants. 

While there is no question concerning the imperative 

need of available air pressure in car shops and on repair 
tracks, it is debatable as to whether it pays to pipe 
yards. I believe that usually it does not. If locomotives, 
have insufficient air , compressor capacity to charge their 
trains without material delay, they are not prepared to 
handle the trains safely, economically and expeditiously 
between terminals. Following the plan of a brake test on 
incoming trains, as described, and the subsequent disposition 
of cars with defective brakes, will leave little need for a 
yard air test plant. The only safe or available time for 
inspectors to work on cars in yards is for a limited period 
after the arrival of trains and again following attachment 
of the outgoing locomotive. My observations show few 
exceptions to the foregoing. 

A grave evil with many air brake test plants is the exces- 
sive amount of moisture. The ground cocks in their piping 
are commonly referred to as "hydrants." This should be 
a misnomer as it means a cock for controlling the flow of 
water, but it is too often quite applicable. As a brake 
pipe obstructed by ice is even more dangerous than an 
accidentally or maliciously closed angle cock (the former 
cannot be seen), it is enough to say that water in test plant 
pipes may bring about frozen brake pipes. Triple valve 
and brake cylinder leakage from ice are other evils which 
follow. Also moisture causes corrosion of brake pipes and 
the rust clogs strainers and feed grooves and drys up the 
lubrication in triple valves and brake cylinders.. 

The cause of water in air testing piping is the result of 
insufficient cooling of the air between the compressor and 
the storage reservoirs, often magnified by inadequate num- 
ber and location of such reservoirs. It is many years since 
the Air Brake Association investigated the same fault with 
locomotives and though the difficulties in the way of ob- 
taining dry air for the brakes is there incomparably greater, 
it was solved satisfactorily. However, it should be said in pass- 
ing that many locomotives, even new ones, are not properly 
equipped and are a source of similar damage and danger. 
Inquiry of men using air test plants will soon disclose 
whether they furnish dry air, whether opening a cock will 
show visible moisture or moisten a surface against which 
the air is directed. If so, it is obvious that the remedy 
should be applied promptly. I venture the assertion that 
in comparatively few cases is dry air, free from visible mois- 
ture, available. 

In seeking means for testing and repairing air brakes 
without loss of time in transit, extra switching or danger 
to workmen, the possibilities of the freight house tracks 
should always be investigated. Where the number of cars 
per day is considerable there is no doubt that the tracks 
should be supplied with compressed air and full advantage 
taken of this excellent opportunity for locating and remedy- 
ing air brake defects. 

In line with this idea of conserving time and switching, 
it is recommended that all cars in shops or on repair tracks, 
and having cleaning dates over nine months old, should 
have their brakes cleaned and lubricated. Not only will 
the condition of the triple valves and brake cylinders fully 
warrant doing this work then, but it is improbable that 
such cars will again be so favorably located for many months, 
without causing delay and switching. 

This paper does not pretend to cover the subject ex- 
haustively, but merely to point out broadly that brake main- 
tenance is much less efficient than it should and can be, 
the important bearing that terminal brake testing has on it, 
and some of the practical ways in which a very considera- 
ble improvement can be effected and generally with the ex- 
penditure of less money and time than now often follows 
as the result of inadequate installation of, and superficial 
repairs to, air brake apapratus and, as well, misdirected and 
conflicting efforts in its maintenance and traffic movement. 

[January, 1912.] 



AShop ?CinK>s 

^'An item <^bod enough to publish is *£ood enough to pay for 


By R. J. McGrail. 

(Continued from December Issue.) 
Figure 20 is a hydraulic bolt starter. This is a very useful 
tool in places where space is limited. The operation of 
this tool is quite clear from the drawing. It can be readily 

Fig. 20 — Hydraulic Bolt Starter. 

seen that when the screw is forced in upon the oil that a 
great pressure is easily exerted on the plunger, forcing it 
against the bolt. 

Figure 21 is a tool for clamping steel tires to a boring mill. 
It is very simple in construction. The clamping device con- 
sists of a toothed jaw in which operates a cam which is 
forced in or out by a socket wrench. 

Figure 22 shows a device for screwing the flexible staybolts 
into the firebox and also a device for holding on while rivet- 
ing on the inside of firebox. These tools are shown in detail 
and are self explanatory. 

Figure 23 shows a tool for planing the babbitt in crosshead 

Fig. 21 — Jig for Tire Boring. 

slippers which makes an effective and time-saving tool, the 
metal being taken off with two or three strokes of the planer. 
Figure 24, shows a tool for planing the babbitt out of 
truck brasses. It will be seen that the disc are made the 
same diameter as the axle and when worn can be turned 
around to a new cutting edge. This is a great time-saver 
where a lot of brasses are used. 

Figure 25 shows an ideal erecting shop tool cupboard. 
Wrenches of all sizes are hung on two sides of cupboard. 
The enclosure with door on each end will be found a con- 
venient place for air hose, air motors, long wrenches and 

T2pped for ■,., f t _,. a! * * 

'/z "Se> 'Scren '*-f^rJf : >\ 

J f : 


jltYjIijj i IlinLi'iY' 




,/ Machine Steel 


Machine Steel 

~ rv rMiiiiiiiiiiinr^M 



Fig. 22 — Staybolt Devices. 

pinch bars. The drawers are petitioned off and are intended 
to contain split cotters, small bolts and nuts, rough and 
finished, of all sizes. The small shelf on top is used for 
oil cans, torches, etc. 

Figure 26 shows a complete washout plug equipment. The 
taps are spaced in consecutive numbers and the long taps 
are for general use. The shorter ones are used when not 

-2» » 


v ,--t-i 








'■Top/ dteel 


Fig. 23 — Tool for Planing Babbitted Cross Heads. 

convenient to use long ones in case of obstructions. Each 
number on gauge plate corresponds with tap. The plugs 
have cast numbers and when finished are kept in numbered 



[January, 1912.] 

cupboard. The turning and threading tools are used in 
Fox lathe and only one cut is necessary with each. The 
plugs are gripped by either pneumatic or universal chuck and 
do not require centering. The caliper is graduated to neces- 
sary sizes and when lathe man finds stock of any size plugs 
getting low he merely sets caliper to required number and 














tiiiWrpS! li 


Tool Steel - 

Discs /o Suit -* 
Radius of Brass 




Fig. 24 — Tool for Planing Truck Brasses. 

after sizing first plug locks lathe carriage and turns and 
threads any number necessary. With this arrangement from 
40 to 60 plugs can be finished per hour. 

The rank of each man in the crowd depends on two things: 

What he has in himself to sell, and 

How good a salesman he is. 

For, after all, power to do a certain thing, no matter how 
well, doesn't count for much Uxiless it is joined with the abil- 
ity to find out what that thing is, where the market for it 
is, and then is joined with the ability to trade it off to good 
advantage, and once sold, to continually show that power to 
good advantage. — Power. 

By George J. Burns. 

The development of the modern locomotive has in many 
instances been accomplished by transgressing scientific rules 
and disregarding the mandates of accepted knowledge. Dog- 
matic instructions are often limiting. Unlike the human 
anatomy, the bones, muscles, arteries and nerves of a loco- 
motive are not of the same structure in two classes of loco- 
motives. Conditions and requirements are constantly chang- 
ing. The railroad surgeon is a developer and a creator, con- 
stantly confronted by new conditions and called upon to 
solve problems on which past experience cast but little light 
and afforded but little guidance. 

At the risk of seeming elementary, I desire to clear away 
some of the rubbish of what seems to be a popular miscon- 
ception of railroad machine-shop work in order to get a basis 
on which to found future arguments. 

1. — Scientific management, unless the term is a misnomer, 
means practices founded upon "accumulated and accepted 
knowledge which has been systematized and formulated with 
reference to the discovery of general truths or the operation 
of general laws" (Webster). Ascertaining fundamental 
truths by trials and through observations and experiments is 
exploitation and discovery. It leads to, but is not, science. 
In a railroad shop there will always be many unsolved prob- 
lems. It is more frequently a question of what should be 

E-5"t | 

Fig. 25 — Tool Cupboard. 

done than how to do it. There was no scientific management 
in brick laying or in gravel shoveling until the results were 
ascertained, and methods were analyzed and systematized 
through practice. It was found that the same proportion 
twenty-pouhd-capacity shovel would not answer for both 
oats and gravel. 

Railroads are constantly and diligently seeking the best- 
There are probably more scientific methods in operation in 
railroad machine shops than in any other department of in- 
dustrial effort. Proper care of belts is an item, the impor- 
tance of which I would not belittle. Proper arrangement and 
organization of shop, modern equipment, correct grinding 
of tools, and the best speeds and feeds, are important de- 
tails that railroad mechanics study and appreciate, but their 
adoption still leaves many problems within the realm of ex- 
periment to be solved by the men who are in practical, con- 
stant, observing, intimate and responsible contact with the 
conditions and requirements. The mechanical departments- 
of the railroads have hard-working, diligent associations of 
experienced men and trained observers who meet in conven- 
tion for the consideration and discussion of all problems 

Fig. 26 — Washout Plug Equipment. 

*From an article in the Engineering Magazine. 

[January, 1912.] 



involved in their work. What light could a man not trained 
by practical experience shed upon the problem of reducing 
the breaking of locomotive frames, discussed at the last con- 
vention of the American Railway Master Mechanics' Asso- 
ciation? There is no accepted knowledge until the most suc- 
cessful results have been demonstrated. The ability and op- 
portunity to ascertain are inside, not outside, the railroad 
shops. The system I advocate seeks to aggregate the best 
results by collecting and tabulating observation and experi- 
ence and weighing the value of such by comparison. Nor, in 
my opinion, would a Co-operative Efficiency Experiment 
Station, along the lines suggested by Mr. Franklin, be of 
sufficient value to justify its maintenance. An agricultural 
experiment station is not a parallel. Railroad efficiency must 
be developed, not in a laboratory, but in actual, practical, 
observed, real service. There is no royal or theoretical road 
to railroad efficiency. In the present railroad mechanics is 
the greatest staff of trained experts in the world. Every 
railroad is and must always remain an experiment station. 
My contention is that there should be a medium of co-op- 
eration through which the results and methods of each may 
be measured and compared, to the end that all may benefit 
by the best achievements of each. Possibly the advocates of 
scientific management may contend that I am demonstrat- 
ing their contention. I contend that while my investigations 
tend toward and aid in acquiring scientific knowledge, they 
do not constitute scientific management. 

2. — Scientific management presupposes standards. There 
is no common standard by which the relative efficiency of a 
railroad machine shop as a unit may be measured and com- 
pared. Cost of repairs per locomotive furnishes no basis. 
The most commonly accepted standard cost of repairs per 
train mile means but little more. The best measure I have 
observed is the cost of repairs per 1,000-ton-miles. All such 
costs are so involved and complicated by carrying shop condi- 
tions that they are of but little value as a basis of com- 
parison, even for measuring the relative efficiency of the 
same shop from time to time. 

Nor can efficiency be justly measured by comparing the 
cost of the same job in different shops. During the recent 
rate hearing the Interstate Commerce Commission asked 
various roads to furnish their costs on certain specified jobs. 
Writers whose articles disclosed an entire lack of compre- 
hension attempted to construct from these reports compara- 
tive tables showing the relative efficiency of different shops. 
I took the matter up with the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission and pointed out some obvious features that made 
such figures untrustworthy and unreliable. Similar articles 
have from time to time been published, based on tabulations 
in the Annual Report of the Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion. For reasons I shall herein attempt to show by prac- 
tical illustrations, such comparisons furnished only mis- 
leading light. 

3. — Someone has defined a railroad as an industrial enter- 
prise manufacturing and selling transportation. The served 
public and the investing public are immediately and directly 
interested in the cost of that product. The aggregate value 
and cost of transportation is the controlling factor in rail- 
road administration. Locomotive maintenance, while large 
in the aggregate, is subordinate and relatively unimportant. 

In other words, railroads are not managed on the basis 
of their machine-shop efficiency. In the ordinary manufac- 
turing enterprises the shop is the producing organization 
and is located with reference to the cost and quality of its 
product. The railroad machine shop must adapt itself to the 
practices and constantly changing conditions that serve the 
main purpose of transportation. How rapid and radical these 
adaptations have been will be appreciated by comparing a 
locomotive of today with one of but ten years ago. Some 
one has said that the marvelous development of the Ameri- 

can railway locomotive is due to the fact that the Yankee 
appreciates the value of the scrap heap. 

4.— Wage rates and the varying degree of skill of opera- 
tives and legislative regulations and requirements in different 
sections complicate the problem of a fair and intelligent com- 
parison on the basis of shop costs. In my studies I aim to- 
get one step nearer an intelligent comparison of efficiency by 
measuring costs, not in dollars and cents, but in hours and. 

A railroad machine shop is not and cannot be a manu- 
facturing proposition in the strict acceptance of the term. 
Its organization on the scientific basis of the best productive- 
efficiency is impossible. Shop systems must be subordinate 
to keeping the locomotives in service by reducing the time 
they are in the shop. If a reduction of shop costs would be 
more than offset by the loss of the engine from service, it 
must be sacrificed. Such a condition necessitates constantly 
shifting over of operators from one job or process to an- 
other. Every one at all familiar with shop management ap- 
preciates that such changes frequently take more time and 
cost more money than to do the actual work. Costs of loco- 
motive repairs per train-mile could be greatly reduced if 
road service could be subordinate to the shop. 

5- — The nature of the country in which the railroad op- 
erates, its climate, the character and quality of its fuel and 
water supply, grades and curvature, the weight of the loco- 
motives and the rolling stock, and the nature of the traffic, 
all have important and complicated bearing upon the cost 
of locomotive maintenance. A road showing the highest cost 
per train-mile may be conducting its shops with the greatest 

6. — The size, age, and character of the shop, and the na- 
ture of its equipment, though perhaps of highest efficiency 
when the shop was new, vary so greatly with age, and espe- 
cially with the rapidly increasing size and weight of loco- 
motives, that the relative efficiency of their operation can- 
not be reliably measured. A large shop handling more loco- 
motives, or a system that permits the concentration of a con- 
siderable portion of its work, can approach nearer to a basis 
of perfect organized manufacturing. Special tools might dis- 
proportionately increase the overhead burden and even in- 
crease direct productive cost in a small shop. The advan- 
tage of modern tools is conceded, but in discarding older 
tools discretion must be exercised lest the necessary charge- 
off increase shop costs to a greater extent than could be 
offset by the increased efficiency of the modern tools. A re- 
duction in the number of types of locomotives of course- 
would reduce the direct cost of repairs, but in many cases, 
it would involve and in some cases it has involved a sacri- 
fice that it will take a long time for increased shop efficiency 
to offset. 

7. — The overhead burden is in proportion to production. 
Therefore a small shop, just as scientifically managed and: 
working on precisely the same character of repairs, will 
show a greater cost per locomotive and per train mile. 

8. — The railroads have no common system of bookkeep- 
ing by which costs can be accurately compared. Overhead 
is sometimes ascertained monthly and sometimes fixed ar- 
bitrarily. I have seen it computed all the way from 15 to 
61 per cent. 

9. — Labor unions are opposed to scientific management, to 
piece work, to bonus, and to efficiency systems. For the 
purpose of this discussion it is not necessary to pass upon 
the merits, the justice, or the wisdom of such opposition 
further than to consider it as a factor that controls shop 
methods to a greater or less extent. Labor unions are bet- 
ter organized in the railroad shop than in any other class 
of shops. Strikes and lockouts are distasteful to the railroads, 
which are quasi-public corporations and are always up against 



[January, 1912.] 

public sentiment. The general public, regarding its own im- 
mediate interests and conveniences, is apt to be impatient 
with the railroads when misunderstandings or contentions 
with their employes reach a stage that interferes with traffic. 
As this article is being prepared, a great strike is in progress 
involving economic principles of management that the rail- 
road officers contend would hamper them in their effort to 
secure results that they desire and the public demands. 
Practical Illustrations of Railroad Machine-Shop Work Prov- 
ing the Foregoing Contentions. 
I have said that it is more often a problem of what to do 
than how to do it. I have so far observed over one hundred 
and twenty variations of the ten or twelve processes in ma- 
chining a driving box. The problem is to ascertain the best, 
measured by cost in the shop and service on the road. 
Facing Driving Boxes. 
On what class of machine, too, can it be done to the best 
advantage? I have observed it on lathes, planers, horizontal 
and vertical mills and shapers. 

The horizontal mill gives the best results in actual service 
in point of time. I have, however, recently seen a planer 
demonstration under experienced direction on a test job that 
surpassed the best results obtained on a milling machine. 
The horizontal mill is of limited range, the most expensive 
machine in point of first cost, and in upkeep of tools. Its 
productive efficiency over a modern planer is limited to the 
once-across operation. If the resulting strain following the 
first machining is such as to require a second cut, the mill- 
ing machine is at a disadvantage. Horizontal milling ma- 
chines of the character required to do efficient driving-box 
work are in the nature of special tools, and are too expensive 
and of too limited use to be economical in any but a large 
shop. In a relatively small number of shops, driving boxes 
are faced on boring mills. If the recess in the face of the 
box is to be cut out of the solid, it seems to be good prac- 
tice to face the hub side at the same setting at which the 
recess is cut. 

A comparison of the time of facing driving boxes on the 
same classes of machines shows a wide range in the time 
of doing the work, due partly but not wholly to differences 
in methods and practices; for instance: 

1. — Some shops take a roughing chip only and some take 
a roughing and smoothing chip. It is probable that a rough- 
ing chip is sufficient except when the face of the box is to 
run on a hub plate. 

2. — The design of the box is an important factor in ma- 
chining time, for the larger the surface the longer it takes to 
machine it. It is contended by some roads that as the 
broader-faced box does less damage to the hub, the extra 
cost of machining is more than offset. 

3. — The number of boxes available for machining at one 
time has an important influence upon the cost per box. Some 
shops have over 500 boxes per year, while some have less 
than half a dozen. 

Is it really necessary to machine both faces of a driving 
box? Limiting machining to one face is the elimination of 
one process and is a step in the direction of economy, not 
only in time but in the availability of the shop and its equip- 
ment, in power and in wear and tear of machinery. Further- 
more, unnecessary machining is a weakening process. The 
box is never so strong as when in the scale. Whether it is 
practical to limit the machining to one face depends upon 
the practice in the subsequent operations. Some foremen 
contend that for the purpose of squaring up, the machining 
of both faces is of more value than its extra cost. Others 
contend that owing to the distortion from pressing in the 
crown brass the back of the box is not reliably square as a 
base for subsequent machining. 

The following practices subsequent to facing seem to call 
for machining both faces: 

1. — When the boxes are piled so as to slot crown and cellar 
fit of two or more boxes at one time. 

2.— Where the practice is to support the box on its off 
hub side when boring and facing. The best practice seems 
to be to square the box by its shoe and wedge faces. 
End-Play or Lateral Liners. 

The most common practice is to take up the lateral on 
a box liner. There seems to be a growing tendency toward 
taking up the lateral by a hub plate. Advocates of that 
practice contend: 

1. — That as the hub must ultimately have a liner when it 
becomes worn, the liner should be put on the hub in the 
first instance instead of on the box. 

2. — As the liner is usually the softer metal, it should have 
the larger of the two bearing surface, which is the complete 
circle of the hub plate. 

3. — The box when the liner is worn down will do more 
damage to the hub than the hub with its liner worn down 
would do the box. 

The most usual box liner is babbitt. There is, however, 
a marked tendency toward casting brass liners in position 
on the box. The only objection I have heard to this prac- 
tice is that of round-house repairs. Some shops are using 
fitted brass cast-iron or steel liners fastened to the box by 
rivets or patch bolts. My attention was recently called to 
a fitted brass liner on truck boxes, and I am informed that 
it is the purpose of the inventor to introduce it for driving 
boxes and to recommend that it be used without machining. 
It slips on from the top over dovetail grooves that fit lips 
on the side of the liner, which is further secured by the 
cellar bolt. 

End-Play Box-Liners. 

The practice of some shops is to turn one, two, or three 
dovetailed channels out of solid. Some roads heat and tin 
the box before casting on the babbitt. Some tin and cast 
babbitt on face of box without a channel. In most shops 
the box is not tinned for babbitt. Some hold the babbitt by 
anchor holes in face of channel. In some shops the anchor 
holes are dovetailed. Some shops screw brass plugs in the 
bottom of the channel, casting babbitt around them. In 
one shop a brass nut is screwed on each plug and when the 
liner is faced, the faces of the nuts serve as part of the 
bearing surface. Some roads plane one or more dovetail 
slots across the face of box. 

Practices Which Those Who Have Adopted Them Claim 

Make for Economy in Facing and End-Play-Liner of 

Driving Boxes, and the Arguments Advanced 

in Their Favor. 

1. — Unless it is the practice to run the steel box on a brass 
or babbitt hub plate, face but one side of the box, except 
where the box is to be turned when the original hub side be- 
comes worn. This practice makes it necessary to square 
the box by shoe and wedge faces when boring and facing. 

2. — Rtin the face of the steel box on a brass or babbitt 
hub plate. This simplifies the box practice and gives the 
larger bearing surface (the' complete circle) for the softer 
metal. Because of a broader bearing surface, the unlined 
box face will not cut the hub of the wheel should the hub 
plate become worn down. 

::. — If the practice is to put a babbitt liner on the hub side 
of the box, core the recess with slightly eccentric sides and 
cast the babbitt on the scale of the cold box. If there is any 
apprehension about the babbitt holding, sink anchor holes or 
break down the edge of the channels in two or three places. 
It does not seem to be necessary to tin the box before cast- 
ing on a liner. Coring the hub side of the box necessitates 
good foundry practice. It is more economical to cut the 
recess out of solid than to attempt to clean out a poor 

[January, 1912.] 



4. — If the practice is to cast a brass end-play liner on 
the hub side of the box, the recess must be machined be- 
cause the brass so clings to the scale that cleaning out the 
old brass will be difficult. 

5. — One recess channel seems to be as effective as two 
or more. 

6. — The labor of casting on brass liners should be scarcely 
if any more than casting on babbitt liners. 

7. — It has been found that casting brass liners integral 
with the crown brass is objectionable in that the wear on 
the two parts is not the same. The practice is not growing. 

8. — Brass runs well on steel, but roads running brass on 
babbitt complain of poor results. 

9. — The use of babbitt wheel plates is urged by some. One 
road at least is using them exclusively on freight service 
and reports good success. There is no physical reason why 
babbitt should not give as good service in the form of a 
wheel plate as it will as a box liner. It is practical to cast 
the babbitt wheel plate in position without upending the 
wheel and to get the lateral without the necessity of subse- 
quent machining. It is urged that the one-piece babbitt hub 
plate cast in place is superior in economy and efficiency to 
the two-piece brass, steel, or iron plate bolted on. I have 
inquired why some roads that tried the babbitt hub plates 
had abandoned it. I am assured in one instance that the 
failure was due to the poor quality of babbitt used. 

10. — Brass, steel, or cast-iron hub plates put on in halves 
are fastened to the wheel by copper rivets or by brass or 
steel patch bolts. Copper and brass rivets are urged be- 
cause if they work loose they will not cut the face of the 
box. They are, however, weaker than steel. The objection 
to steel bolts working loose seems to have been effectively 
overcome by cutting a channel in the side of the counter sink 
and upsetting the head of the bolt into it, thus preventing 
the bolt from turning. One road piits on hub plates in one 
piece by removing one driving wheel. It has been urged 
that this is liable to so distort the wheel as to change the 
quartering of the crank pins. 

11. — There seems to be an increasing tendency to lubri- 
cate the end play with grease. On one road a hole is drilled 
from the grease channel in the crown of the crown brass to 
the face of the box through which the grease will be forced 
when the locomotive is running. The objection is raised that 
grease is not a good lubricant for babbitt, which seems to 
cut and grind, perhaps because of the presence of dust picked 
up and held by the grease. One road oils the hub by wick- 

ing up from the oil cellar in the top of the box. The most 
general practice seems to be to require the engineer to oil 
the hub. 


Omaha, Neb., Dec. 13, 1911. 

Editor Railway Master Mechanic: Two 70 ft. McKeen 
steel gasoline motor cars recently met in a head-on col- 
lision with the resultant damage to the cars as illustrated 
in photographs reproduced herewith. The impact speed at 
the time of the accident, which occurred on a sharp curve, 
was between 75 and 85 miles per hour. There was no loss 
of human life in this wreck and while some of the passengers 
sustained slight bruises none of them nor the crews suf- 
fered a broken bone. This is therefore a very remarkable 
accident in that it accomplishes one of the most important 
results for which the McKeen, all-steel, gasoline motor car 
was designed, namely the absolute safety of its occupants. 

Notwithstanding the terrific shock the cars did not tele- 
scope and suffered no damage except to the pointed front 
ends and adjacent supporting and bracing members. The 
gasoline engine in each car was not damaged and not a 
wheel of either car was derailed. Beyond the point where 
the steel structure shows distortion or disfiguration the car 
framing and .roof sheets are all in perfect condition. 

The features of the McKeen motor car frame which pro- 
duce a construction of extremely light weight with such tre- 
mendous strength are the wedge shaped front end with the 
round rear end; the single center "I" beam sill connecting 
the forward with the rear end of the car; the steel channel 
side sills, which are continuous around the entire car; the 
depressed side sill in the middle of the car, which enables 
a combination plate and truss girder to be worked out of 
the side of the car (thus the resistance offered by sides of 
the car in case of impact). The distance from the side sill 
to the plate gives a depth of girder of about 8 l / 2 feet, which 
depth of girder could not be obtained except by the use of 
the round windows, which enables the diagonal braces to 
run up to the requisite height. 

There are no posts in this car but there are ribs and 
stays similar to those of a ship, the channel iron section ex- 
tending from one side of the sill upwards, forming the posts, 
carline, and posts on the other side of the car, tying all 
together and in combination with both the side sills. 

The rigid rectangular brace in the center and over the 
body bolster at the end of the car,, affords much strength 

Steel Motor Cars After Collision. 



[January, 1912.] 

in this style of construction. The rigid triangular braces 
connecting the depressed side sills with the center sill of 
the car, also is a unique and very efficient feature of the 
car design. 

Therefore in a collision the McKeen motor car with this 
style of framing has the whole metal cross section brought 
into play resisting the shock, not only the sills but the side 
plates, the steel siding, the roof, and all other metal form- 
ing a part of this steel frame assumes its proportion of the 
burden, whether it be a shock incident to a collision, or 
whether it be stresses incident to a heavy load. 

W. R. McKeen. 


The question of the establishment of joint car inspection for 
the city of Chicago has been under consideration for some time 
by a committee of the General Superintendents' Association. 
Seven roads are members of this interchange committee, name- 
ly : L. S. & Mr S. ; C, M. & St. P. ; C, R. I. & P. ; C. & W. I. ; 
C, B. & Q. ; A., T. & S. F. and the Pennsylvania. At a meet- 
ing held Dec. 22 Mr. Le Mar of the Pennsylvania was. made 
chairman and the establishment of joint interchange was finally 
decided upon, the association to be called the Chicago Car In- 
terchange Bureau. Mr. F. C. Schultz was appointed chief 
interchange inspector and the Chicago territory divided 
into eight districts each to be in charge of an assistant 
interchange inspector. It will be a matter of a month 
or two before the system is put in active operation 
and in the meantime Mr. Schultz and his associates will 
carry on a campaign of education to familiarize the in- 
spectors and foremen with the M. C. B. rules. C. H. 
Treichel has been appointed chief clerk of the bureau, and the 
following assistant interchange inspectors have been appointed 
at this writing : Stewart Johnson, I. H. Clark, O. F. Koepp, 
A. E. Schultz and R. E. Forbes. 

Mr. Schultz, who is to be at the head of interchange in- 
spection in Chicago, was born March 13, 1870, received his 
education in the public schools of Chebanse and Kankakee, 111., 
and entered the service of the Burlington in 1888, as a car 
repairer at Chicago. Two years later he was made an air 
brake inspector. From 1892 to 1896 he was a car inspector at 

F. C. Schultz, Chief Interchange Inspector, Chicago. 
Chicago, and from 1896 to 1904 was car inspector and assistant 
agent at La Grange, 111. In 1904 he was made chief car in- 
spector for the Burlington at Chicago, which position he has 
held up to the present. He is first vice-president of the Car 
Foremen's Association of Chicago and a member of the execu- 
tive committee of the Chief Interchange and Car Foremen's 
Association of America. His new office is at room 603 of the 
Baltimore & Ohio station, formerly called the Grand Central 


The report of the mechanical division of the Isthmian Canal 
Commission for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1911, con- 
tains much of interest to those interested in rolling stock 
and shop equipment. The following is an extract: 

The second division of the chief engineer's office has 
charge of all mechanical questions that may arise and su- 
pervises expenditures, the preparation of estimates, and al- 
lotments for work. If the dry dock and coaling stations are 
to be constructed, the design of this work is to be placed 
under this division. It is in charge of Mr. H. H. Rousseau, 
United States Navy, as assistant to the chief engineer. 

The construction work requires that all mechanical ap- 
pliances of every character be kept in thorough repair, so 
that they can be operated without breakdown at their high- 
est efficiency throughout working hours. This necessitates 
a considerable organization and proper facilities for the in- 
spection, maintenance and repair of all mechanical appli- 
ances. To this end shops are provided at convenient points 
along the line of the canal, certain ones of which are under 
the supervision and control of the division heads, and others 
constitute the central manufacturing and repair plant at Gor- 
gona, with outlying subordinate s"hops and engine houses. 

As noted in the last annual report, an inspector of shops 
was added to the organization, and from the experience 
gained his duties were more clearly defined, embracing juris- 
diction of all the shops of both the commission and the 
Panama Railroad. The result has been more economical 
performance of work as well as more efficient and satisfac- 
tory service. At the close of the year the number of em- 
ployes in all the shops on the Isthmus totaled 4,405, or 
which 1,532 were gold employes and 2,873 were silver men. 
The number of hourly gold men taken "on during the year 
was 94 per cent of the. force employed, indicating that the 
average length of service on the Isthmus for the mechanical 
trades continued to be about one year. 

A new shop was erected and put in operation at Toro 
Point for repairing locomotives, cars and other equipment 
used in the construction of the breakwater. It was equipped 
with machines taken from other shops. The shed at Pedro 
Miguel shop used for repairing cars was doubled in size to 
save the time previously lost by workmen during rains. At 
the Gorgona shops an addition to the erecting shop was 
made for the pipe, tin and copper shop, so as to move the 
equipment therefor from the boiler shop, the latter needing 
additional space. A small building was erected for the oxy- 
acetylene plant, and a small building was erected and pro- 
vided with a 25-ton crane, affording facilities for making- 
large iron castings. An order has been placed for a steel 
casting plant consisting principally of a 2-ton converter, 
blower and sand grinder, and when installed the stock of 
steel castings kept on hand can be reduced and the practice 
stopped of making repair parts urgently required of cast iron 
and brass. The permanent equipment was augmented by the 
addition of one 6-in. turret lathe for making bushings, two 
heavy milling machines for cutting gears and general work, 
one automatic tool grinder, an oxy-acetylene plant, one 
washer cutter for making washers out of scrap metal, a 25- 
.ton overhead crane for use in the foundry, and a Taylor- 
Barth belt outfit. 

With the approval of the division engineer, work in the 
Cocoli shop was transferred to the mechanical division on 
Sept. 1 and the shop closed on Sept. 15. The Lirio planing 
mill was closed and the manufacture of woodwork was con- 
solidated at Gorgona. The keeping of a permanent gang of 
craftsmen and helpers for making repairs to the cableways 
and concrete mixers at Gatun locks and day repairs to steam 
shovels was done away with. The consolidation of heavy 
repairs at Gorgona and the transfer of repairs to vessels and 
other apparatus in the vicinity of Colon and Cristobal to 

[January, 1912.] 



the dry dock shops enabled the closing of the blacksmith, 
machine, boiler and erecting shops of the Panama Railroad 
in Cristobal. So that repair and manufacturing work could 
be done with greater dispatch, night shifts were put in the 
machine, erecting and boiler shops in Gorgona in August and 
September. While work of the class involved is usually 
more expensive when performed at night than during the 
day, the night shifts have proven efficient and save expense 
by the elimination of overtime. Another advantage was in 
reducing the length of time required for completing urgent 
■orders. By putting on a night shift in the wood-car repair 
shop on Feb. 1, Lidgerwood flats which were cut out of 
service for light and medium repairs on one day were re- 
turned to service the next morning. 

According to the present program of work, the Gorgona 
shops will be retained in operation until the waters of Gatun 
lake reach elevation 70. By that time, the manufacturing 
.and repair work, especially in connection with locomotives, 
cars and excavating machinery, will have largely diminished 
and steps can be taken for the erection of the necessary build- 
ings to which the transfer of machines now at Gorgona can 
"be made at that time. The shops at Balboa and at Cristobal 
now in operation, together with the Panama Railroad ma- 
chine shops, which, while closed, are not dismantled, will 
afford the necessary repair facilities while the transfer of 
the machinery from Gorgona is in progress. 

At the beginning of the fiscal year an additional traveling 
■engineer was appointed to have supervision over fuel and oil 
consumption and to supplement the work of the other two 
traveling engineers, whose jurisdiction extended to locomo- 
tives only, and later to supervising and instructing engineers 
in respect to handling oil, and the firemen in regard to meth- 
ods of firing and fuel consumption. The duties of the new 
traveling engineer covered steam shovels, unloaders, spread- 
ers and all stationary plants, and was subsequently extended 
to the marine equipment. Very satisfactory results have 
been accomplished in saving both in fuel and in lubricants. 

Electric current for lighting and power was generated at 
live stations, located at Balboa, Miraflores, Empire, Gorgona 
and Gatun. The output of the Gatun and Miraflores plants 
was largely used in construction work in the Atlantic and 
Pacific divisions, respectively. The cost per kilowatt hour 
averaged $0,026. Oil fuel was used in all stations. Current 
was generated at the Gatun and Miraflores plants by steam 
turbines, at the Empire and Gorgona plants by nOncondens- 
ing engines, and at the Balboa plant by condensing engines. 

The principal air-compressor plants are located at Las 
Cascadas, Empire, Rio Grande and Balboa, and furnish com- 
pressed air to the central and Pacific divisions, and along the 
high line around Gold Hill on the relocation of the Panama 
railroad. The total output from these plants aggregated 
8,261,199,541 cu. ft., at a cost of 0.0324 c. per thousand cubic 
feet. Compressed air for the Gorgona shops is furnished by 
a smaller plant located there. 

The total appropriations made by Congress available to 
June 30, 1911, amounted to $248,001,468.58, or 66 per cent of 
the total estimate of $375,201,000 for completing the canal. 
By the act approved March 4, 1911, additional appropriations 
were made for the fiscal year 1912, amounting to $45,560,000, 
■exclusive of fortifications, leaving $81,639,531.42 of the total 
estimated cost of the canal to be appropriated. By June 30, 
1911, $225,470,053.26 had been charged into the work. Of 
this amount, $33,048,607.97 were expended during the fiscal 
year 1911. The difference between the appropriations avail- 
able to June 30, 1911, and the classified expenditures to June 
30, 1911, amounting to $22,531,415.32, represents unexpended 
balances in appropriations; unexpended material and sup- 
plies in storehouses; and such items as will not be prorated 
.to construction work until the work is completed; buildings 
•of all descriptions, roads, sewers, and water supplies. Of 
ihe total classified expenditures to June 30, 1911, $27,580,- 

724.37 were for plant and equipment for construction, of 
which amount $626,330.86 were expended during the fiscal 
year 1911. 

The disposition of surplus plant and equipment upon the 
completion of construction work so as to bring the greatest 
reimbursement to canal appropriations is a matter of grow- 
ing importance. The policy of the commission during the 
construction period has been to keep all machinery, plant 
and equipment in the' best possible condition, both on the 
ground of economy and for efficiency, and after an average 
use of not much more than five years, at even 10 per cent 
depreciation a year, it should have a value fully half of its 
original cost. The prices which will be obtained from actual 
sale can not be foretold. The gauge of all rolling stock and 
equipment used on the standard 5-ft. Isthmian tracks will 
have to be changed to the standard 4-ft. 8^4-in. gauge in the 
United States. This possibility was taken into consideration, 
on practically all equipment ordered after 1906, and the 
change can be made with little difficulty and expense. To 
change the gauge of locomotives will cost about $250 apiece, 
or 2^2 per cent of their original cost. 

Up to the close of the fiscal year 1911, little or no plant 
and equipment had been permanently tied up, and it will be 
another year before any considerable number of the different 
units will be available for sale, which will permit from two 
to three years being taken to gradually dispose of the old 
plant before the canal is opened for traffic. A certain propor- 
tion of the plant, including rolling stock, equipment and ex- 
cavating machinery, will naturally be reserved on the Isthmus 
indefinitely to take care of maintenance work and any future 
requirements. This amount could be reduced gradually after 
the canal has been operated a year or two. The best of the 
shop tools and machinery will be reserved for the perma- 
nent shops. There will be left about 150 large American 
mogul engines, weighing, with tender, from 105 to 117 tons 
each, in excellent condition, available for sale, and over 
1,500 steel dump cars, weighing from 16 to 22 tons each. The 
cars of wooden construction will probably not bear trans- 
portation back to the United States intact on account of the 
deterioration of the wood. The metal parts will be useful in 
rebuilding cars in the United States. A good deal of the 
marine equipment will be useful in the maintenance and op- 
eration of the canal after completion, including tugs, barges 
and some dredges. It is not believed that the condition of 
the seven old French and Belgian ladder dredges, which are 
being used on the canal, will, at the end of the work, warrant 
their transportation to the United States for further work. 

All shops of both the commission and Panama Railroad 
Co. are under the general supervision of the inspector of 
shops, along the lines of securing the most efficient manage- 
ment, inspecting and recommending the most economical 
distribution of work, employes and tools among the different 
shops, and the adoption of standard methods therein. This, 
while it leaves the control of the operation of some of the 
mechanical work directly under the different division heads, 
at the same time insures the requisite co-ordination and co- 
operation between all shops and all mechanical work on the 

During the year heavy repair work and all manufacturing 
work so far as practicable has been concentrated at Gorgona 
shops. This, in connection with the transfer of some work 
to the Cristobal dry-dock shops, has enabled the metal-work- 
ing shops of the Panama Railroad Co. at Cristobal to be 
entirely closed and a considerable saving made. 

The past fiscal year has not been marked by any serious 
labor disturbances in the shops. For some time the hourly 
gold employes, over four-fifths of whom are employed at the 
various shops, have been endeavoring to secure the same 
leave with pay privileges as the gold monthly employes. The 
hourly employes are paid for all overtime; the monthly em- 
ployes receive no extra compensation. In September, 1909, 



[January, 1912.] 

the Secretary of War granted hourly gold employes two 
weeks' leave with pay each year, effective Jan. 1, 1910. In 
November, 1910, President Taft, while on the Isthmus, gave 
several delegations of hourly gold employes employed in the 
shops hearings on their application for either an increase in 
pay or additional leave of absence each year with pay, and 
on his return to the United States authorized, effective Jan. 
1, 1911, the granting to hourly gold employes of four weeks' 
leave of absence with pay per annum, with privilege to ac- 
cumulate their leave with pay to not over eight weeks, which, 
with their overtime pay, puts them on practically the same 
basis as regards leave privileges as the monthly gold em- 
ployes. Before this decision was announced, the boiler mak- 
ers on the Isthmus resigned almost in a body and went 
back to the United States, 177 taking this action during No- 
vember and December, 1910. The action of these men was 
not sustained by the boiler makers' federation in the United 
States, and their places were filled with very little incon- 
venience or delay. 

The wage scale has remained at 65 cents an hour for first- 
class mechanics, and during the last ha'lf of the fiscal year 
labor conditions were satisfactory. The force of shop me- 
chanics is one of the most unstable of the different classes 
of gold employes. At the latter part of the year there were 
about 1,200 hourly gold mechanics employed by the com- 

Constant effort has been made during the year by all con- 
cerned to reduce the cost of repairs to equipment, as well as 
the cost of the operation and maintenance thereof, through 
the introduction of improved methods of supervision and by 
enlisting the interest of those concerned in securing as great 
a degree of economy as practicable. The total cost of re- 
pairs to equipment in continuous service and the cost of re- 
pairs per service day during the year ended June 30, 1911, 
and similar information for the last six months of the pre- 
vious fiscal year, is given in the following table: 

Six months ended June 30, 1910. 

Fiscal year 1911 

Items o( equipment. 




cost per 





A verafir 

cost per 

set vice 







63,926 S504.008. 10 






22 «1 

1 . - SO 






The total cost of car repairs, all classes, for the same pe- 
riod was $894,496.55, or an average of $0.8656 per car per 
working day, as compared with a total cost of all car repairs 
for the six months ended June 30, 1910, of $479,165.75, or an 
average of $1.03 per car per working day. 

The large decrease in the cost of repairs accomplished 
during the year speaks for itself. The increase in the cost of 
locomotive repairs was due to a combination of an unusually 
large amount of general repairs and repairs due to casualties. 

Electric current for lighting and power is generated at five 
stations on the Isthmus located at Balboa, Miraflores, Em- 
pire, Gorgona and Gatun. The output of the Gatun and Mira- 
flores plants is largely used in construction work in the At- 
lantic and Pacific divisions, respectfully. 

Oil is used as fuel in all of these stations. Current is gen- 
erated at the plants at Miraflores and Gatun by steam tur- 
bines;* at the Kmpire and Gorgona plants by non-condensing 
engines; and at the Balboa plant by condensing engines. 

The principal air-compressor plants are located at Las 
Cascadas, Empire, Rio Grande and Balboa, and furnish 
compressed air to the Central and Pacific divisions, and the 
work along the "high line" around Gold Hill on the reloca- 
tion of the Panama Railroad. 

In addition to lessened cost of repairs, economy in opera- 

tion and maintenance has been secured through the co-opera- 
tion of all concerned by reducing steam consumption through 
the more economical operation of the different units and by 
an appreciable saving in fuel, lubricants and other similar 
supplies. At the beginning of the fiscal year an additional 
traveling engineer was appointed to have supervision over 
fuel and oil consumption to supplement the work of the 
other two traveling engineers whose jurisdiction extended to 
locomotives only. His work covered steam shovels, unload- 
ers, spreaders and all stationary plants, and has since been 
extended to marine equipment with very satisfying results. 

The Isthmian Canal Commission and the Panama Railroad 
Co. are using together at present about 35,000 tons of coal 
per month, which at an estimated cost of $6 per ton deliv- 
ered into the firebox, amounts to $210,000 per month. In- 
addition about 75,000 barrels of fuel oil, at $1.10 per barrel, 
are being used, amounting to $82,500 per month. The cost 
of lubricating and illuminating oils, greases and waste is 
over $5,000 per month, making a total approximate cost for 
fuel, lubricating and illuminating oils, etc., of about $3,600,000 
per annum. A saving of 10 per cent of this amount would 
be $360,000 per annum, or about $1,000 per calendar day. 

It has been found by actual trials that there are very few 
installations on the Isthmus where one of the traveling en- 
gineers can not, when firing himself, make a saving in fuel 
consumption of considerably more than 10 per cent, as com- 
pared with the work of the regular fireman, and the present 
efforts of the traveling engineers are being directed to se- 
curing this saving by personal instruction in firing. 

A system has been established of training firemen, especially 
for locomotives, so that they are required to qualify before 
being taken on as regular firemen. The breaking in of Span- 
iards as firemen has met with success. 

The same work has been carried on to obtain economy in 
the use of fuel oil. To demonstrate the savings obtainable 
by correct firing, tests at the different plants have been made, 
showing the fuel consumption by the regular force for a pe- 
riod of 12 hours with that under the firing of the traveling 
engineer for a like period. The savings in all stationary 
plants have been considerable. For instance, at the Las Cas- 
cadas air-compressor plant the saving by this comparison was 
shown to be 3.5 per cent; at the Mount Hope pumping plant 
22 per cent; at the Gorgona pumping plant 15 per cent; and 
at the Cucaracha pumping plant 11 per cent. 

In connection with methods employed to secure economy, 
the fireroom forces at the different plants, including firemen, 
oilers and helpers, have been standardized and reduced in 
number. All surplus tools and supplies being carried in the 
different small stationary plants have been required to be 
returned to store. 

Considerable progress has been made during the year to- 
ward putting the consumption of lubricants on a satisfactory 
basis. Lubricating and illuminating oils and lubricating 
greases, which cost the commission and the Panama Railroad 
Co. a total of about $137,500 in the fiscal year 1910, cost about 
$80,600 only during the fiscal year 1911, a reduction of about 
$57,000, or over 40 per cent. The reduction in the quantity 
of lubricating oil purchased was 16 per cent and of lubricat- 
ing greases purchased 60 per cent. The reduction in the 
average cost of lubricating oil per gallon was 30 per cent 
and in the average cost of greases per pound 25 per cent. 

This result was attained in spite of an increase in fuel con- 
sumption of about 13 per cent, which would naturally be ac- 
companied by an increase in the use of lubricants. This sav- 
ing was due principally to the following: 

1. Reduction in the price paid for lubricating oils through 
the advantages of competition. 

2. The obtaining of practically all oils in metal drums 
which are returned to the contractor when empty, thus elim- 
inating the cost of barrels or tins in which oil had previously , 
been shipped. 

[January, 1912.] 



3. The substitution of cheaper lubricants for higher-priced 
lubricants; for instance, formerly engine oil was used for 
lubricating steam-shovel chains, then car oil was adopted, 
and at present satisfactory results are being obtained by 
using crude petroleum for this purpose at less than one- 
fourth the cost. 

4. The placing of all equipment on a fixed daily or monthly 
lubricating oil allowance, and the close supervision of the 
consumption of the same by the traveling engineers. 

The saving during the past year due to the first two items 
amounted to over $30,000, and to the last two to over $20,000. 

The fact that the Isthmian Canal Commission and Panama 
Railroad Co. are lubricating their locomotives and cars cheap- 
er than railroads in the United States is worthy of notice. 

During the past two years the commission and the Panama 
Railroad Co. have purchased all of their lubricants under an 
annual contract from one contractor, who was the lowest 
responsible bidder. The specifications under which the con- 
tracts were made involved a wide departure from the usual 
practice in other branches of the government service and in 
commercial practice in especially the following respects: 

1. No attempt has been made to describe or limit the qual- 
ities of the different lubricants, the sole requirement being 
that the oils must be satisfactory for the purpose for which 

2. All lubricants must be recognized brands of experienced 

3. The contractor must keep a representative on the Isth- 
mus during the continuance of the contract to both super- 
vise the use of the lubricants and to take prompt action in 
replacing any unsatisfactory oils delivered. 

During the past two fiscal years and for the fiscal year 1912 
annual contracts for lubricants have been awarded twice to 
the same firm and once to another company, and during the 
continuance of these contracts the lubrication of railroad 
and other rolling stock and equipment has been very satis- 
factory as regards both the quality of the lubricants furnished 
and the low cost of the lubrication. It has been impossible 
to detect any difference in the service rendered by these 
lubricants as compared with the service rendered by the 
higher priced lubricants used prior to the time the commis- 
sion inaugurated the policy of purchasing all lubricants under 
annual contract by competition. 

At present the Panama Railroad Co.'s locomotives aver- 
age about 53 miles per pint of valve oil costing 2.4375 cents 
delivered on the Isthmus, and about 23 miles per pint of en- 
gine oil costing 1.375 cents, making a total cost for lubricating 
a locomotive per 1,000 miles of about $1.06. The locomotives 
of the commission are doing as well if not better. If railroads 
in the United States were able to equal these figures of cost 
of lubrication, making due allowance for service and for size 
of equipment, it would be to their very material advantage — 
a benefit they could very justly attribute as being derived 
from the construction of the Panama Canal. 


By N. H. S. 

Is this not a strange man? He looks hungry and needs a 
shave. Mortification has set in on his necktie, and the front 
of his coat is covered with congealed gravy. He has a bundle 
under his arm which looks like a bag full of augers. Those 
are ideas he has, and he is going to see his attorney who sits 
in his office furnished in real leather and mahogany, and a 
brass cuspidor. The inventor has a wife at home who takes 
in washing, and a red-headed daughter whx> operates a filling 
machine in a bologna works. They have worked six months 
for the money the old man has in the greasy tobacco bag. 
The attorney will talk to the unwashed guy, and fill him full 
of prunes about his edible bicycle tire. He will then do a 

vanishing stunt to the old man's wad, and paint him a word 
picture of the family riding in a gold-plated seven-cylinder 
Panhard Limousine, with a fur-coated wooden-faced James 
at the tiller. The old man stops at the nearest jewelry store 
and sees a diamond in the window as large as a guinea egg, 
which he promises to have set in the handle of his snow 
shovel when he gets his first royalties. He will then go 
home and tell- the family all about it, while they are eating 
their corned beef and cabbage, and they all go to bed doped. 
It will be a long while for the old man to get wise but in the 
meantime his imagination is working double shift. 

We would rather work for a living than be an inventor. 
— The Silent Partner. 

The Atlanta, Birmingham & Atlantic is reported in the 
market for ten Mikado locomotives. 

The Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific is figuring on 45 Mi- 
kado locomotives. 

The Grand Junction & Grand River Valley expects to pur- 
chase one electric locomotive soon. 

The Paulista Railway, Brazil, has ordered 4 ten-wheel 
locomotives from the American Locomotive Co., cylinders 17 
in. x 20 in., diameter driving wheels 48 in., and total weight 
in working order 96,000 lbs. 

The Sydney & Louisburg has ordered 1 consolidation loco- 
motive from the Montreal Locomotive Works. 


Continuous operation by electric power in the Hoosac tun- 
nel of the Boston & Maine Railroad was started by the Bos- 
ton & Maine R. R., May 27th, 1911. The electrification was 
fully described in the Railway Master Mechanic for Novem- 
ber, 1911, page 501. Since starting, the electric service has 
never been interrupted. The Hoosac tunnel is the longest 
tunnel in the United States. It pierces the range of hills 
between the Hoosac and the Deerfield Rivers in the Berk- 
shire Hills, and is 25,081 ft. long. To drain off the large 
amount of water, the tunnel was run on a grade of 26.4 ft. 
to the mile from each portal to a short level stretch in the 
center. At the center there is a shaft 1,028 ft. deep extend- 
ing to the surface for ventilation. 

The electric zone extends from the little tunnel west or 
north Adams station to a point about a quarter of a mile 
east of Hoosac Tunnel station, a total distance of 7.92 miles. 
The electrification includes the yards at North Adams, about 
two miles of main line between North Adams and the west 
portal, four and three-quarter miles of tunnel, the yards on 
the east side and about three-quarters of a mile of main line. 
There is in all 21.31 miles of a single track electrified. 

In considering the good performance of the Hoosac tun- 
nel equipment it is well to consider the conditions leading 
to the electrification and at the same time how these condi- 
tions have been changed by the use of electric traction. The 
following tabular statement indicates the situation. 

Previous to Electrification. 

(1) Tunnel limit of capacity of division because: 

As it was impossible to see, the tunnel was an absolute 
block five miles long and not more than one train was ever 
allowed on one track at the same time. As an additional 
precaution, no other train was allowed in the tunnel with a 
passenger train. 

Owing to the bad rail due to moisture from condensing 
steam, the steam locomotive was not able to develop its full 

(2) There -was great expense in maintenance of road bed, 
tunnel arch and cars because: 



[January, 1912.] 

Smoke and gases were so thick that a gang of men in the 
tunnel all day could often do only a few hours' work. 

Rock and brick work continually torn down by exhaust 
from steam locomotives. 

Telephone lines corroded by acid gases and instruments 
plugged up with soot. 

Passenger cars become dirty from smoke. 

(3) The tunnel has been dangerous to employes because: 
Engine men and track men have been overcome by the 

smoke, and track men have been killed in the dark, not know- 
ing which way the train was coming, and being unable to 
find a man hole. 

(4) The tunnel was unpleasant to passengers because: 
The tunnel was a black, dirty hole, and it was necessary 

to shut all windows and ventilators on passenger trains. At 
best it was close and hot. 

After Electrification. 

(1) Tunnel no longer limit of capacity of division because: 
With the smoke and gases eliminated, it is now possible 

to see, and automatic block signals have been installed which 
allow three trains on each track at the same time. This 
gives three times the capacity for freight service, and six 
times the capacity for passenger service. 

With the better rail due to the elimination of condensing 
steam, the electric locomotive can pull as much in the tun- 
nel as outside. 

(2) Maintenance expense is moderate for road bed, tun- 
nel arch and cars because: 

There is no smoke or gases. Men are able to do good 
work all day long. 

Rock and brick work no longer shattered by exhaust. 

Air is clear from gases and comparatively dry. Telephone 
lines are not effected. 

Passenger cars do not become dirty from smoke. 

(3) The tunnel is now comparatively safe for employes 

With the clear air engine men are not inconvenienced and 
track men can easily see and avoid an approaching engine. 

(4) The tunnel is no longer unpleasant to passengers be- 

The tunnel is now practically free from smoke and gases 
and passenger trains go through with windows open. The 
passengers find the cool air refreshing on a hot day. 

Trains are no longer packed three, four or five deep at 
each portal of the tunnel, waiting for a chance to get through. 

The capacity of the tunnel is now largely determined by the 
size of the power house, the number of electric locomotives 
and the number of blocks, all of which may be increased as 

Details of Motor Mounting and Drive, German Electric Locomotive. 


The general design and details of construction of a Ger- 
man high power electric locomotive on the Weisenthanbahn 
in Baden are shown in the accompanying illustrations, the 
locomotives operate on an alternating current of 15 cycles 
and 10,000 volts. 

The mechanical part of this locomotive was built at Mun- 
chen at the works of J. A. Maffei by the Siemene Schuck- 
ertwerke of Berlin. The electric locomotives of Weisenthal- 
bahn haul trains from Basel to Zell and from Schopfheim 
to Sakkingen on the Rhine. 

On this electric line there are in service twelve high speed 
passenger cars having a capacity for 51 persons together with 
21 heavy baggage cars. This electric locomotive has two 
motors of 500 horsepower each the total output being 1,000 
horsepower. It weighs 52 tons and operates at a normal 
speed of 45 kilowatts per hour and a maximum speed of 75 
kilowatts per hour. 

The electric power for driving the trains on this line is 
supplied from the Rhine generating station at August, the 
current having a frequency of 15 cycles and a pressure of 

German Electric Locomotive for High Tension Service. 

[January, 1912.] 



6,800 volts at the generators. The current is raised to 10,000 
volts at a substation at Basel. There are two machines of 
2,100 kilowatts capacity service in connection with a regu- 
lating storage battery plant. The electric locomotives are 
said to haul passenger trains of 230 tons and freight trains 
of 500 tons over grades as heavy as 10 per cent between 
Basel and Zell. 

Hall's M. C. B. Repair and Defect Card Box (Front). 


The accompanying illustrations show a repair and defect 
card box for equipping all cars which leave the home road. 
This box is the invention of W. H. Hall, chief car inspector 
of the Central R. R. of New Jersey. The box is made of 
galvanized iron and has a spring lid. It can be riveted to 
steel sills or bolted to wooden sills. 

The use of the box is said to insure a clean bill of repairs 
or defects when cars are returned from foreign roads or 
when interchange cars are returned to foreign roads. 

Hall's M. C. B. Repair and Defect Card Box (Back). 


In February a few years ago, according to the Railway Jour- 
nal of Canada, the railway lines throughout Ontario were al- 
most completely tied up by the worst blizzard experience din 
several years. 

The Canadian Pacific has a first-class service between Mon- 
treal and Ottawa, and though the daily papers had forecast bad 
snowstorms, the President of the Bank of Montreal, Sir Ed- 
ward Clouston, had an engagement of such importance in 
Ottawa that he decided to take the trip. 

The train crew had a desperate fight to make headway almost 
from the moment they left Montreal yards. Finally when about 
3 miles from one of the smallest stations on the line, the engine 
went dead, in spite of the crew's best efforts. 

Sir Edward Clouston is a warm personal friend of Sir Thom- 
as Shaughnessy, President of the C. P. R. When the train 
stopped he, like practically all the other passengers, at once 
made enquiries and was informed that the delay would probably 
be a serious one, a matter of hours. 

Learning that the brakesman was about to walk to the sta- 
tion, Sir Edward insisted that a personal message to President 
Shaughnessy should be sent for him, and also insisted that an 
answer be brought him. 

His message was as follows : 
"Sir Thomas Shaughnessy, 

"President Canadian Pacific Railway : 
"Am tied up in a snowstorm in one of your trains three 
miles from nowhere. What would you advise? 

"Sir Clouston." 
As is usual in times of serious snow storms, the wires were 
giving a good deal of trouble, so the brakeman took nearly three 
hours to bring back the answer. It was clear and to the point, 
reading as below : 
"Sir Edward Clouston, 

"C. P. R. Train Three Miles from Nowhere : 
"Advise patience and prayer. 


W. A. Nettleton, general superintendent of motive power of 
the Rock Island, has resigned and T. Rumney of the Erie has 
been appointed to succeed him as head of the mechanical depart- 
ment. Mr. Nettleton has been in railroad work for twenty-six 
years, starting as rodman for the Kansas City, Ft. Worth & 
Memphis, a road of which Mr. Nettleton's father was one of 
the builders. Mr. Nettleton will, it is understood, devote his 
time to private affairs. Wm. Schlafge succeeds Mr. Rumney. 

T. Rumney. 

J. F. Shcahan has been appointed master mechanic of 
the Georgia and Florida, with headquarters at Douglas, Ga. 

J. W. Small, superintendent of machinery of the Missouri 
Pacific, has received the appointment of superintendent of motive 
power of the Galveston, Harrisburg & San Antonio and asso- 
ciated lines, with office at Houston, Tex., succeeding J. J. Ryan, 

T. Dunlop, mechanical superintendent ; Maynard Robinson, 
master mechanic ; T. O. Ward, purchasing agent, and E. S. New- 
ton, general storekeeper of the Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe, have 
had their jurisdiction extended over the Pecos & Northern 
Texas, from Coleman to mile post 461. 

H. C. -Needham has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Southwest system of the Pennsylvania Lines West, succeeding 
to the duties of J. W. Hopkins, general foreman at Richmond, 
Ind. The office of general foreman has been abolished. F. V. 
McDonnell, master mechanic at Mahoningtown, Pa., succeeds J. 
J. Walsh, transferred, as master mechanic of the Southwest 
system at Logansport, Ind. 



[January, 1912.] 

John H. Mason has been appointed road foreman of engines 
with jurisdiction over the Lehigh Valley and Susquehanna 
division of the Central R. R. of New Jersey, succeeding A. B. 
Enbody, promoted. The office is at Mauch Chunk, Pa. 

W. W. Scott, formerly superintendent of shops of the Cin- 
cinnati, Hamilton and Dayton at Indianapolis, Ind., has been 
appointed shop superintendent of the Pere Marquette, succeed- 

J. F. Sheahan. 

ing C. K. Woods, resigned. Mr. Scott will have offices at Sagi- 
naw, Mich. 

J. T. Andrus, purchasing agent of the Washington R. R. and 
Navigation Co. at Spokane, Wash., has resigned, and the posi- 
tion has been discontinued. Purchases for that division are 
made by R. Koehler, general purchasing agent, at Portland, Ore. 

J. F. Bowden, master mechanic of the Baltimore and Ohio 
at Garrett, Ind., has had his jurisdiction extended, and is now 
in charge of the Chicago division and the Northwest systems. 

w. w. Scott. 

including the Baltimore and Ohio Chicago Terminal. G. A. 
Small, formerly superintendent of motive power of lines west 
of the Ohio river, is to have charge of the Wheeling system 
only. D. H. Watson, general foreman locomotive department, 
has been placed in charge of the shops at Garrett, Ind. 

E. H. Harlow, master mechanic of the Atchison, Topeka and 
Santa Fe Coast Lines, at Richmond, Cal., has been appointed 
terminal master mechanic at Richmond. John Pullar, division 

foreman at Los Angeles, has been appointed master mechanic 
with office at Fresno, Cal. 

J. A. McCrea has been appointed general manager of the 
Long Island, with offices at Pennsylvania Station, New York. 
H. W. Thornton has been appointed general superintendent 
to succeed J. A. McCrea. The office of assistant general 
superintendent has been abolished. 

R. H. Hunter has been appointed acting assistant superin- 
tendent of the Idaho division of the Oregon Short Line, with 
headquarters at Pocatello, Idaho. H. W. Joslyn has been ap- 
pointed assistant superintendent with office at Glenns Ferry, 

E Hjorth succeeds W. H. Baker as general foreman of the 
Chicago and North Western at Belle Plaine, la. 

V. R. Greiner has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Cincinnati, Hamilton and Dayton at Lima, O. 

J. J. McNeill has been appointed supervisor of locomotive 
operation of the Erie at Cleveland, O. He succeeds D. J. 

W. D. Johnston has been appointed master mechanic of the 
International and Great Northern to succeed J. H. Sheahan. His 
office is at Palestine, Texas. 

R. A. Wiggins succeeds E. C. Hause as master mechanic of 
the Louisville and Wadley at Wadley, Ga. 

P. Alquist succeeds J. F. Considine as foreman of car repairs 
of the Pere Marquette at Grand Rapids, Mich. 

F. A. Eichorn succeeds D. V. Musgrove as master mechanic 
of the Tennessee, Alabama and Georgia, with office at Alton 
Park, Tenn. 

W. P. Myers succeeds W. Percy as general foreman of the 
car department of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Coast 
Lines at Los Angeles, Cal. 

J. P. Worthley succeeds W. C. Lambert as division foreman 
of the Oregon Short Line. Office at Montpelier, Ida. 

P. Jimenez has been appointed master mechanic of the San 
Marcos and Huajuapam de Leon at Rosendo Marquez, Pue, 
Mexico. He succeeds A. Meneses. 

W. E. Sharp. 

W. E. Sharp, general superintendent of shops for the Armour 
Car Lines, resigns that position to become vice-president and 

[January, 1912.] 



general manager of the Grip Nut Company, Old Colony Bldg., 
Chicago. Mr. Sharp began railroad work in April, 1890, when he 
entered the employ of the Erie Railroad at Huntington, Indiana, 
as laborer in the car shops. He advanced rapidly through the 
car and locomotive departments until 1898, when he was di- 
vision general foreman of the locomotive and car department, 
which position he resigned to become assistant shop superin- 
tendent for the Armour Car Lines. In 1900 he was advanced 
to shop superintendent and later to his present position as gen- 
eral superintendent of shops, and in the future he will remain as' 
consulting engineer to the company he has served for thirteen 
years. Mr. Sharp had a very active part in the forming of the 
Car Foremen's Association, and has always taken an active inter- 
est in the interchange work at Chicago and other important 
railroad centers. He is a member of the Master Car Builders' 
Association, and has done some excellent work on its various 
committees dealing with freight car matters. He was president 

of the Western Railway Club, 1909-10, and has a host of. rail- 
road friends to welcome him into his new field of endeavor. 

The proceedings of the nineteenth annual convention of the 
Traveling Engineers' Association have been issued in book 
form. The book contains all the papers, together with a re- 
port of the convention, and is prefaced with a group photo- 
graph of all the past presidents of the association. It is bound 
in black leather and is a credit to the association. 

The proceedings of the nineteenth annual convention of the 
International Master Blacksmiths' Association have been pub- 
lished, and is similar in size and style to that of the Traveling 
Engineers' Association mentioned above. 

■Pftg^* ISI&nufaclurens 


The Russell Car & Snow Plow Co., Ridgway, Pa., has 
been rapidly expanding its volume of business with the 
Canadian railways by adapting its plows to meet their con- 
ditions, and the views of their operating officials. One of 
the new features in steam jroad snow plows which is held 
in great favor by many operating officials of Canadian 
roads is the drop nose, which is produced by a hinge joint in 
the nose of the plow, that the front section of the nose of 
the plow can be dropped to rest on shoes sliding on the rail, 
so that the cutting edge of the bit is close to the top of 
rail, and the flanger plate and centre portion of the nose can 
be dropped between the rails, thus cutting out and remov- 
ing the ice and snow from between the rails. For passing 
obstacles such as crossings and switches the bit can be 
raised to make a clearance of 5 in. above the top of rail, the 
raising and lowering being accomplished by compressed air 
under control of the operator in the lookout on top of the 
plow. This special feature is shown in the accompany 
illustration of the size No. 2 wing elevator snow plow re- 
cently delivered to the Algona Central & Hudson Bay Rail- 

way at Sault Ste. Marie, Ont, Can. This plow has a width 
of bit of 9 ft. 4 in. and with wings extended will make a clear- 
ance of 16 ft. in width and will handle snow of a continuous 
depth of 12 ft, and of considerably greater depth for short dis- 
tances, and if operated at a rate of speed of from fifteen to 
thirty-five miles per hour will easily throw the snow beyond 
the usual limits of the right-of-way. 

The type of plow which the Russell company has been 
furnishing the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway for equipping 
its lines is a wing elevator plow with a flanger under the 
centre of plow. This size is the largest manufactured by 
this concern and has a height of mouldboard of 12 ft. 11 in., 
and- with wings extended makes a clearance of 16 ft. in width. 
The wings and flanger on this plow are also operated by air 
under control of the operator stationed in the lookout, the 
air being taken from the trainline. The . two illustrations 
herewith show the plow in action emerging from a heavy 
drift, and the opening made through the drift. The Rus- 
sell snow plows are said now to be used on more than 100 
different railroads, and are manufactured in a variety of 
sizes for both single and double track service. Under 

Size No. 2 Plow with Wing Elevators and Drop Nose. 



[January, 1912.] 

very severe conditions of deep and hard packed snow, as 
many as three and four locomotives are sometimes used to 
drive the plow through the drift and the plows are built 
amply strong to withstand this strain. Of the many hun- 
dred now in service some have been in use for more than 
twenty years, and are still in good operating condition. The 
various sizes of Russell plows may have the flanger installed 
for removing snow and ice 2 x / 2 in. below the top of rail and 
14 in. outside of rail; the flanging being done in the same 
operation with which the snow is plowed. 

The popularity of the Russell plow cannot be better de- 
scribed than by stating the fact that one of the leading rail- 
roads in the United States has been using this type for the 
last twenty years, and now has sixty-four in service. This 
plow is also standard on the Imperial Government Railways 
vof Japan. 


The McKeen Motor Car Co., Omaha, Nebraska, recently 
shipped -two 70-foot, 200 horse-power, gasoline motor cars 
to the Victorian Railways, Melbourne, Australia. This 
shipment required five flat cars for its transportation to Ta- 
coma, where they will sail via the Frank Waterhouse Line. 
The two boxes containing the car bodies measured 70 feet 
in length by 11 feet wide by 10 feet high, and are said to 


The illustration shows a reamer until recently made by 
the Hall Mfg. Co., Jackson, Mich., but now manufactured by 
the McCrosky Reamer Co., Meadville, Pa. 

This reamer is radically different in construction from 
other types of adjustable reamers. It consists of two solid 
blocks of high-speed steel held on an arbor by two powerful 


Adjustable High-Speed Machine Reamer. 

collars without screws or small parts. There are four left- 
hand spiral cutting edges and each tooth is milled in the 
solid head. Adjustment is effected by loosening the rear 
collar and tightening the front collar, which forces the two 
halves of the reamer head up the inclined surfaces of the 

Tmv>\)fr« thO ( V^> 

Path of Russell Plow. 

Russell Snow Plow in Action. 

arbor. If desired the maker will furnish ideal reamers 
with right-hand spiral flutes for roughing purposes. 

It is stated 'that an "Ideal" reamer of 2 in. size will ex- 
pand nearly 3-32-in. and other sizes proportionately. The 
manufacturer recommends this reamer particularly for any 
job in phosphor bronze, steel tubing, steel castings, steel 
forgings, or aluminum. 

be the largest boxes ever shipped in the history of rail or 
water transportation. The accompanying picture shows the 
motor cars boxed and loaded ready for shipment from the 

These cars are of the McKeen type, adapted to the special 
requirements of the Victorian Railways, the gauge of which 
is 5 feet, 3 inches. They are equipped with English standard 

[January, 1912.] 



coupling and buffing gear, front and rear. The center side The cars are propelled by a 200 h. p., air-startmg, reversible 

door entrance is especially designed for handling passengers gasoline engine. The dimensions of the engine are: 
on depot elevated platforms, which prevail in Australia. They 4-cycle — 6-cylinder. 

Russell Size No. 1 Plow Equipped with Wing Elevator and Flanger. 

are built to accommodate thirty first-class passengers and 
forty-three second-class. Each compartment is divided into 
non-smoking and smoking compartments, by means of slid- 
ing doors. The second-class passengers are placed in the 
rear, and the first-class forward of the center side entrance 
and behind the ten-foot baggage room. 

The construction of the cars is steel throughout, being 
built up of standard rolled sections, the center sill being an 
8-in. "I" beam, and the two lower side sills 6-in. channels. 
The side sheets are of No. 12 Bessemer sheets, and the roof 
sheets No. 16 Bessemer, riveted to channels, forming posts 
and carlines, which are continuous from side sill to side sill, 
thus giving the greatest possible strength with the least pos- 
sible weight. The circular windows, which are wind, dust 
and water proof, permit of this strong construction. 

The cars are ventilated automatically, by the motion of the 
car, air being admitted through the intake "V," Fig. 1, pass- 
ing over the car heating coils, and the foul air is exhausted 
by suction ventilators in the roof, "U," Fig. 1. 

Lighting is by the Commercial Acetylene system, the gas 

Diameter — 10 ins. 
Stroke — 12 ins. 

Horse-power — 200 at 350 r. p. m. 

Valves, nickel steel — 4 ins. in diameter, mechanically op- 

^-te— -i'sj- ^1 




/Oj* r t/ncompr&&$d ' Si's" 'I 
■ i i 

N — l 


Length fatten from work 

Draft Gear of Victorian Rys. Motor Cars. 

McKeen Motor Cars Boxed and Loaded for Shipment to Australia. 

being carried under compression in a tank. The ignition of erated. 

the motor is by both magneto and coil; the coil is supplied Crank shaft — .30 carbon steel, 4-in. crank phis, 5-in. main 

with duplicate sets of accumulators. bearing. 



[January, 1912.] 

Second C/ass 

| Capacity 16 I 

Second Class 

First Class 

First Class 

Compartment I Compartment \ Compartment '", Express 

Capacity 2J I Capacity 15 \ Cap. 15 \ 



McKeen Motor Car for Victorian Rys. 

Carburetor — 3-in. McKeen, equipped with Cold-day starter. 

Cam shaft — sliding, reversible, gear driven. 

The engine is mounted on the front truck and is quite in- 
dependent of the car body. The drive is direct from the en- 
gine, by means of a 5-in. Morse silent chain, the driving 
sprocket uniting the two halves of the crank shaft. The 
driving half of the friction clutch, together with the driven 
sprocket, are mounted directly on the main axle, the drive 
from the friction clutch to the axle being transmitted by 
means of a sliding clutch. Forty-two inch steel tired drivers 
are used, the wheels on the rear axle of the motor truck and 
both axles of the rear truck being 33-in. rolled steel. 

The engine is water-jacketed, the jacket consisting of M$-in. 

ihis Australian shipment increases the number of McKeen 
cars in service to 122. 


The McCrosky Reamer Co., Meadville, Pa., has placed on 
the market a universal lamp bracket and termed it the 
"Searchlight." This bracket is an improvement on and 
an outgrowth of the Christiman bracket sold last year. 

The drawings show this bracket in two applications. The 
use of two universal joints makes the device either horizon- 
tally or vertically movable to any position. If desired the 
light can be quickly removed from the spring clamp, and 
as easily replaced. 

The universal joint in the Searchlight bracket consists of 
friction discs so arranged as to give both horizontal and 
vertical movements. Between each pair of discs is a fric- 
tion washer, and the amount of friction is regulated by 

"Searchlight" Bracket Located on Wall. 

copper sheet. The cooling water is circulated by a gear 
pump through the pilot radiators, two rear radiators and 
car heating coils, the latter being cut out in hot weather. 
The general dimensions of these cars are: 

Gauge 5 ft. 3 ins. 

Length 70 ft. ins. 

Length, baggage compartment 10 ft. ins. 

Length, first-class compartment 15 ft. 6 ins. 

Length, second-class compartment 21 ft. % in. 

Width over all 10 ft. ins. 

Height over all 11 ft. 9 3-16 ins. 

Weight 68,000 lbs. 

"Searchlight" Bracket on Lathe. 

screws and locknuts which hold the friction uniform at any 
desired tension. The arms are of solid steel and the discs 
are malleable iron, machined to a perfect bearing on the fric- 
tion washers between. 

The brackets are plated by an electro-galvanizing process 
giving an aluminum finish which is rust-proof and very pleas-, 
ing to the eye. 

[January, 1912.] 




The Kansas City Chemical Co. of Kansas City, Mo., has is- 
sued a very attractive booklet descriptive of Lardoilene cutting 
compound for machine shop use. 

* * * 

Two booklets have recently been issued by the Chicago Pneu- 
matic Tool Co. of Chicago giving descriptions and illustrations 
of the various air compressors made by this firm. These con- 
sist of various types of steam and electric driven compressors 
and also a tandem gasoline driven compressor. 

The Falls Hollow Staybolt Co. of Cuyahoga Falls, O., has 
published a leaflet advancing seven reasons for the use of 
hollow staybolts. The firm has recently installed threading 
machines, and is now equipped to furnish individual stays. 

* * * 

"Connect up your factory with the sun," says the monthly 
house organ of the Detroit Steel Products Co. of Detroit. That 
phrase is certainly suggestive of Detroit-Fenestra steel window 


* * * 

"SKF Radial Bearings" is the title of a bulletin just issued 
by the S. K. F. Ball Bearing Co. of New York. It explains the 
construction peculiarities of "SKF" Radial Bearings and gives 
dimensions, speeds and capacities of the principal types and 

The McCrosky Reamer Co. of Meadville, Pa., has issued a 
catalogue and price list of McCrosky's adjustable reamers, Wiz- 
ard chucks and collets, McCrosky's expanding mandrels and 
searchlight universal lamp brackets. 

* * * 

Circular . 1198, describing alternating-current water-wheel 
generators has been issued by the Westinghouse Electric and 
Manufacturing Company of East Pittsburgh, Penn. The pub- 
lication illustrates and describes the different types of genera- 
tors, both vertical and horizontal, for water-wheel drive, manu- 
factured by that company. Numerous illustrations of water- 
wheel driven installations are shown. 

* * * 

"Car Appliances" is the title of a new catalogue recently 
brought out by the Acme Supply Co., Chicago. A number of 
new appliances are shown, among which is the Acme weather- 
proof window, a new dust and cinder deflector, and several 
types of pressed steel door. The catalog is artistic and read- 

The Russell Car & Snow Plow Co. of Ridgway, Pa., has is- 
sued a catalog of Russell snow plows. These plows are made 
in several different types and sizes and these are shown in a 
number of very good illustrations. They are mounted on eight 
wheels and are equipped with air brakes and automatic couplers. 
The catalog is of timely interest. 

Idusiri&l Notes 

W. J. Bixby has been appointed a receiver of the Wabash and 
has resigned his position as a director of the American Car & 
Foundry Co. 

William H. Connell, Jr., mechanical engineer, has been made 
manager of the new office of the Hilles & Jones Co., Wil- 
mington, Del., with office in the Henry W. Oliver building, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 

C. B. Flint, manager of the supply department of Manning, 
Maxwell & Moore, has resigned to become president of Flint 
&* Chester, Inc., 237 Lafayette street, New York. This firm 
carries on a business in railway, machinists and contractors' 

H. M. Perry, known as the inventor of the Perry side bear- 
ing, a master car builder of many years' experience and until 
recently a representative of the Joliet Railway Supply Co., 
has been appointed a representative of the Chicago Car 
Door Co., with iffices in the Monadnock Bldg., Chicago. Mr. 
Perry has recently attracted considerable favorable comment 
by writing a series of articles called "Reminiscences of a 
Master Car Builder," published serially during 1911 in the 
Railway Master Mechanic. 

The Pressed Steel Car Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., has removed 
its office from St. Louis, Mo., to the Old Colony building, 

The Baldwin Locomotive Works recently acquired the right 
to build the Garrett type locomotives for service in the United 
States and Canada. The special feature of these locomotives 
is that they are of high capacity and will operate on lines hav- 
ing sharp curves. 

Mr. E. L. Messier, who for the past 12 years has been 
general superintendent of the Jones & Laughlin Steel Co.'s 
Pittsburg coke ovens and blast furnaces, has tendered his 
resignation, effective January 1, to accept the position of 
assistant to the president of the Riter-Conley Manufacturing 
Co., Pittsburgh. 

The John F. Stevens Co. has been organized in New York 
with a capital stock of $2,000,000 and proposes engaging in rail- 
road construction work. J. F. Stevens, ex-president of the 
North Bank road and the Hill lines in Oregon, is president. 
A large portion of the stock is held by the United States Realty 
& Investment Co., of which the John F. Stevens 'Co. will be an 
auxiliary concern. It is understood that arrangements will be 
made for extensive railroad work in any part of the United 

The L. S. Starrett Company, which has one of the largest 
manufacturing establishments of fine mechanical tools in the 
world, has recently increased its capital stock to $3,500,000,. of 
which $1,500,000 is to be six per cent cumulative preferred stock 
and $2,000,000 common stock. The officers of the company are: 
L. S. Starrett, President ; F. A. Ball, vice-president ; F. E. Wing, 
treasurer and secretary; W. G. Nims, assistant treasurer; with 
a board of nine directors consisting of the officers named and 
M. B. Waterman, Augustus P. Loring, John A. McGregor, J. H. 
Drury, and W. B. McSkimmon. The last four named are offi- 
cers of the Union Twist Drill Co., the second largest machine 
factory in Athol. The Union Twist Drill Co. becomes a stock- 
holder of the L. S. Starrett Co. and as such has representation 
on the board of directors, which is increased from five to nine. 
The L. S. Starrett Co. was incorporated in 1900, succeeding to 
the business established by L. S. Starrett in 1880 and conducted 
by him individually up to the time of its incorporation. The 
capital stock of the incorporation was $100,000 in 1900, since 
which time the business has increased far out of proportion to 
the original capital. L. S. Starrett continues in active control 
of the business. 

The Jerome Metallic Packing Co., Chicago, has moved its 
main offices to the Railway Exchange, where larger floor space 
has been secured. William H. Dickinson, for 14 years con- 
nected with the Griffin Wheel Co., Chicago, has accepted a po- 
sition with the Jerome company, with special charge of the 
sales department. The company has secured the sole rights of 
manufacture and sale of the Stickley pneumatic track sander and 
will also handle the product of the Ruby Manufacturing Co., 
Jackson, Mich., consisting of portable galvanized sectional steel 
buildings, sectional steel bill-boards, and for railway right 
of way bulletins and signs. 



[January, 1912.] 

Icenf "Railosay Mechanical P&fenfa 

^*= - _ — -~ : -- . — _ 


1,007,979— Max M. Schneider, assignor to the Pullman Co.. 

cago, 111. 

Patented Nov. 7. 1911. 
This patent, owned by the Pullman Co., relates to an improved 
construction of the end portions or vestibules of metal cars. The 
illustration shows a sectional plan view of the end of such car. 


1,009,751— Clarence H. Howard, of St. Louis, assignor to Double 

Bodv Bolster Co., of St. Louis, Mo. 

Patented Nov. 28, 1911. 

This is an improved cast steel underframe comprising a body 

bolster and end sill and connecting members all formed in one 

piece. As clearly shown in the illustration the threshold plate 11 

of the door is formed integral with the end sill and has a flange 

12 which overlies the end of the flooring. 

1,010,496 — Clarence H. Howard and Harry M. Pflager, of St. Louis, 
assignors to Double Body Bolster Co., of St. Louis, Mo. 
Patented Dec. 5, 1911. 
In this improved brake rigging the main pull lever 7 is con- 
nected at its upper end both to the push rod 5 of the brake cylin- 
der and to the pull rod 15 of the head brake gear. In this way 
the brake may be applied with the same leverage either by hand 
or by power. 

1,010,625 — Harry S. Hart, Chicago, assignor to Rodger Ballast 
Car Co., of Chicago, 111. 
Patented Dec. 5, 1911. 
This invention relates to an improved underframe which is espe- 
cially adapted for use in connection with hopper bottom gondola 
cars. It also relates to improved means for adjusting the height 
of the sides and ends of such cars. The illustrations show a 
longitudinal and transverse section through the car. For a better 
understanding of the construction those interested are referred 
to the complete patent which contains ten figures. 


1,011,216 — Charles A. Lindstrom, of Pittsburgh, assignor to Pressed 

Steel Car Co., of Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Patented Dec. 12, 1911. 

This is an improved tank car so constructed that the tank may 

be readily removed from the underframe. The tank is secured 

to the frame at each end by means of detachable straps 5 and 

in the middle it is held in place by means of a bracket 6 secured 

to the tank which engages a casting 7 riveted to the center sills, 

as clearly shown in the sectional detail view. 


i Os ™r- 




[February, 1912.] 



The World's GreatestRailway Mechanical Journal 

Published at the World's Greatest Railway Center 

Established 1878 


WILLIAM E.M AGRA W, Pres.andTreas. 
CHAS. S MYERS, Vlce-Pres. LYNDON F. WILSON, Managing Editor 

C. C. ZIMMERMAN, Bus. Mgr. OWEN W. MIDDLETON, Assoc. Editor 

J. M. CROWE, Mgr. Central Dlst. KENNETH L.VAN AUKEN, Assoc. Editor 

Office of Publication : Manhattan Building, Chicago 

Telephone, Harrison 4948 
Eastern Office: 50 Church Street, New York 

Telephone Cortlandt 5765 

Central Office: House Bldg., Pittsburg, Pa. 

A Monthly Railway Journal 

Devoted to the interests of railway motive power, car equipment, 

shops, machinery and supplies. 
Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are solicited. 
Subscription price, $2.00 a year; to foreign countries, $2.50, free of 

postage. Single copies, 20 cents. Advertising rates given on 

application to the office, by mail or in person. 
In remitting, make all checks payable to The Railway List Company. 
Papers should reach subscribers by the 16th of the month at the 

latest. Kindly notify us at once of any delay or failure to 

receive any issue and another copy will be very gladly sent. 

Entered as Second-Class Matter June 18, 1895, at the Post Office 
at Chicago, Illinois, Under Act of March 3, 1879. 

Vol. XXXVI Chicago, February, 1912 No. 2 


Editorial — 

Boiler Inspection 41 

Over-Cylindered Locomotives and the Superheater 41 

Employers Liability Decision 42 

Edison and- Railway Electrification 42 

Dodging Bullets- 43 

Ideas Purchased 43 

Grouches 43 

Mikado Type Locomotives, Erie R. R 44 

Double-Cutting Planing Machines 46 

Use of Highly Superheated Steam in Locomotives 47 

A Timid Daredevil 52 

What Shall We Do With the Trusts? 53 

Railway Storekeepers Association 54 

Considerably Less than Nothing 54 

Steel Cars in Collision 55 

Explosives 56 

Protective Devices • 56 

The Accounting Department in Connection with the Mechanical 

and Stores Department 56 

H L Control for Electric Locomotives 59 

Jacobs-Shupert Firebox Tests 60 

Head-End Electric Train Lighting 61 

27-Ton Electric Locomotive, Guelph Radial Ry 66 

Work of Railway Testing Department 67 

Steel Bins in Cabinet Form 70 

Personals 71 

Railway Officials Killed in Collision 72 

New Books 73 

Among the Manufacturers 74 

A Permanent Railway Supply Exhibit 74 

Buffalo Steam Hammer 74 

New Taper Turning Tool 75 

High Duty Lathe 75 

Convenient Hydraulic Locomotive Box Press 76 

Hollow Staybolt Iron 77 

Allen Hammer Riveter 77 

"One-Man" Drill 77 

Acme Weatherproof Window 77 

Shrouded Glass Water Gage 78 

New Literature : 79 

Industrial Notes 79 

Railway Operating Organization 80 

Recent Railway Mechanical Patents 82 

The boiler inspection law became effective July 1, 1911, at 
which time a chief inspector and forty-seven district inspect- 
ors were appointed. According to the recent report of the 
Interstate Commerce Commission, the first report of the 
chief inspector was very satisfactory, showing that for the 
first three months following July 1 there were 6 deaths and 
32 injuries due to boiler accidents as against 12 deaths and 
260 injuries during the previous three months. However, we 
shall be able to judge the results of boiler inspection more 
clearly at the end of a year or two. The Interstate Com- 
merce Commission report also states that standardization of 
operating rules would contribute greatly towards safety of 
railway travel, inasmuch as operatives are constantly chang- 
ing from one road to another. In support of the statement, 
mention is made that navigation rules are the same through- 
out the world and that the necessity for standard operating 
rules is just as apparent. 


Probably one of the most frequent causes of inefficiences in 
locomotives is small boiler capacity. This difficulty is as fre- 
quently met with in late designs as in those of earlier type, 
and most frequently is it found in the Mallet. No doubt a valid 
reason for this fact is lack of proper consideration and allow- 
ance for the simpling feature. Previous compound types have 
entered service which does not demand the large percentage 
of simple operation which is almost always expected of the 
Mallet. In pusher service or in handling freight over moun- 
tainous districts, those in charge of this class of power have 
found that what they consider necessary simpling results in 
more or less excessive drains on the boilers. It cannot be 
doubted that this is often due to improper handling of the 
engines, owing to lack of thorough instruction; neither is it to 
be doubted that in some cases the remedy is not so easily to 
' be applied. 

The claims of those who have been responsible for the de- 
velopment of the locomotive superheater have been pretty well 
substantiated by thorough and impartial service tests in all its 
applications. The latest of these series of tests, that conducted 
by the New York Central, has supplied information, heretofore 
lacking, which concerns the application of the superheater to 
the Mallet. A large number of points of difference have been 
finally settled, nearly always in favor of the supporters of high 
degree superheat. Incidentally the brick arch has secured 
a share of the credit which it deserves through this same series 
of tests, and its place as a prime factor in the increase of boiler 
efficiency, has been determined. 

Considering the substantiation of these facts and also consid- 
ering the comparatively small cost of the improvements men- 
tioned, it would seem that the continued operation of locomo- 
tives lacking in boiler capacity, without them, could be con- 
sidered nothing less than negligence on the part of those re- 
sponsible. Reduced boiler pressures and larger cylinder diam- 
eters have followed the use of superheaters because any advan- 
tages gained by the use of high pressures with saturated steam 
are secured just as practically and automatically in combination 
with the other advantages of superheated steam. In the case 



[February, 1912.] 

of the overcylindered, saturated steam locomotive, the feasability 
of securing by means of the application of a superheater, in- 
creased hauling capacity and general efficiency, is well sub- 
stantiated. The use of the brick arch surely follows as a 
matter of course. 

should have. The recent decision puts this sort of legislation 
on a firmer basis and should clear the way for a comprehensive 
scheme of compensation. 


The employers' liability law, enacted by Congress in 1908, 
was declared constitutional by the Supreme Court in a de- 
cision handed down during the middle of January. The law 
of 1908 took the place of one previously passed by Congress 
but declared to be unconstitutional. The decision as to the 
present law, however, was unanimous and the law super- 
sedes all state legislation covering the same field as applied 
to interstate commerce. It makes the employer liable for 
accidents caused by the negligence of an employee (the fel- 
low servant doctrine), and greatly curtails the defenses of 
the employer in the cases of "contributory negligence" and 
"'assumption of risk." The decision of the Supreme Court 
is positive and plain in stating that Congress has the right 
to enact legislation defining the liability of carriers engaged 
in interstate commerce. 

Legislation of this sort has been enacted in practically all 
foreign countries and it must eventually result in good, not 
only to the community at large, but to the carriers as 
well. About a fourth of our states have laws limiting the 
old time defenses of the employer and the right to do this 
has now been firmly fixed by the highest court of the land. 
The railroad employee is a part of the company; now more than 
ever is the company responsible for its employees. The past 
month saw the appointment of a superintendent of safety on 
the Burlington ; twenty years ago a superintendent of safety 
would have been about as logical as a superintendent of swear- 
ing. By this time most of our roads are doing organized work 
towards the propagation of safety. The Chicago & North- 
western has the slogan "Safety First" and it might well have, 
made it "Safety First and Always," for railroads are operated 
to make life of more value and not of less value. A number 
of roads in buying machine tools make the item of safety one 
of the important points to be considered, and now that the 
employer's liability is increased, it might be well to note that 
it is up to machine tool builders and others to see that their 
products have been made as safe as possible, and to let their 
customers know it. The machine tool which is efficient and at 
the same time is safeguarded is bound to command the interest 
of those making railway purchases. 

However, a stricter definition of employers' liability does not 
necessarily mean a more efficient system of workmen's compen- 
sation, for under the national law, though the rights of the em- 
ployee are more firmly established, the court must, in cases of 
last resort, fix the amount of compensation. A bill providing 
for a definite scheme for workmen's compensation, which is 
now being worked out by a joint committee of Congress, should 
hand in hand with the federal employers' liability law, as 
it does in a number of the state acts. It will allow the car- 
riers to know just how much they are liable for, and it will 


Thomas A. Edison has advanced a plan for electrifying 
crowded railway terminals by means of the storage battery 
system. If newspaper accounts are to be credited, his assur- 
ances of the success of his system have been of the boldest, 
and two railways have tentatively agreed to a trial. After a 
conference with Illinois Central officials, Mr. Edison freely 
gave information to Chicago newspaper reporters, to the effect 
that several locomotives would be built to operate on the stor- 
age battery principle and placed in service on that road in its 
Chicago terminal. The inventor plans to use a tender to carry 
his batteries much as steam locomotives haul water and coal. 
These tenders will be charged at a charging station and picked 
up by the locomotives as needed. It is stated that the batteries 
to be used can be charged in one hour or less, and that the 
power of the locomotives can be made equal to' those of the 
largest steam locomotives in service. The Edison-Beach car, 
which will be tried out by the Chicago Great Western for 
branch line service, is equipped with batteries which cannot be 
charged in so short a time by several hours. 

Owing to Mr. Edison's no less than marvelous success in 
past years as an inventor, he is looked upon by the masses 
of the people of this country as no less than a wizard and 
consequently his assurances of the success of his latest efforts 
are credited by them to the fullest extent. Owing to this 
fact, and following Mr. Edison's statement, small sympathy is 
extended, by the people who are behind the movement to push 
the electrication of terminals, to those conservatives who wish 
something more than bare assurances before taking a radical 
step of this nature. It seems hardly possible that even Mr. 
Edison, after such a superficial insight into the local situations, 
has not underestimated the difficulties incident to the change 
of motive power. Perhaps it might have been more satisfac- 
tory all around if the engineers now engaged in the study of 
the subject of the electrification of the terminals at Chicago 
and other points, had been given a chance to go into Mr. 
Edison's plans thoroughly before the unreserved assurances had 
been made public. 

D. R. MacBain, superintendent of motive power of the 
Lake Shore, has recently been granted a patent on an im- 
proved method of manufacturing locomotive boilers. The 
essential feature consists in placing a compressive strain upon 
the boiler tubes, by mechanical means, to oppose the tensile 
strain induced in service in the boiler shell. This is done by 
springing the tubes in so that they have a slight curvature 
and securing the ends in the tube sheets, thus providing 
against the tensile strain. 

In a recent address, David H. Browns, superintendent of 
the Lake Superior Corporation, said. "Success in life means 
two things, greater earning ability and greater enjoyment 

capability. The end of life is happiness. Happiness arises 
allow the employee to know what he may expect. As it is, he not merely from greater earning power but from greater 
wh® needs compensation most, is least able to fight for what he capacity for enjoyment." 

I February, L912.] 



Dodging bullets never saved a life. Dodging responsibility 
never made one. Tomorrow something may strike you. You 
ean't dodge it. Then pay attention to where you're shooting 
today. If tomorrow it does strike you, let it find you standing 
firmly on your feet that it may not stagger you. If number 
310 must be out of the shop by four o'clock — take the responsi- 
bility. It is up to you— see that you are up to it. You will be 
better prepared to meet the next jolt. Responsibility like the 
bullet travels in a straight line; if you are in its path, it will 
leave its mark even though you try to dodge. The more you 
dodge— the less you shoot. The man who has made his life 
worth while has done it by shooting, not by dodging. John 
Boyle O'Reilley expressed it well in this way : 

"Soldier why do you shrink from the whiz of the 

angry lead ? 
The bullet that whizzed, is past, the approaching ball 

is dumb. 
Stand straight, you cannot shrink from fate, let 

it come. 
A comrade in front will hear it whiz when you are 



Some time ago the Pennsylvania Company announced that 
it would pay its men for valuable ideas. The first results 
of the experiment have just been made public. The response 
was immediate. As was expected, the men in charge of mi- 
nute detail saw ways of increasing efficiency which escaped 
the general directors of the work. Suggestions came in from 
all quarters. Many of them proved to be of real value and 
their authors were rewarded in cash. 

A clerk in one of the roundhouses won a premium by sub- 
mitting a plan for increasing economy by the further use 
of carbon sheets which remain in repair card books, after 
the cards have been filled in and removed. He devised a way 
of using this carbon paper in connection with one of the 
company's forms for ordering material from the store 

Another of the schemes considered worthy of remunera- 
tion came from a tinsmith in one of the shops. He dis- 
covered an improved method for fastening in engine cabs 
the boxes which contain flags, torpedoes and medical case. 
By standardizing the heights of coal gates on locomotive 
tenders, a fireman saw a way to minimize the loss of coal 
through vibration. He was paid for the idea. 

At one of the terminals, an appliance for cleaning and 
sterilizing drinking cups used in coaches was perfected by 
a car inspector whose duties are in connection with the care 
and equipment of passenger cars. It. was an undoubted im- 
provement over the old method and its originator received 
payment for it. 

Although a great many worthless suggestions come in, 
officials say that the saving effected by those which are 
adopted makes it very much worth while to investigate them 
all. Aside from these direct benefits, there is much in- 
direct gain in the added interest employes take in their work, 
and in the watchfulness and originality which is developed. 

The Santa Fe de Luxe extra fare train between Chicago 
and California has buffet and dining cars equipped with Dunt- 
ley air washers. These washers, which are electrically driven, 
take in air through a vent in the deck. The dust and cin- 
ders are removed in the washers, and the air is then forced 
into the cars through a series of ventilators placed just be- 
neath the deck sash. The washers are packed in ice and 
the apparatus is another step toward better ventilation in 
our cars. 

Oil burning engines are to be used on the lines of the 
Canadian Pacific in British Columbia. About 75 engines, in- 
cluding a number of Mallets, are to be converted from coal 
burners to oil burners. The use of oil as a locomotive 
fuel throughout the west is on the increase, the Great Nor- 
thern having just recently converted a large number of en- 
gines on its western lines. The Tehuantepec National Ry. in 
Mexico is also using a large number of oil burners. 

Key West, Fla., was connected by rail to the continent on 
January 20, this date marking the opening of the Florida East 
Coast Ry. from Knights Key to that point. This road is 
a wonderful example of modern engineering as the last fifty 
miles is practically built out over the ocean, touching here 
and there some of the Florida Keys. Through Pullmans will 
be run from New York to Key West and as the latter place 
is only 90 miles from Havana, it is predicted that ferrys 
will eventually enable one to make the entire trip to the 
island without change. 


The man who indulges in either grouch or graft is a goner, 
and all good railroad men know it. — Elbert Hubbard. As a 
general thing, we think that about fifteen minutes in a barber 
shop and a week's work in the erecting shop would be a good 
thing for Elbert, but we do think that statement hits pretty 
straight. You can't afford to indulge in a grouch until you 
are fifty, and if you put it off until them, you won't want to. 
The grouch generally seems to wish he was dead, and generally 
other people wish he was too. Of course, you haven't a grouch, 
but if you should ever feel one coming on, you might stop to 
consider that living isn't such a bad occupation after all. As 
to graft — there are numerous instances to prove this point. Are 
you a good railroad man? 

The Baltimore & Ohio is understood to be planning to 
construct a branch line, primarily for the purpose of trans- 
porting material and machinery for the hydroelectric de- 
velopment on the Cheat River. It is said that the road will 
be constructed at first as far as Beaver Hole, where one 
of the dams is to be located, and then will be extended 
through Preston county, W. Va. This company is also 
stated to have taken over the Hampshire Southern, a :iS- 
mile line, built two years ago, extending from Romney, W, 
Va., to Moorfield at Petersburg. It is probable that the 
line will be extended to Franklin, and also in Hyland county, 

Tt is now stated that the officials of the Chicago, Burling- 
ton & Quincy have reached a decision not to extend the 
lines of the company south of the Ohio River into South- 
eastern territory. 



[February, 1912.] 

Mikado Type Locomotives, Erie R. R. 

The Erie Railroad has recently received from The Bald- 
win Locomotive Works, twenty Mikado type locomotives for 
service on the Cincinnati division. These locomotives are 
being introduced in order to increase the capacity of the 
division and relieve freight congestion. The average load 
per pair of driving wheels is very nearly 60,000 pounds, and 
in point of total weight the locomotives are the heaviest of 
their type thus far completed by the builders. They are 
built in accordance with specifications furnished by the rail- 
road company and are designated as class N-l. 

Compared with the class H-21 consolidation type locomo- 
tives used on this road, the new Mikado type locomotives 
show an increase in tractive force of 35 per cent., in weight 
on driving wheels of 31 per cent., and in total equivalent 
heating surface of 83 per cent. The H-21 locomotives use 
saturated steam while the N-l engines are equipped with 
fire-tube superheaters. In making the above comparison 
each square foot of superheating surface is considered equiv- 
alent to V/2 square feet of water evaporating surface. On 

each 5y 2 inches' in diameter. The dome base and body are 
flanged from a single piece of steel plate. The longitudinal 
seams are all placed on the top center line. They are 
welded at the ends, and have diamond shaped welt strips 

The frames are of vanadium cast steel, with back sections 
of hammered iron. The front frames are single and are 
cast in one piece with the main frames, which are six inches 
wide, and measure 7 inches in depth over the pedestals. The 
rear frames are in the form of slabs and are 2% inches 
wide. The equalization system divides between the second 
and third pairs of driving wheels. The spring links are 
here held by pins which pass through lugs cast in the 

The steam pipes in these locomotives pass out through 
the sides of the smoke box, and deliver steam directly to the 
steam chests. The steam distribution is controlled by 16- 
inch piston valves which are driven by Baker gear. The 
valves are set with a maximum travel of 6 inches and a con- 

Mikado Type Locomotive, Erie R. R. 

the basis of water evaporating surface alone, the N-l loco- stant lead of y 4 inch. The steam lap is 1 inch, and the ex- 
motives show an increase of 33 per cent, over the class H-21, haust clearance 1-16 inch. The valve motions are controlled 
and this is practically in proportion to the increase in trac- by the Ragonnet power gear. 

live force. Therefore the increase in relative boiler capacity, The tender is of the Vanderbilt type, with capacity for 

measured on a heating surface basis, is provided by the super- 9,000 gallons of water and 16 tons of coal. The tank has a 

heater, and is approximately 50 per cent. This means in- diameter of 8 feet 9 inches, and the frame is composed of 

creased hauling capacity for the new engines plus the added 0x4 inch angles, with steel bumpers. The trucks have cast 

advantage of taking the larger tonnage at a higher speed steel side frames and steel tired wheels. 

than could be maintained by the class H-21 locomotives. These locomotives have a ratio of adhesion of 4.12. The 
The boilers of the Mikado type locomotive present a few weight on drivers is thus fully utilized, and as has been 
features that are worthy of mention. The firebox is radially pointed out. the boiler capacity is sufficient to insure free 
stayed, and the front end of the crown is supported by four steaming. The locomotives have been specially designed to 
transverse rows of flexible bolts, which are used instead meet difficult operating conditions, and preliminary trials in- 
of the customary arrangement of T-irons and expansion dicate that their performance will be most satisfactory. 
links. The depth of the throat, measured from the under The locomotives are equipped with Schmidt superheat- 
side of the barrel to the botom of the mud ring, is 25 ers with a superheating surface of 1.050 square feet. 
inches. This provides ample room for the brick arch, which ^Following is a table of weights and dimensions: 

is supported on four 3-inch water tubes. The superheater is Gauge 4 ft. 8*/ 2 ins. 

of the Schmidt type. Tt provides 1,050 square feet of super- Cylinders 28 x 32 ins. 

heating surface, and the elements are located in 36 tubes Valves Balanced piston 

[February, 1912.] 





[February. 1912.] 

Boiler — 

Type Straight 

Material Steel 

Diameter S4 ins. 

Thickness of sheets 15/16 ins. 

Working pressure 170 lbs. 

Fuel Coal 

Staying Radial 

Fire Box — 

Material Steel 

Length 120 ins. 

Width S4 ins. 

Depth, front 88^ ins. 

Depth, back 72)4 >ns. 

Thickness of sheets, sides 3 A ins. 

Thickness of sheets, back Y% ins. 

Thickness of sheets, crown. Y% ins. 

Thickness of sheets, tube % ins. 

Water Space — 

Front G ins. 

Sides 6 ins. 

Back 6 ins. 

Tubes — 

Diameter 5 J / 2 and 2y 4 ins. 

Material 5*4 in., steel, and 2% in., iron 

Thickness . . .". 5^ in. Xo. 9 W. G., and 2% in., 0.125 in. 

Number 5 l / 2 in.. 36; 2% in., 232 

Length 21 ft. in. 

Heating Surface — 

Fire box 188 sq. ft. 

Tubes 3936 sq. ft. 

Firebrick tubes 31 sq. ft. 

Total 4155 sq. ft. 

Grate area 70 sq. ft. 

Driving Wheels — 

Diameter, outside 63 ins. 

Diameter, center 56 ins. 

Journals 11 x 14 ins. 

Engine Truck Wheels — 

Diameter, front 33J^ ins. 

Journals 6 x 12 ins. 

Diameter, back 42 ins. 

Journals 8 x 14 ins. 

Wheel Base- 
Driving 16 ft. 6 ins. 

Rigid 16 ft. 6 ins. 

Total engine . . .- 35 ft. ins. 

Total engine and tender 66 ft. 10]/ 2 ins. 

On driving wheels 236,950 lbs. 

On truck, front 30,200 lbs. 

On truck, back , 54,900 lbs. 

Total engine 322,050 lbs. 

Total engine and tender, about 485,000 lbs. 

Tender — 

Wheels, number 8 

Wheels, diameter 33 ins. 

Journals 6 x 11 ins. 

Tank capacity 9000 gals. 

Fuel capacity 16 Ions 

Service Freight 

The discussion upon the virtues of double-cutting plan- 
ing machines at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers 
on Friday lasl presages a new era for this hitherto much 
avoided machine. Mr. J. Hartles Wicksteed, in a paper at 
the November meeting, described double-cutting planing ma- 
chine of different kind- and their capabilities. \" abstract 

of this paper has been given in these pages. One of these 
machines was described as being driven by the ordinary 
method of belt from a line shaft, with fast and loose pulleys, 
and the paper set forth the speeds and powers that can be 
obtained from a machine of that kind. Another one was a 
double-cutting machine specially suitable for cast iron and 
driven by a reversing motor with a Vickers form of equip- 
ment. Yet another was fitted with a reversing equipment 
made by the Lancashire Dynamo and Motor Company, and 
the speeds that can be obtained and the cuts given were 
set forth. Finally, a machine was described driven by a con- 
tinuous running motor, and reversed without fast or loose 
pulleys, but by a system of jockey pullers. This latter "is 
particularly favored by the author. 

Whilst there was in the discussion a very general consem- 
s'us of opinion that double-cutting planing machines had 
been neglected through prejudice, Mr. Wicksteed took a very 
impartial view of this matter, and differed somewhat from 
this opinion. Conservatism and prejudice did not, he thought, 
explain the whole situation. There would have been a for- 
tune in the application of double-cutting toolholders to 
existing planing machines, but for the fact that it is no use 
putting these on unless they do more work, and they would 
not do this unless there were a double feed. If the feed were 
simply split between the two tools, then no good purpose 
was served. On this point, also, Mr. L. Pendred suggested 
that Mr. Wicksteed himself had been, by reason of the 
great improvements he had effected in ordinary planing ma- 
chines, one of the greatest enemies of double cutting. Re- 
cent improvements in the increase in the rate of the return 
had rendered it not nearly so essential to cut on the return 
stroke as it was in the old days. This same speaker, after 
calling attention to the fact that on the return stroke, when 
cutting, there was a certain amount of pulling motion, in- 
stead of "pushing,'' which had a tendency to lift the saddle, 
suggested the possibility of there being no need for the 
electric drive. These introduced complications, and did not 
give any great advantage compared with belt drive. Mr. 
R. W. Allen did not think there was a prejudice against 
double cutting, per se, but attributed its little use to "fashion." 

When an efficient double-cutting planing machine was put 
on the market it would have a very large sale. The prejudice 
against double cutting was put down to want of considera- 
tion of the subject in a fair and square manner, by another 

This gentleman (Mr. Walter Deakin, not a maker of plan- 
ing machines) is a proselyte to Mr. Wicksteed's efforts to 
make double cutting more or less universal. He introduced 
to the meeting a new form of attachment for double cutting, 
which, although he himself considered it would get over 
many of the obstacles which have hitherto existed, one or 
two subsequent speakers characterized as an old device. The 
principle of the attachment is a semi-rotary motion, after 
that of the Whitworth attachment. Tn this case, however, 
the work is done by one tool instead of two, thus avoiding 
having to turn the toolbox all the way round. Provision is 
made for adjusting the relative angle of the tool, which has 
a cutting edge in both directions, and the device is such that 
not only can ordinary surfaces be cut, but side cuts and un- 
dercuts as well. He said he had been able to heat a milling 
machine in undercutting, being able to undercut a slot with- 
out having to lift the tool out of the slot. This arrangement 
came in for a certain amount of criticism, there seeming to 
be a preference for two tools. 

A pleasing feature of the debate from the author's point 
of view was that those details which he had come specially 
prepared to defend were not attacked. He had anticipated 
having to produce further evidence as to the power of trans- 
mission, with regard to the tightening and loosening of the 

I February, 1912.] 



belts, and the cuts taken off with various horsepowers. In 
reference to the advantage between electric drive and jockey 
pulley reversal, this was specially pronounced on short cuts. 
The armature of the electric drive was rather a heavy item 
which had a good deal of kinetic energy revolving at a good 
speed, and it had to be reversed. A pulley made of aluminum 
or wood weighed perhaps one-tenth of this, and it had only, 
therefore, one-tenth of the kinetic energy which had to be 
arrested and then accelerated. On short cuts of, say, one 
foot, he maintained that it was possible to take 30 cycles 
with a belt drive against 20 with any form of drive in which 
there is a heavy armature. Many people did not care about 
time, so long as they were clear of belt, "but," added Mr. 
Wicksteed, naively, "they have not had experience of my 
belts." He dismissed the point as to the "pulling" action on 
the return stroke by saying "there is plenty of strength to 
withstand it; they were not trying to test the ultimate 
strength of the machine." — Mechanical World. 

By Gilbert E. Ryder. 

Among all recent improvements in design and construction 
of the locomotives, the use of highly superheated steam is at- 
tracting the most attention among motive power and trans- 
portation departments. The interest displayed by railroad 
men in the use of superheated steam is not, as it was a few 
years ago, interest in a new device accompanied with the 
wonder whether or not it would be successful, but rather 
an interest of wonder at the success of the device shown by 
the results that have been obtained in the saving of fuel, 
decrease in water consumption and the increased hauling 
capacity of the locomotives. 

Right here at the beginning I wish to illustrate the points, 
of the fuel saving, and increased hauling capacity by an 
example which I think brings out the facts very clearly. 
From the results that have been obtained with superheaters 
in service it is conservative to say that the saving which 
has been effected in the fuel consumption under average 








3? PI 
















I -I 

20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 

Fig. 1 — Saving in Coal per I. H. P. Hour for Increasing Degrees 

of Superheat. 

working conditions is 25 per cent. This saving is so large 
that we are liable to overlook the significance of the fact 
that this figure, 25 per cent saving in fuel, really means an 
increased hauling capacity of 33 1-3 per cent. Assume that 
we are burning in a saturated locomotive 6,000 lbs. of coal 
per hour and that this is the limit of the fireman's capacity. 
Assume also that the economy of our entire locomotive is 
such that we are able to get one horsepower hour with each 
four pounds of coal. Under these assumed conditions we are 
developing 1,500 horsepower hours per hour. Now suppose 
that we equip this same locomotive with a superheater, by 

*From a paper read before the Southern and Southwestern 
Railway Club, Atlanta, Ga., Jan. 18, 1912. 

the use of which we have been able to save 25 per cent in 
fuel, that is, our consumption is now three pounds of coal 
per horsepower hour, or 1,500 horsepower hours on 4,500 
lbs. of coal. But the capacity of our fireman we assumed, 
to be 6,000 lbs. of coal per hour, so why not let him work 
up to his capacity? Thus in firing 6,000 lbs. of coal per hour 
with the superheater locomotive we are developing 2,000 
horsepower hours, an increase of 500 horsepower hours, 
or 33 1-3 per cent. This increase of 33 1-3 per cent in 
horsepower hour means an equivalent increase in,, hauling 
capacity of 33 1-3 per cent, which is the real thing that is of 
importance to the railroad mechanical and operating de- 
partments inasmuch as it means a decrease in the invest- 
ment in power and a corresponding decrease in the operat- 
ing costs to handle the same amount of traffic. 

The fire tube superheater by the use of which a tempera- 
ture of the steam entering the cylinders of from 600 to 650 
degrees or a superheat of from 200 to 250 degrees may be 
obtained, is almost universally adopted by railroads using 
superheated steam, because of the largely increased efficiency 
of the locomotive using such degree of superheat. At pres- 
ent there are something over 12,000 locomotives in all coun- 
tries equipped with fire tube superheaters furnishing highly 
superheated steam. Over 2,000 of this number are in service 
in the United States. By high degrees of superheat is 
meant a superheat of from 200 to 250 degrees. 

The principal advantages secured through the use of highly 
superheated steam are due to the increased volume of steam 
delivered per pound of water evaporated and the prevention 
of cylinder condensation. The economy which results from 
the use of the superheater is occasioned by the reduction of 
what is known as the "missing quantity" or the difference 
between the actual steam passing through the engine and 
that which is shown by the indicator card. This quantity 
is largely due to the loss by condensation in the passages 
to the cylinder and in the cylinder walls themselves. 

Let us first consider the principal qualities of saturated 
steam. Saturated steam has the same temperature and pres- 
sure as the water from which it is evaporated and with 
which it is in contact in the locomotive boiler and for each 
pressure the steam has a certain constant temperature. At 
170 lbs. boiler pressure for example, the steam will always 
have a temperature of 375 degrees F. and a volume of 2.47 
cu. ft. per lb. If more heat is added to the boiler it is 
transmitted to the water and used in evaporating more 
water but does not. increase the steam temperature as long- 
as the pressure' remains the same. If heat is taken away 
from the saturated steam in doing work or by cooling as in 
the steam passages of the cylinders, part of the steam con- 
denses. The amount of the steam condensed is almost pro- 
portional to the heat abstracted and this condensed steam, 
or water, is inert so far as the capacity for further work is 

The condensation takes place in the steam chests, cylinders 
and in the passages from the boiler to the steam chest. The 
greatest loss from condensation occurs in the cylinders, for 
here the variation in temperature is widest and the large 
areas offer a favorable condition for the loss of heat or for 
condensation to take place. The steam enters the cylinders 
practically at boiler pressure (disregarding the loss of con- 
densation in the passages and the steam chest and other con- 
ditions which influence the pressure). Assume for example 
that the boiler pressure is 200 lbs. per sq. in. then the steam 
enters the cylinders at a temperature of practically 387 de- 
grees F. It finds the cylinder walls in a comparatively cool 
condition. Immediately these cool walls begin to rob the 
steam of its heat and this continues throughout the stroke. 
.The steam leaves the cylinder at a temperature correspond- 
ing to the pressure of exhaust, or about 230 to 240 degrees F 
It also leaves the temperature of the cylinder walls about 



[February, 1912.] 

the same as the temperature of the exhaust, and the next 
admission of steam, which, by the way, enters the coolest end 
of the cylinder, finds the cylinder walls in this cool condi- 
tion and must go through the same process as the preceding 
admission. Thus all the steam which enters the cylinders 
must go on giving up heat to the cylinder walls and thence 
to the atmosphere. The drop in temperature and the corre- 
sponding loss of heat of saturated steam means a corre- 
sponding amount of condensation and a proportional drop 
in pressure. 

Tests show that, in Mallet compound engines without su- 
perheaters, the condensation in the receiver pipe runs up to 
over 20 per cent, while in simple saturated engines using 
short cut off, cylinder condensation runs up to over 35 per 
cent of the weight of steam admitted to the cylinders, that 
is. for every 100 lbs. of steam delivered to the cylinder only 
65 lbs. are available for doing work. This loss, as stated 
above, can be overcome by the use of highly superheated 

Superheated steam partakes the nature of a perfect gas. 
It has a larger volume per unit of weight than saturated 
steam, and like a gas is a poor conductor of heat giving up 
its heat to the cylinder walls and steam pipes less rapidly. 
Taking superheated steam in the same proportions that were 
used in the case of saturated steam at 170 lbs. pressure 
with 200 degrees F. superheat it has a volume of 3.27 cu. ft. 
per lb. against 2.47 cu. ft. per lb. for saturated steam. Of 
course when superheated steam passes from the superheater 
to the comparatively cold cylinder walls some of its super- 
heat is given up to these walls. and the passages traversed 
in reaching the cylinders, but the condition differs from 
that of saturated steam in that it does not condense until 
it has lost all of its superheat and, therefore, the superheater 
must be so designed that under all working conditions it 
furnishes more superheat than the steam can lose in the 

The curve shown in Fig. 1 shows the saving which is 


schmidt superheater 
Locomotive Superheater 


Fig. 2 — Top Header Fire Tu 

steam, and means, an average reduction of 35 per cent in the 
amount of water used and of 25 per cent in the amount of 
coal used per ton mile. 

Let us now consider the principal qualities of superheated 
steam. When steam has left the boiler and passed into the 
superheater it is no longer in immediate contact with the 
water from which it was generated, if heat is now added to 
the steam. In its passage through the superheater tubes 
the moisture is evaporated and additional heat absorbed by 
the steam, so that on reaching the high pressure steam 
chest it has a temperature of about 200 degrees F. above 
that which it had when leaving the dry pipe. Meaning that 
it reached the high pressure steam chest at an actual tem- 
perature of about 600 degrees instead of 390 and 400 degrees, 
as is the case with a saturated engine. The pressure of the 
superheated steam, however, is practically the same as in 
the boiler. 

be Superheater Assembled. 

effected in the pounds of coal per indicated horsepower hour 
for various degrees of superheat. It also shows that the 
saving is very small for low degrees of superheat and in- 
creases more rapidly for higher degrees of superheat. Re- 
ferring to the curve it will be noted that from to 160 de- 
grees of superheat a saving of one-half pound of coal per 
indicated horsepower hour was effected while this same sav- 
ing was again effected in the next 60 degrees of superheat. 
Reference is made to this subject in the report from which 
the curve was taken as follows:* "The coal consumption 
per indicated horsepower hour at 180 lbs. steam pressure for 
the locomotive using saturated steam was 3.50 lbs., and for 80 
degrees of superheat was 3.40, a gain in efficiency of 2.8 

*Taken from a paper entitled "Locomotive Performance 
Under Different Degrees of Superheat," read before the A. 
R. M. M. A.. 1010, by Prof. Benjamin and Prof. Endslay. 

[February, 1912.] 



per cent, while the consumption at 160 degrees superheat 
is 3.00 lbs., a gain of 14.8 per cent, which is five times the 
saving of the first 80 degrees. Now, if this line indicating 
a steam pressure of 180 lbs. is carried as a smooth curve to 
240 degrees superheat, as shown, it would indicate a coal 
consumption of 2.35 lbs., or a saving over the saturated en- 
gine of 32.8 per cent. 

The effect of the superheater on the boiler is to increase 
the boiler capacity in proportion to the decrease in the de- 
mands that are made on it from 25 to 35 per cent. It has 
been shown that as the demand for power is increased the 
degree of superheat increases so that the demand on the . 
boiler does not increase in proportion. It is therefore eco- 
nomical to force a superheater engine, while it is not eco- 
nomical to force a saturated boiler in the same way, and 
it is many times impossible to do so for any length of time. 
The fact has been proven that locomotives equipped with 
superheater developing high degrees of .superheat, have at 
least 25 per cent greater boiler capacity than the same size 
of engine without a superheater. As the engine is worked 
harder, the fire is forced, which means a higher firebox tem- 
perature and hotter gases in the superheater. This results 
in a higher temperature of the steam, and with this higher 
superheat we begin to get the greater efficiencies which are 
characteristic of the superheater steam locomotives when 
they are worked hard. The fact explains the variation in 
fuel saving obtained by different superheater locomotives and 
emphasizes the fact that the greater economies are obtained 
when the engine is being worked the hardest. 

In engines operating in poor water districts where foamy 
water and fluctuations in water level would tend to increase 
the amount of water carried over from the boiler, it can 
readily be seen that a device which reduces the demand on 
the boiler, and which still, in addition, prevents the water 
from reaching the steam chest and cylinders, will greatly 
lengthen the life of the valves and pistons, prevent break- 
age of cylinder heads from water pressure and also length- 
en the life of the boiler. Another feature which favors the 
boiler in the use of superheated steam is the comparatively 
low boiler pressure which may be carried, as the size of the 
cylinders is not limited, as in the saturated steam engines 
where the diameter of cylinder must be limited in order to 
reduce condensation. 

Standard recommendation for boiler pressures to be used 
in connection with superheaters are 180 lbs. for freight 
engines and 200 lbs. for passenger engines. In bad water 
districts even lower boiler pressures may be used with cor- 
respondingly enlarged cylinders. 

The use of the brick arch in connection with the super- 
heater favors higher degrees of superheat. The arch acting 
as a baffle wall produces a longer flame way, of giving the 
gases a greater time to mix with the oxygen and thereby 
complete the combustion resulting in higher temperature in 
the firebox and the flues. It also has a tendency to direct 
the hotter gases through the larger flues which are located 
in the top part of the boiler. 

From the foregoing existing conditions which the super- 
heater is designed to meet, the requirements for an efficient 
and practicable .fire tube superheater may be summed up as 
follows: An integral header which is out of the way, in 
no way obstructing the front end or interfering with the 
maintenance of the boiler tubes so designed as to cause the 
least tendency toward wire drawing of the steam; the ar- 
rangement of superheater pipes which are easily accessible 
and removable and so constructed that the unequal expansion 
caused by the difference in temperature as the steam passes 
through the tubes will be taken care of; and superheater 
flues located in the upper part of the boiler where the ten- 
dency toward clogging is least and the temperature is high- 
est. These points have been carefully provided for in a 

superheater which is shown in the accompanying illus- 

The superheater assembled, Fig. 2, consists of a header 
"A" supported on brackets in the smoke box and making a 
joint with the steam pipe in the same manner as the Tee 
head, or what is commonly called the "Nigger Head," used 
in the saturated engines. Attached to the header and in 
communication with it are the coils or units "B" made up 
of cold drawn seamless steel tubing and screwed into return 
bends. Each unit is located inside a large flue "C" and ex- 
tends to within about 2 ft. of the back flue sheet. The 
larger boiler flues are set into the front and back flue sheets 
in very much the same manner as the ordinary small boiler 

The tools which have been found to give satisfactory re- 
sults in setting the large flues are a flue roller, consisting of 
five rollers, and a prosser or expander made up of twelve 
sections. The recommended operation of setting the flues 
employs a copper ferrule in the fire box end; the rolling, 
prossering and beading of the flue in the firebox end, and the 
rolling and beading of the flue in the front end. In the 
introduction of the copper ferrule it is advisable to break 
the corner of the hole in the tube sheet on the outside of 
the sheet in order to remove any burr that may be left by 
the cutting tool, and also to remove the tendency of the 
sharp corner cutting into the flue. In beading the flues the 
beads should be carefully turned down against the sheet. 
In the maintenance of the flues, the prosser should be given 

The flow of gases through these tubes is controlled by a 
damper "D" which is operated by the damper cylinders "E" 
located at the outside of the smoke box. The normal posi- 
tion of the damper is open when the engine throttle is open, 
thus allowing the gases to pass through large tubes and 
come in contact with the superheater units. 

The deflecting plate "F" is in a vertical position and this 
in connection with the horizontal partition which extends 
from the deflecting plate to the front flue sheet and con- 
tains the damper, makes the complete enclosure for the 
header and the part of the superheater units which extend 
through the front flue sheet into the smoke box. The de- 
flecting plate is made in parts to be easily removable. The 
operation of the superheater is as follows: "First when the 
throttle valve is open saturated steam passes through the 
dry pipe and into a portion of the superheater header de- 
signed to receive the saturated steam. From this portion 
of the header which is in communication with one end of 
the superheater units the steam passes downward through 
one tube of the unit, backward toward the back flue sheet, 
forward and backward again and then forward and upward 
to the other side of the header designed to receive the super- 
heater steam. From the header it then passes into the steam 
pipes, then into the steam chest and into the cylinders. 
This is the course of the steam through the superheater. 
The course of the gases through the large tubes is as fol- 
lows: The position of the damper when the engine is not 
working steam is closed. At the opening of the throttle 
valve steam is admitted to the damper cylinder "E" through 
pipe El, which is in direct communication with the steam 
pipe and damper cylinder. This automatically opens the 
damper by means of a bell crank connection between the 
damper piston rod and the damper shaft. Simultaneously 
with the opening of the damper the counterweight E2 is 
raised to the position shown in the illustration from which 
position it will fall when the steam is shut off and the 
damper will again be closed. The opening of the damper 
provides for the flow of heated gases from the firebox 
through the large flues. The reason for the introduction of 
the damper system is to protect the superheater tubes against 
overheating while no steam is flowing through them to ab- 
sorb the heat. 



[February, 1912.] 


M^t.'H-t tAJty j '■ v»mM/"»4" 


Fig. 3 — Superheater Header. 

Fig. 3 shows a detailed view of the header casting through 
several sections. Section through AA shows a section of 
the steam pipe connection of the header and the passage 
way and also the back and front end passage for the satu- 
rated and superheated steam. The passage way marked S 
represents the superheated and that designed W, the 
saturated steam passage way which are in communication 
with the respective chambers marked S and W, in the sec- 
tion to CC. The units, which will be shown in the next 
illustration, are held in place by a bolt which extends through 
slots in the header casting between the superheated steam 
and saturated steam chambers and are prevented from 
turning by bosses or lugs located at the top facing of the 
header. The section through BB shows a section of one of 
the top steam pipe connection and is similar in other re- 
spects to section AA. In the plan view of the lower side 
of the casting is also shown a part cut away to indicate the 
arrangement of the saturated and superheated steam cham- 
bers and the direction of the flow of the steam through 
their passages. 

The superheater unit and the ball joint connection to- 
gether with the clamps for holding the joints in place in 
the header are shown in Fig. 4. The ball connection of the 
units of the tubes each ground to fit the seats in the header 
casting and clamped to the header. This clamp is supple- 
mented by a ball ring fitting under the ball of the tube in 
the manner that will provide for any irregularity that may 
occur in the ball heads or in the depth of the seat in the 
header. The return bends are of cast steel and are pro- 
vided with lugs which rest against the inside of the large 
flues and keep the superheater units in the upper part of each 

The superheater tubes it will be noted may be easily re- 
moved and replaced, and in doing this it" is not necessary 
to take down the steam pipes. It is also possible to thor- 
oughly inspect the front end, and do all necessary work on 
the boiler flues, boiler tubes and the front tube sheet seam, 
without the necessity of taking down the superheater header 
or the steam pipes. A hand hole opening is usually provided 
on the smoke box sides through which inspection may be 






Fig. 4 — Superheater Unit. 

February. 1912.] 



made of the entire front end of the superheater by the aid 
of a light, without taking down the front end netting or even 
opening the smoke box door. 

• Fig. 5 shows the front end arrangement of the super- 
heater applied in connection with the outside steam pipes. 
It clearly shows the convenience of the outside steam pipes 
arrangement, which are being applied quite generally to 
locomotives equipped with superheater in this country. This 
arrangement provides the two lower steam pipe joints out- 
side the smoke box making it easy matter to locate leaks in 
these joints, should any such occur, and when these leaks 
do occur they do not effect the steaming quality of the en- 
gine as in the case of steam pipe joints located inside the 
smoke box. A small leak in this joint located inside the 
front end will destroy the draft and interfere greatly with 
the steaming qualities of the engine. Another advantage 
in their use is the absence of stress and heat interchanges in 
the cylinder saddle caused by the difference in temperature 
of the live st^am and exhaust steam on opposite sides of the 
same wall. Outside steam pipes also offer a greater clear- 
ance in the lower part of the smoke box affording the bet- 
ter opportunity for drafting the engine and making the op- 
eration of cleaning the front end very much simpler. 

The introduction of the outside steam pipes greatly sim- 
plifies the construction of the cylinder casting. It eliminates 
the steam passageway in the saddle leaving only the exhaust 
passage. It also reduces the weight of the cylinder casting 
and simplifies the coring. 

After this description of the superheater and the front end 
arrangement of a superheater locomotive very little need 
to be said about the requirements regarding the other en- 
gine details coming in contact with superheated steam. The 
joint rings between steam pipes and header and steam pipes 
and cylinder should be made of cast iron; brass ring would 
not stand the high temperature on account of desintegration. 
Piston valve rings and piston rings and bushing should be 
close grained cast iron and not too much attention can be 
given to the quality of material of these parts. The ordi- 
nary designs of piston rod packing rings should have a higher 
melting point than usual in saturated engines. An alloy of 
80 per cent lead and 20 per cent antimony has given satis- 
faction. A very essential requirement in connection with 
the superheater locomotive is the use of good oil, and con- 
tinuous lubrication. The system found to be best adaptable 
for a simple two cylinder engine is a five-feed lubricator, 
the leads to be into the steam pipes or the center of the 
steam chests and into the center of the cylinder. The fifth 
feed to lead into the air pump steam pipe in the ordinary 

Fig. 5 — Superheater Applied in Connection with Outside Steam 


manner. The feeds to the steam chest should enter the 
center of the steam chest and should not be branched off. 
The steam chest should get three or four drops of oil for 
each drop fed to the cylinder. Vacuum valves of ample 
size on each steam chest are more essential in a superheater 
engine than in ordinary engines on account of the higher 
temperature of the steam chest cylinders. While the en- 
gine is working steam, the oil is sufficiently protected by 
the steam against carbonizing. While drifting, however, the 
oil has no such protection and on account of the high tem- 
perature of the steam chest walls would have a tendency 
to carbonize, which can be overcome by vacuum valve, let- 
ting cold air in. 

The piston rod extension has also been found to be of con- 
siderable value in reducing the wear of cylinder bushings and 
cylinder packing rings. The extended rod riding on guides 
relieves the cylinder bushings and rings from the weight 
of the piston, and thereby, reduces the friction and the wear 
upon them. The design of the extended piston rod which is 
illustrated in Figure 6 has been applied to a larger number of 
superheater engines during the last twelve months with sat- 
isfactory results. This design was brought forth by F. J. 
Cole, chief consulting engineer of the American Locomo- 
tive Co. The history of the extended piston rods is marked 



\/ ^))J////////M M7,. 





':if— fc? 

Section Section 
K-K L-L. Section M-M. 

Fig. 6- -Piston Rod Extension and Guide. 



[February, 1912.] 

by a large number of designs which have not been success- 
ful. A piston rod extension to be satisfactory must be of 
simple yet rigid construction; easy to lubricate and easily 
removed without interfering with other parts of the locomo- 
tive, and above all it must have an ample bearing surface, 
a feature which was lacking in all of the earlier designs of 
piston rod extensions. 

It will be seen from the illustration, the principle of the 
present style of extended rod guide is that of a miniature 
crosshead at the front end of the extended rod and this 
slides on a cylindrical surface, which is rigidly supported 
and easily located on the cylinder head. The design permits 
of maintenance being easily and quickly made by lining up 
between the small crosshead shoe and its body. The packing 
on the extended rod is easy to access and attended to with- 
out difficulty. 

The guide for this small crosshead is self-centered on the 
circular flange of the cylinder head and thereby required no 
adjustment in service, as it cannot get out of position. 

A feature of this design of extended piston rod is that 
the guide is made with an open top so that when it is neces- 
sary to remove the same it can be dropped from the rod 
and does not require a large amount of space ahead of the 

The superheater can be successfully applied to any of the 
existing types of locomotives provided these locomotives 
are equipped with piston valves. By this application the 
boiler capacity will be increased 25 per cent, that is, the 
old engine supplied with a superheater will be capable of 
doing 25 per cent more work. It will be possible to haul 
correspondingly heavier trains on the same schedule, or the 
same trains on a proportionally faster schedule. It has been 
found in many cases that trains double headed with saturated 
engines could be handled with one superheater engine. The 
boiler maintenance is also reduced in that it is possible to 
reduce the boiler pressure if the construction of the cylinders 
is such that their diameter may be increased. By increasing 
the size of the cylinders without decreasing the boiler pres- 
sure the engine is given a greater starting power and the 
increased boiler capacity will more than take care of the 
demands of the larger cylinders for steam. 

In summing up briefly the advantages of highly super- 
heated steam in locomotive operation, we have directly a sav- 
ing in fuel of about 25 per cent, and a saving in water con- 
sumption of 35 per cent and by the utilization of this econ- 
omy, indirectly a saving of 33 1-3 per cent or an increased 
hauling capacity of 33 1-3 per cent. 


Recently B. F. Bush, president of the Missouri Pacific 
Railway System, and Governor Hadley of Missouri, made 
an automobile trip through the state in the interest of the 
goods roads movement. Barney Oldfield drove the car, and 
he performed his duties with his usual ability, even to mak- 
ing a speech where he couldn't get out of it. 

When on the return trip it was found necessary to take 
a train from St. Joseph to St. Louis for a hurried run in 
order to meet some engagements, the party boarded Presi- 
dent Bush's private car and the engineer was told to let 
her out. The special train was making about 65 miles an 
hour along the winding banks of the Missouri river, hitting 
curves banked for only 55 miles, when it was noticed that 
Oldfield was getting nervous. He kept constantly jump- 
ing up and peering out of the windows. The river did not 
look good to him. Nothing looked good to him. Finally, 
unable to stand it any longer, this man, who nonchalantly 
drives a car 100 miles an hour, admitted his fright by 
shouting above the noise of the train, "Slow her up; slow 
her up. Do you think this is an automobile?" — Wall Street 

By J. P. Colby, Public Accountant, Boston, Mass. 

Just now everybody is talking about the trusts. All the 
spell-binders and the writers and the bankers and the states- 
men, and even the politicians, are taking a hack at the 
much-mooted question, "What shall we do with the trusts?" 

In the days before the advent of air brakes, there was 
once an engineer who knew how to run his engine perfectly 
well, taking fifteen carloads of passengers, a hundred children 
in every car, 1,500 persons in all, to the annual picnic. The 
train struck a down grade and the heavy load of precious 
human freight was more than the engine could hold back, 
when suddenly far down the track appeared a little girl play- 
ing. The engineer reversed his engine, tooted down brakes, 
called out the brakemen, but all to no purpose — the momen- 
tum was too great and the train rapidly approached the little 
child, innocent of any danger, playing on the track. Relat- 
ing the circumstance himself, the engineer later said: "Well, 
boys, I don' 'no why I dun it, but I dun it; jest before the 
train reached that girl I had a chance to ditch 'er and I 
ditched 'er — an' I saved the life of the little girl, but I killed 
400 passengers. I got fired, of course, but what cu'd I do? 
Had to do something." 

The government is trying to do something, just now, to 
save a situation and also to prove that the Sherman law is a 
good law — "reasonable" law, as it is interpreted and applied, 
upon occasion, by the government. 

What is the situation, anyway? How came it about? Who 
is responsible for it? Who is its father and its mother? Who 
is there who will now step forward and say that he or his 
co-politicians were responsible for either the Sherman law or 
the .situation now forced upon the country by the govern- 
ment? Let us think a moment. 

If memory serves, back in the term of McKinley the diplo- 
matic, who was succeeded by Roosevelt, the fighter, who was 
succeeded by Roosevelt, the honest endeavorer, who was 
succeeded by William H. Taft, a smiling gentleman trying to 
wear the coat made by Roosevelt — back, as we said, to the 
time of McKinley, must we turn to trace the lineage of the 
trusts, all the while not only fostered and guarded but en- 
couraged under the Sherman law — all the while up to the 
near-end of the reign of Roosevelt. 

Just what happened then it is difficult to remember. Some 
said the trusts were not playing fair. Some said that Charles 
W. Morse with his little hatchet cut down too many young 
financial cherry trees and — wouldn't stop; and others gave 
other reasons for the beginning of the revulsion of feeling 
against the corporations and the trusts. As near as can be 
judged, however, early in 1907 some one in the department 
"of justice" at Washington, time hanging heavily on his hands, 
re-read the Sherman law, or, reading it for the first time, in 
its entirety, suddenly paused and said, "Well, strange I never 
noticed that before; here we have built up the trusts under 
this law until they say they are too big, and right here is a 
clause whereby we can put 'em out of business under the 
same law. We can get 'em coming and going, sure as 
preaching." And just as sure as preaching the government, 
after getting them to coming, started in right there to get 
them agoing. 

It would be very interesting to know precisely what Theo- 
dore Roosevelt said to William H. Taft about the trusts 
when he handed him his club and toga. Seems as if Taft 
didn't quite understand what was meant for him to do. 
Roosevelt has spoken up of late and said that he would not 
do it quite the way Taft is doing is — doing the trusts — and 
this we believe. 

But it is a very serious question — the one question of 
greatest importance, industrially speaking, that has ever been 

I February, 1912. J 



asked the voter, who also is the worker and the investor, 
"What shall we do with the trusts?" 

An intelligent and fairly accurate attempt to answer this 
question involves too much to be considered properly in one 
article. It involves consideration of such subjects, all perti- 
nent, as: "the natural trend of all properly conducted busi- 
ness"; scientific management; of "elimination of waste, 
which is the mainspring of scientific management"; of "dis- 
integration"; of "reorganization"; of "corporation' registration 
under the government"; of "government charters for all 
newly formed corporations"; of "government regulation and 
control"; and directly or indirectly of "government owner- 
ship" or control of the corporations it charters, or may later 
create. A full discussion also involves the question of proper 
and just treatment of labor by capital; the elimination of 
waste from the ranks of labor for its own benefit, and its 
reorganization, capitalization and centralization, also for its 
own benefit, under proper and uniform state laws or under a 
general federal law, to the end that labor will make its lead- 
ers amenable to law and that it may receive a fair and just 
return for its efforts; and the question of what we must do 
with the trusts also involves that psychological question of 
the unreliability and the meanness of human nature under 
prosperous conditions. Is it any wonder, then, that President 
Taft is trying to do something? There is much to be done — 
and election is coming next fall. 

An experience of over twenty years in figuring for the 
general public, mainly for the corporations, always for capi- 
tal either running smoothly or in the throes of trouble, al- 
ways with the question before me, "How can we earn more 
money on our capital?" — always handling this question sci- 
entifically with the use of the detective "percentage" to indi- 
cate how the expense accounts may be cut down, has led, 
unconsciously, to a somewhat careful consideration of this 
mighty question which has so suddenly arisen, like some 
monster awakened from a long and troubled sleep to the 
din of the stone-age men planning to destroy it. And, strange 
to say, the government has gotten right down to first prin- 
ciples in its methods of warfare against the trusts, and some 
of its methods are like those of the stone-age men killing off 
an ugly old dynosaurus; just bang him over the head until 
he is unconscious, then bring him to and turn him loose in 
another pen, no matter how many of our "yung-uns" we 
may kill doing it. "Just hit 'im!" 

Briefly, I will touch on some of these subjects as I have 
observed them and believe they must be handled. 

The natural trend of all business, properly, prudently and 
wisely managed, is towards consolidation, concentration and 
the elimination of waste. The very spirit of business requires 
it and the exigencies of business demand it. Water does not 
run up hill unless forced up hill, nor does it stand still with- 
out becoming stagnant. Hence, all business must, if it suc- 
ceeds, progress and proceed along the lines above indicated. 
It is the unwritten law of the nature of business that it will 
proceed along lines of least resistance most quickly, but also 
that it will move along lines of greatest resistance when 
profits invite it; not because of resistance, but in spite of it. 
Hence, then, combinations must and will follow. Corpora- 
tions and combinations, obeying fundamental business laws, 
have become naturally and properly the order of the day, and 
then came the trust, born of the corporations. 

Always, into every successful business, has arisen the ques- 
tion of how to eliminate waste: if not all of it. then how 
much of it? In the formation and in the conduct of the cor- 
poration there has not yet, apparently, been considered that 
most important question of all questions, "How can be elim- 
inated that most wasteful thing on earth" — that individual 
who, when considering how he could organize a corporation 
to father and exploit his ideas or his struggling business, 
that person who, carefully, and oftentimes with borrowed 

pencil, first of all determines precisely what will be 51 per 
cent of the capital stock in his new corporation, and who, 
when he gets his charter, or often before he gets it, has stock 
certificates printed and causes to be issued to himself 51 per 
cent of the capital of the corporation, which he places in his 
vest pocket, and then proceeds to sell 49 per cent to the hon- 
est investor to obtain capital enough to conduct the business. 
Too often has it also been true that when the stock sold 
well, the legitimate purposes of the corporation have been 
abandoned for the illegitimate purpose of only selling stock 
for which large commissions are paid and large salaries are 
received — by whom? Why, the holder of the 51 per cent, 
of course. Is there any shame in this situation? No, not a 
particle, as these matters are regarded today. The only 
question of vital importance in hundreds, yea, in tens of 
thousands of corporations, the only question seriously con- 
sidered is, "How can we get by?" 

The trusts have absorbed the corporations. They are said 
to "operate in restraint of trade." That is, they want and 
scheme to get and to control all the trade there is, all the 
output of their particular line of industry. Corporations, we 
are told, have no souls. Having no soul, the trust is unable 
to discriminate between the desire for more than it needs 
and the just requirements of their chiefest, and, in the end, 
their only asset, the worker, for money, sometimes, is a 
poor asset. It all depends upon how it is gotten. "A good 
name is rather to be chosen than great riches." 

Not being able to control its desire for more money, which 
it does not need, not being able, having no time, to recognize 
or to heed the just demands of labor, how, we may ask, in 
what manner, may the trust be compelled to do the square 
thing — how can it be compelled to divide properly with labor? 
Here they are, all organized, doing business at a "lickerty- 
split" rate, piling up under scientific management more and 
more profits in the vest pocket of the owner of the 51 
per cent. 

The 49 per cent men get mighty little, in comparison to 
what the 51 per cent man has gotten, first and last. But 
what the 49 per cent man has, he has paid for, he owns it, 
and his investment, honestly made in hard-earned dollars, is 
a sacred thing to him. 

Along comes a statesman-politician and says, "Well, we'll 
smash the trusts. We'll show 'em just what we can do, and 
we will do it," and they proceed to do it. Who is now really 
hurt in this process of trust-busting? Probably the 51 per 
cent man has sold his holdings and the entire capitalization 
is now owned by the innocent investor who has placed therein 
his hard-earned dollars. Uncle Sam continues to "bust the 
trusts." The 51 per cent man, his money all in his pocket, 
sits tight, smilingly waiting until all the component parts 
have been scattered, waits until the omelet is thoroughly 
unscrambled, and then coolly buys back at a low price the 
offerings of the frightened investor who once placed his hard- 
earned dollars in the proposition. Who, in the name of 
sweet Heaven, has been benefited by this operation but the 
51 per cent man? This trust-smashing of the government is 
more cruel than the cruelty any feudal over-lord ever prac- 
ticed on his dependent vassals. 

The government, if it must do something, and it must, 
might properly supplement the Sherman law and, with a com- 
mission, should compel every corporation now in existence 
to step up with its balance sheet and have its assets and its 
liabilities examined and carefully recorded, with special ref- 
erence to the exploits of the 51 per cent man. and how he 
converted his 51 per cent into dollars. This should be com- 

The government should pass a national incorporation act 
compelling all new corporations to take a government char- 
ter, which should be granted only after it has examined the 
assets of the proposed corporation and has proven that every 



[February, 1912.] 

dollar ol its fair equivalent is invested in amount equalizing, 
at least, the capitalization to be issued or the total liabilities. 
The government has already taken a long step in the right 
direction by passing the federal act of August 5, 1909, taxing 
the income of all corporations earning in excess of $5,000 net, 
in profits, and compelling sworn statements to be made annu- 
ally by corporation officials. These sworn returns should 
also be made public records, available to the public just as 
a mortgage on realty is made a public record. 

The government should say to labor, go and incorporate 
under proper state laws or under proper federal laws so 
:hat your organizations and your officers may be amenable 
to t!.e laws of the land just as are the officers and property 
-f ousiness corporations. 

Having, now. the corporations or trusts controlled by the 
government by charter, by inspection and by direction, let 
the government say to the laborer, "You .must take one 
share, at least, in the stock of the corporation you work for. 
If you cannot pay for it at once, then you must pay for it in 
weekly installments. But a partner, a co-operator, a co- 
profit-sharer you must become, in the particular business in 
which you earn your living and in which you ought to have 
a direct interest." "But," says the 51 per cent man, "I won't 
invest my money in any such enterprise." 

And suppose Uncle Sam should say to him, "Oh, very well, 
I am looking after this business, 1 know what it will earn, 
what it owns, how its property is invested and what it is 
worth, and I will loan on its bonds to the extent of 50 or 60 
per cent of its capitalization." Who, then, may we ask, 
holds "the butt end of the stick?" Who, then, are the own- 
ersof the equity in that business and how are they protected? 
Think it over. 

Scientific management must go on until there has been 
eliminated the 51 per cent man and the professional poli- 
tician from the financial body politic. More honey-gatherers 
are needed — a smaller number of drones are desired. 

Capital needs only a fair return on its investment; but, 
more than all, it needs protection from unwarranted attacks 
not only from within a corporate form it may be working 
under but without that form, whether the attack comes from 
the government or from labor. 

Labor must eliminate the false prophet, the false leader 
and the grafter from its ranks, and it has already set itself 
about doing so. Labor needs an honest business manager, 
able at least to determine how much it has contributed of 
its vitality and its energy in exchange for a slight increase of 
wages, under the scientific management of the trusts; and 
such a manager as can compel a fair division of the extra 
profits under scientific management, which labor has never 
yet received, if the illuminating articles on "The Gospel of 
Efficiency" and scientific management are correct statements. 
Being made by a representative of the trusts, they must be 
assumed to be correct, as far as they go into details. 

The "common people" need — yea, are about to receive — 
fair and proper treatment, and within the term common 
people are included all the honest workers and investors. 

The grafter, whether he graft on labor, the municipality or 
the commonwealth — and the tax-dodger is one of them — 
must go. Only in foreign countries do they know how to 
handle graft — their way. There they lift the grafter up, 
place him on a throne, crown him, and then, he being of 
divine origin, they bow down and worship him. In this 
utry we are eliminating waste as a correct and scientific 
principle, hence we are pursuing the grafter, and we 
will get him yet. 

Right now the question looms up, "Who is that man who, 

having re< eived the nomination for the presidency, can most 

ly. tirmly and tenaciously deal with questions herein 

briefly touched upon:-" They are all vital, they all affect the 

masses, and they must be settled or regulated soon. And 

they will be dealt with to the advantage of the masses, 

Very soon things will begin to loosen up, "politicianally" 
speaking. There are signs of an early spring in politics. 
Just now. however, everything is as calm and serene as a 
"peace society banquet" — with the genuine peacemaker 


It has been decided by the executive committee to hold the 
ninth annual meeting of the Railway Storekeepers' Association 
on May 20-21-22, 191:2, at Buffalo, N. Y. Following is a list 
of committees : 

Recommended Practices. 

One Year — H. C. Pearce, Southern Pacific Co., San Francisco, 
Cal. ; H. C. Stevens, Nat. Rys. of Mexico, San Luis Potosi, 
Mex.; T. W. Flannagan, M. St. P. & S. S. M., Minneapolis, 
Minn. Two Years— C. C. Dibble, L. S. & M. S. Ry., Collinwood, 
O. ; E. J. McVeigh, Grand Trunk Ry, Ottawa, Out. ; J. W. Foyle, 
M. K. & T. R. R., Parsons, Kas. Three Years— J. H. Waterman, 

C. B. & Q. R. R., Galesburg, 111. ; Geo. Holmes, Michigan Cen- 
tral R. R., Detroit, Mich. ; W. L. Cooper, M. & O. R. R. Murphys- 
boro, 111. 

Piece Work. 
D. C. Curtis, C. B. & Q. R. R., Chicago, 111.; B. W. Griffith, 
L." S. & M. S. Ry., Collinwood, O. ; J. W. Gerber, Southern Ry., 
Washington, D. C. 

Scrap Classification. 
D. Kavanagh, Rock Island Lines, Silvis, 111. ; E. J. Roth, C. B. 
& Q. R. R. Chicago, 111.; W. F. Girten, Scranton, Pa.; C. C. 
Dibble, L. S. & M. S. Ry., Collinwood, Q. ; H. A. Anderson, 
Penna. R. R., Philadelphia, Pa. 

D. A. Williams, B. & O. R. R., Baltimore, Md. ; E. L Fries, 
Harriman Lines, Chicago, 111.; E. E. McCracken, B. & L. E. R. 
R., Greenville, Pa. ; F. R. Brown, C. B. & Q. R. R. Aurora, 111. ; 
W. H. Grassman, N. Y. C. & H. R. R. R., W. Albany, N. Y. 
Uniform Grading and Inspection of Lumber. 
J. H. Waterman, C. B. & Q. R. R., Galesburg, 111.; J. R. 
Mulroy, St. L. & S. F. R. R., Springfield, Mo.; W. F. Jones, 
N. Y. C. & H. R. R. R., New York, N. Y. ; N. M. Rice, A. T. & 
S. F. System, Topeka, Kas. 

Standard Grain Door. 
D. Kavanagh, Rock Island Lines, Silvis, 111. ; E. J. Roth, C. 
B. & Q. R. R., Chicago, 111.; W. A. Summerhays, 111. Central, 
Chicago, 111. 

N. M. Rice, A. T. & S. F. System, Topeka, Kas.; E. E. Mc- 
Cracken, Assistant, B. & L. E. R. R., Greenville, Pa'. ; J. H. 
Callaghan, Canadian Pacific Ry., Montreal, Can. ; H. S. Burr, 
Erie R. R., New York, N. Y. 

H. E. Rouse, Chicago Gt. Western, Oelwein, la. ; E. E. Herold, 

D. & O. R. R., Baltimore, Md. ; N. A. Waldron, St. L. & S. W., 
Pine Bluff, Ark. 

Standardization of Tinware. 
J. R. Mulroy. St. L. & S. F. R. R., Springfield, Mo.; H. C. 
Pearce, Southern Pacific Co., San Francisco, Cal.; J. II. Water- 
man, C. B. & Q. R. R., Galesburg, 111.; F. D. Reed, C. R. I. & 
P. R. R., Chicago, 111.; If. A. Anderson, Penna. R. R., Phila- 
delphia, Pa. ; W. F. Jones, N. V. C. & H. R. R. R„ New York. 
N. Y. 

Topeka, -Kan. — A new means of providing electricity — a 
composition that costs several hundred per cent less than the 
present system, is startling the officers of the Santa Fe Railroad 
in Topeka. The invention has been under consideration in the 
office of C. W. Kouns, general manager and L. M. Jones, super- 
intendent of telegraph, fm- some time. — Railway Record. 

I February, 1912. 




The accompanying photographic reproductions shown 
herewith are printed, not with the idea of condemning any 
particular form of construction, but because it is believed 
that a study of the effects of this, one of the more serious 
accidents since the commencement of the use of the steel 
passenger car in American railway operation, is of real 
educational value to those interested. 

It is possible to speculate and draw conclusions as to what 
might have happened had these cars been of wooden con- 
struction. Opinions vary as to whether the results would 
have been more or less serious or practically the same. The 
stiffness of the underframes is called particularly to the 
attention of the reader. 

It will be noted, that the accident was a' rear-end col- 
lision, a steel sleeper being telescoped with a diner next 
ahead of it. Other circumstances with respect to the acci- 

dent are immaterial to the object of this article. The 
photographs are bona fide and are published by courtesy of 
Popular Mechanics Magazine. 

The cast steel bolster and platform at the rear end of the 
sleeper were broken and split apart as far as the center plate. 
This must ' have tended to raise the rear of the sleeper and 
depress the forward end, so that the pressure of the collision 
tended to raise the dining car underframe above that of the 
sleeper, producing a telescopic effect which is shown in one ut 
the photographs, showing how the six-wheel trucks were driven 
together and how the dining car entered the sleeper for one- 
third of its length. 

The two underframes in this portion of the collision slidi;>» 
past each other, were not very badly damaged, and the plat- 
form casting, the steel bolster and the center sills at the front 
end of the sleeper were almost intact, those of the dining car 
being in the same condition. The roof of one-third of the 

i 8 it mte 



[February, 1912.] 

sleeping car was thrown clear up on top of the dining car and 
the sides of the sleeper split and spread apart, as shown clearly 
in the illustration. 

Many suggestions have come from those who have made 
inspections of the wrecked equipment. It has been pointed out 
that the very strong construction of the underframes caused 
the upper parts of the cars to suffer more severely than would 
otherwise have been the case. The condition of the roof 
shows a necessity for stronger construction at this point to 
make the resistance of its end plates more nearly proportional 
to that of the end sill. 

Inspection of the photographs cannot but bear out the state- 
ments of those who have long argued that the cost of repairs 
for steel equipment is considerably greater than is the case with 
that built of wood. The siding, side sills and interior finish 
are so nearly destroyed that repairs are made almost impossible. 


It has come to the attention of the Bureau of Explosives, 
American Railway Association, that many of the users of ex- 
plosives and especially miners who are foreigners not con- 
versant with the English language or the requirements of 
the federal law, are in the habit of including packages of ex- 
plosives in their baggage checked in the usual way on a pas- 
senger train and in packages of household furniture shipped in 
the usual way by freight. 

The federal law strictly forbids a concealed shipment of 
explosives or the transportation of explosives on passenger 
trains even when declared. Packages of explosives must be 
packed in their regular shipping containers properly marked 
and accompanied by shipping orders of the usual form. The 
penalty provided for violations of the federal law are severe 
and may equal a fine not to exceed $2,000, with or without 
imprisonment not to exceed 16 months. 

Many violations of the kind described above have been re- 
ported and in all such cases, where the evidence was suffi- 
cient to warrant conviction prosecutions have been started. 
Guilty parties even when their action was due to ignorance 
have been fined and imprisoned; ignorance is no excuse for a 
violation of this kind. 

As examples, it may be stated that miners and other par- 
ties have taken kegs of blasting powder and even packages 
of loose sticks of dynamite mixed with blasting caps all 
wrapped in loose paper packages into the smoking cars of 
passenger trains. In other cases wash tubs and barrels sup- 
posed to contain only household goods have been found to 
contain loose powder and sticks of dynamite. 


By the installation of protective devices, the Pennsylvania 
Railroad is said to have decreased the number of serious 
injuries to employes in its shops by more than 63 per cent from 
January 1st to November 1st of last year. In recognition 
of this work the American Museum of Safety will present a 
medal to that company as the American employer who, in 
its judgment, "has done the most for the protection of the 
lives and limbs of his workmen, by means of safety devices 
for dangerous machines and processes." 

In the fall of 1910 experts from one of the large accident 
insurance companies were employed and, accompanied by in- 
spectors of the motive power department, inspected all of 
the larger shops. Following this, safety committees were 
organized on all divisions of the road. As a result, the num- 
ber of serious injuries per one thousand shop employes was, 
in January 8.7, February 7.:'., March 8.3, April 6.0, May 7.9, 
June 5.2, July 4.7, August 3.4, September 3.4, October 3.2. 
During this period, the average number of employes was 




By A. A. Goodchild. 

The function of accounting and auditing is the accumu- 
lation and statement of facts or conditions, by means of 
which the proprietors and managers may know the financial 
and operating features of a corporation, or of any portion 
of its business, and it is generally recognized that the head 
of the department in charge thereof must have a very com- 
plete knowledge of the workings of every other department 
as well as his own, owing to the fact that all of them, 
whether revenue producing or otherwise, will be found to 
come under his surveillance in some manner or another. 

The method by which this surveillance is exercised, how- 
ever, varies considerably in the many railroads of this con- 
tinent, and in no case is it more noticeable than in connec- 
tion with the mechanical and storekeeping departments, to 
which our attention is specially directed at this time. It is 
the practice of a number of railroads to leave considerable 
actual accounting in the hands of these departments, a bal- 
ance sheet or other summary being sent to the head office 
periodically, for incorporation in the accounts of the com- 
pany; indeed, in so far as the storekeeping department is 
concerned, the majority of roads, may be said to adhere to 
this practice. Such a condition cannot be said to conform 
with sound business principles; it would be quite as logical 
for a departmental store, for example, to permit its various 
departments to employ and control their own staff of ac- 
countants, as it is for a railroad to permit its mechanical 
superintendent or storekeeper to do this. The impropriety 
is readily recognized in the one case, and it is difficult to 
justify it in the case of a railroad, where the expenditures, 
etc., are enormously larger than the largest departmental 

The argument usually met with in justification of such 
methods is that the work is very largely of a technical na- 
ture, and it is necessary to be more familiar with material 
and its uses than is possible for the general staff of ac- 
countants to be. Whatever element of truth there may be 
in this claim, can, and should be, largely, if not entirely 
overcome by a proper classification and itemizing of ma- 
terial. One of the most essential features of material ac- 
counting forces itself upon our consideration right at this 
point; for whether the work is carried on in the stores, or 
in a central accounting office, such accounts should undoubt- 
edly lend themselves to proper analytical process, in the 
same manner as the operating expenses do. Under any cir- 
cumstances such an argument does not apply more forcibly, 
if as strongly, in justification of the storekeeping department 
doing the necessary accounting than in favor of the account- 
ing department, for there is no branch of business life to- 
day whicli necessitates more exact knowledge of details, 
and correct principles of work than that of the accounting 
department. Extensive and varied training and experience 
is required to enable one to become proficient in such mat- 
ters, and it is not possible for a storekeeper, be he ever so 
able, to properly meet such demands upon his time. This 
statement is made without the least desire to detract from 
the well-known ability of many forceful and energetic men 
holding, or who have held, such positions of responsibility 
in many of the railroads of this continent. 

These are days of specialization in professions of every 
class and description, and it is but natural that we should 
look for and expect to find it in all branches of railroad 
work. Instances may be cited where an individual has been 
endowed with remarkable faculties of combining expert 
knowledge of a variety of professional duties, and such an 

*From a paper read before the Canadian Railway Club. 

[February, 1912.] 



individual will almost naturally be found in the high places 
of professional life; but to the ordinary mortal, to excel in 
one special line of work may be said to entail the full use 
of his faculties. Apart, however, from this subject of indi- 
vidual capacity must be considered the actual requirements of 
the profession — I am referring now to the railway profes- 
sion — and only to a few — a very few — can the positions of 
president or general manager ever be more than a mere 

Railroads today require a large number of specialists and 
few generalizers. Its organization resembles that of an 
army. One general in chief, two or more generals of di- 
visions, a limited number of colonels, an increasing number 
of captains, and a further increasing number of lieutenants. 
Each officer must be proficient and possess sufficient initia- 
tive to enable him to act as though the entire result of any 
movement depended entirely upon his particular unit of com- 
mand. Brilliancy is not absolutely essential, but a perfect 
knowledge, to enable a junior lieutenant to carry out his or- 
ders, is entirely necessary. 

This question of the relationship of the accounting depart- 
ment to the stores and mechanical departments has been 
the subject of discussion at various conventions, also of con- 
sideration by many of the higher officials in the railroad 
world, evidence of which may be found in the appointment 
of auditors or other accounting officers, to take full charge 
of all stores and mechanical accounts, for we may safely 
assume such changes would not be made except after ma- 
tured consideration. Of course, the question is one of com- 
paratively minor importance to a number of our smaller 
railroads, for reasons which will at once occur to you. 

Let us discuss for a few moments the duties, responsibili- 
ties, and qualifications of a storekeeper, and in doing this, 
we shall deal with only the -general practice of roads whose 
storekeepers are the custodians of unused material. The 
larger question as to the duties of taking cognizance of all 
material until actually used may be left to some future 

These duties bring him in constant touch with the entire 
operating department of a road. Locomotive, car, bridge and 
building, transportation, and other branches of the service 
are dependent upon him for supplying the necessary mate- 
rials with which to carry on the work, whether it be con- 
struction of a thousand box cars, or the putting on of a 
patch to the side of a car, the building of cars, large monster 
locomotives, or the supplying of a tender truck box cover, 
wherever we find material being used, there also we find 
the storekeeper an interested party, and this interest en- 
tails upon him the need of cultivating a very close acquain- 
tance with the heads and the requirements of the various 
departments. He is above all else an operating official, and 
should be able at all times to supply the material needs of 
the entire railroad. These needs are varied. No line of 
business can be excluded from its voracious maw. Hard- 
ware, glass, oils, paints, drugs, acids, the precious metals, 
lumber from the cheapest to the most expensive minerals, 
coals, coke, road and shop tools of every description, office 
supplies, flour, cement, silks, furniture, carpets, and so on, 
ad lib., all serve to appease, but never satisfy the hunger of 
our railroad systems. What kind of a man is required to 
cater to all these varied needs, and to cater intelligently, in 
order that he may furnish the maximum amount of satis- 
faction at a minimum expense to his employers; be ever 
ready to fill the orders and never overload himself with ma- 
terial which the aesthetic taste of a superintendent of mo- 
tive power, or a master car builder refuses to attempt to 
digest? Surely a man to fulfill such requirements must be 
a paragon, surely such duties in themselves entail a large 
-enough field for the most industrious cultivation, and the 
requisitioning for, receiving, storing, and disbursement of 

such material, calls for the very highest ability taxed to its 
utmost capacity. 

Having those requirements in mind, let us glance briefly 
at the various steps one must tread before he can reach the 
topmost Jung of the storekeeping ladder. Let us enter one 
of our large stores, and as we pass along we find our man 
trucking castings or unpacking boxes of various materials, 
maybe sweeping away refuse. Later on he is found load- 
ing material into cars or getting articles down from the 
shelves, assisting a storeman. He advances steadily, and is, 
perhaps, given charge of certain divisions or sections of the 
store house, and in the fulness of time is called upon to as- 
sume charge over the entire section or store. 

Hitherto, his work has been manual, but. now the stock 
cards and books engage considerable of his attention, for he 
is required to know the exact condition of his stock to en- 
able him intelligently to place requisitions for the depleted 
material, he must know what the average monthly consump- 
tion is, how far his stock will provide for ordered require- 
ments, what quantity if any he has on order, and whether 
through some special or irregular condition he is likely to 
be called upon for more than his normal supply. Thus it 
has become necessary for him to devote considerable time 
and attention to book records. This may be, and frequently 
is, an entirely new experience for him. Coupled to this, 
under the system which is still largely in vogue, he must 
devote his attention to the accounts of his store. The debits 
and credits are impressed upon him as important factors. 
For this purpose he engages a clerk, if the funds will per- 
mit, who does the necessary book work and accounting for 
him, and in his ignorance of the merest theory of such work, 
signs statements and records which are put before the man- 
agement of a railroad. 

It is general practice when a storekeeper keeps his own 
accounts, for him to keep those of the mechanical depart- 
ment also, the stores being very closely allied thereto, es- 
pecially in a large plant where considerable manufacturing 
is carried on for road purposes. This necessitates his be- 
coming a timekeeper as the largest disbursements of me- 
chanical accounts are for labor. He must become an au- 
thority on distribution of such labor, and exercise a pre- 
rogative in connection with shop system, contract work, 
etc. Is it not hopeless to expect a man with a training 
which I have briefly outlined, to meet such varied require- 
ments? With all respect to the large number of able gen- 
eral storekeepers on this continent, I affirm that they cannot 
devote their attention to storekeeping, accounting, and shop 
systems, with justice to either branch of the work. Indeed, 
there is very little, if any, attempt at doing this, as a matter 
of fact. It is largely a fiction. The clerk is held respon- 
sible for statements, etc., issued under a storekeeper's sig- 
nature for the reason that the storekeeper himself has no 
time to attend to such matters, and not infrequently looks 
upon them as of very secondary importance, or is lacking 
in a proper appreciation of the value of such duties, and he 
almost naturally develops a tendency to protect the stores 
accounts at the expense of those of the mechanical depart- 
ment. Quite apart from the question of integrity of the de- 
partmental officials, a feeling of dissatisfaction inevitably 
underlies all questions of disputed costs. Speaking from 
experience, I have no hesitation in affirming that it is a 
simple matter to load an account with items which should 
never be charged thereto, and to so manipulate accounts as 
to afford more than ample protection to the storekeeping 

There was a time in the recollection of many, when the 
necessity for proper accounting methods and men was not 
realized as it is today. Everything pertaining to the ac- 
counts, from the man who "wanted to know" to the under- 
paid clerk who was expected to "show," was accorded very 



[February, 1912.] 

little consideration, and one can almost understand how it 
came about that the storekeeper was looked upon as a suf- 
ficiently informed and responsible person to take charge of 
accounting and timekeeping, but today, and' I venture to say, 
never more than today, it is considered proper and neces- 
sary for this work to be handled by men whose minds have 
been thoroughly trained thereto. A man who is held re- 
sponsible for a proper system of timekeeping must have 
an organization at his back to properly handle all the varied 
problems relative thereto, and must be expert in matters of 
shop practice, the many vagaries of which have received 
much attention and investigation during the past few years 
of agitation and labor unrest. 

If we look at the mechanical department, locomotive and 
car, we shall find the same high standard requirements of 
efficiency and capacity in all that relates to the practical 
working of these departments as was found to be necessary 
in the storekeeping department. In fact, bearing in mind 
the great organized efforts which are being made to raise 
the standard of apprenticeship in the various shops through- 
out the country, and the hard course of training which an 
efficient mechanic has to undergo before reaching the po- 
sition of, say gang or shop foreman; and remembering that 
our universities are instinctively availing themselves of the 
vast openings offered for college trained men for the higher 
official appointments, and are educating and training young 
men in theory and practice of the mechanical department of 
a railroad, we can safely say the standard of excellence 
obtained is higher than in almost any other branch of rail- 
road work. They must keep up with the times. The pres- 
sure for improvements or betterments making for greater 
efficiency in power and rolling stock, improved shop prac- 
tice, improved tools and machinery, improved facilities at 
terminals for handling the power, is increasing, and is 
brought about by the efforts of the management to obtain 
cheaper and yet more efficient results, in order that a proper 
equilibrium may be maintained between revenue and ex- 
penses. Yet we find, with few exceptions, that the practice 
is almost invariably for this department to have its account- 
ing taken care of by another department, either the store- 
keeping or the auditing, I believe as much from choice of 
the mechanical officers themselves as from a recognition 
by the various managements of the sound business principle 
that authority over the accounts of a department must be 
separate from the authority governing the practical working 
of that department. Such a rule has behind it the undoubt- 
ed authority and wisdom of those whose duty it has been 
to ensure the most perfect results and records of business 

What of the duties of the auditor in his relations with the 
mechanical and the stores departments? Labor is, of course, 
the important factor in all mechanical accounts, and the 
ensuring to every employee in all shops and roundhouses, 
etc., a just accounting for his time must receive first consid- 
eration. At the same time necessary precautions against 
fraudulent claims for time not worked must be taken. It 
is also of prime importance that such time is properly dis- 
tributed, or, in other words, that the accounts for which 
labor is performed is charged therewith, so that the correct 
cost of an engine or group of engines, a car or group of 
cars, going through the shops for repairs or construction, 
etc., may be determined accurately. The cost of articles 
manufactured, such as bolts, nuts, forgings, wheels, cast- 
ings, etc., must be compiled in such a manner as will make 
comparison with the market prices of such articles a simple 
proposition. No great advantage can accrue in manufactur- 
ing articles which can be purchased in the open market as 
cheaply or cheaper than you are making them for. "Shop 
costs" systems have received a great deal of enterprising 
attention from what is yet a new branch of commercial life, 

the shop cost engineering profession. An elaborate system 
of store orders, requisitions, and labor distribution is en- 
tailed and much detail work of an accounting nature is 

Where piece work or contract systems are in force it is 
necessary that the auditor should satisfy himself as to the 
completion of work paid for, in order that he may not 
certify for payment any unearned monies; but it must be rec- 
ognized that much of this class of work requires mechanical 
experts to pass upon, and in many cases all the auditor can 
do is to see that proper safeguards are set up to prevent 
fraud or collusion. Other questions relating to labor, par- 
ticularly those relative to shop efficiency, and job time rec- 
ords, come more or less under the observation of the audi- 
tor; but I am of the opinion that the less his department 
has to do with such matters the better, alike for himself 
and the mechanical department. They are the legitimate 
work of the mechanical staff, shop superintendent, foreman, 
clerks, and specialists, as the results obtained are purely of 
interest for economical reasons to the shops themselves, and 
all responsibility for their carrying out or development must 
devolve upon the shops. 

In none of these matters is the storekeeper an interested 
party, for even the item of labor on manufactured material, 
if properly cleared, does not affect his stock balances, 
whether the charges are correct or not. Both the store- 
keeper and the mechanical department, however, are con- 
cerned in all questions relating to material consumed, and 
the essential duty of the auditor in this regard is to see 
that the storekeeper is properly credited with all material 
delivered to or taken by the shop forces. At the same time 
he will see that the accounts for which material is charged 
are properly covered by approved requisition, and the pur- 
pose for which material is required is clearly set forth. If, 
as sometimes occurs, any unusual quantity is called for, the 
matter should be investigated, and he should satisfy himself 
as to the special requirements. Only such material as may 
• be required for current needs should be requisitioned for, 
and bulk issues should not be allowed. He will endeavor 
in every way to protect the 'stores by seeing that they are 
credited with the value of, all issues, and, at the same time, 
must be equally satisfied that nothing is charged against the 
mechanical department, except that which is justly chargea- 
ble thereto. 

It should be clearly understood that no advantage can 
accrue to the storekeeper by overcharging other depart- 
ments, and with careful checking of prices by the auditor 
there could not exist much opportunity for doing so, should 
there be any such desire. 

Careful inventories of material on hand should be taken 
at least once a year, and from his records the auditor should 
be enabled to inventory a considerable portion of every 
storehouse much more frequently. Should there appear from 
such inventory a surplus or deficit, it should be transferred 
to the general books of the company for funding purposes, 
as an offset against future possible shortages or overages, 
or application of credit or debit made to the accounts which 
have been charged with material since previous inventory, 
pro rata according to the amounts charged. 

As regards accounting for material received from mer- 
chants, the auditor will see that proper acknowledgment is 
received from the storekeeper of all such items, and by hav- 
ing communication with all requisitions, will satisfy himself 
that authorized officials have approved the purchasing of 
same. He will see that the records of its receipt are kept 
in such a manner as will ensure against the passing of du- 
plicate invoices or acknowledgments, and also that proper 
stock book records are maintained of all intake or output 
of the various items of material. At the most convenient 
time such records must be gone over with a view of satis- 

[February, 1912.] 



fying himself as to surplus or obsolete material, or undue 
quantities of any article being carried at one point on the 
road while purchases of similar material are being made 
elsewhere. Obsolete material should not be destroyed, sold, 
or turned over to the scrap pile, until the authority of the 
department for whom it was originally procured is obtained, 
as the storekeeper's accounts must receive credit for what- 
ever loss is sustained, and the expense be borne by this de- 

Inventories should, as far as possible, be taken by audi- 
tors independent alike of the stores' auditor and the store- 
keeper, thus obviating any possibility of irregularities, the 
desire being at all times that the most accurate records pos- 
sible 'be obtained. In companies where the consumption of 
material represents from $100,000 up to $2,000,000 per month, 
there is ample scope for the auditor without infringing on 
the natural field of the storekeeper's activities, which pertajn 
to the receipt and disbursement of material, and mainte- 
nance of proper stock records of same; or of the mechanical 
department, whose duty it is to see that proper material is 
supplied for their requirements, and proper and economical 
use made of same. Economy of operation of the stores 
department is usually determined by taking the percentage 
which the amount of "stock issues" bears to the total "stock 
on hand," at the first of the month plus the "receipts" dur- 
ing the month. While not mathematically correct this meth- 
od, no doubt, gives a fair line on the results obtained. At 
all events for comparative purposes, year by year, it is ab- 
solutely good, while month by month the variable condi- 
tions of business require to be considered. Except in spe- 
cial cases, where, for instance, material must be purchased 
abroad, the stock should not average more than sixty days' 
supplies, and in a large number of items thirty days is suf- 
ficient, but forethought and interchange of ideas and plans 
between the storekeeper and the mechanical department is 
at all times desirable, and even necessary, if this standard 
is to be maintained, also it should be remembered that ques- 
tion of economical operation can be driven so far as to en- 
tail distinct loss to the companies. The auditor and general 
storekeeper should be vitally interested in these percentage 
figures, as they afford a ready means of determining the 
efficiency of the storekeeper. Continued poorness in this 
respect is a matter that calls for the general storekeeper's 
intervention, and sometimes a change of departmental offi- 

Auditing or accounting by an independent officer should 
make for real efficiency in the departments concerned. I 
,speak for myself in this matter as much as with regard to 
the .stores and mechanical departments, and I welcome an 
outside auditor, who may be authorized to do so, going 
over the methods and analyzing the principles upon which 
the work of my department is conducted; showing up any 
loopholes or weak spots, in order that whatever remedy is 
found necessary may be applied. Not only this, but an audi- 
tor must keep his mind in a constant state of receptiveness. 
Many a good suggestion emanates from unexpected quar- 
ters, and the practical knowledge of a shop superintendent, 
a foreman, or a clerk should not only not be ignored, but 
should be sought and encouraged with the view of devel- 
oping the 'utmost efficiency in all that pertains to the em- 
ployer's interests. Differences of opinion will, and must 
exist, and in such cases the auditor cannot but be paramount 
in his rulings unless a higher authority intervenes. This 
efficiency is after all the "raison d'etre" of the existence of 
the auditing department as it is today, and higher ideals of 
workmanship must naturally develop as the efficiency of the 
accounting department is evidenced in the various depart- 
ments of railroading. The "fruits" themselves must be the 
evidence of the good workmanship, and not the self-com- 
piled blue prints or glowing picture books with the halo 

beautifully worked in to add the necessary touch of sanctity 
to the artist, with the horns prominently displayed in the 
caricature of his unfortunate rival. Rivalry and competi- 
tion are the soul of trade, also of railroad efficiency, and 
are, therefore, eminently desirable, but honesty and integ- 
rity must go hand in hand therewith. Systems which lay 
bare all attempts to mislead shareholders, directors, presi- 
dents, or whoever it may be, and place before them only 
honest unbiased results must be more and more appreciated 
and ever increase in value to the vast corporations in which 
they are employed; and I believe you will find in such cor- 
porations more integrity and greater efficiency in all de- 
partments; officers and meei who are ready to be judged by 
the high quality of their accomplishments, and who recog- 
nize the desirability, and appreciate the arduous and some- 
what thankless tasks of the accounting department. 

The present status of the science of auditing and account- 
ing is not at all final. There cannot be any finality in con- 
nection with it any more than with other branches of rail- 
road science. Development must continue. 


In starting and accelerating heavy freight and passenger 
trains, the current taken imposes very severe duty on the 
average "K" or "L" type controller. By the use of auxiliary 
contactors this condition can be somewhat relieved but the 
weight and space requirements of the large "K" or "L" 
types in addition to those of the contactors, make it desir- 
able to use a Westinghouse HL type of control arrange- 

This type of control has been tried out on a number of 
locomotives and in every instance has given excellent satis- 
faction. A few of the roads using this control on locomo- 
tives are: Hoboken, Shore Road, Washington Railway & 
Electric Company, British Columbia Railway, Northern Elec- 
tric Railway, Indiana Traction & Terminal Company, Fred- 
erick Railroad, Portland Gray & Lewiston Railway, and all 
the heavy steam roads such as the Pennsylvania Railroad, 
New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Hoosac Tun- 
nel on the Boston & Maine, New York, Westchester & 
Boston Railway; Rock Island Southern, Grand Trunk Rail- 
way, Sarnia Tunnel, Spokane & Inland and others. 

A group of eight switches is provided in the controls for 
quadruple 75 h. p. motors and two or more additional switches 
are provided for motors of greater capacity. The West- 
inghouse HL type of control is peculiarly adapted 
for use on high voltages for the reason that the con- 
tacts are held together pneumatically under great pres- 


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[February, 1912.] 

sure irrespective of line voltage, and are separated by pow- 
erful springs, thus assuring positive action. Through the 
use of heavy pressure on the contacts great momentary over- 
load capacity is secured. An exceptionally effective mag- 
netic blowout is employed and the circuit is opened with 
little or no burning. The effectiveness of HL control is 
not impaired by line voltage variations, within any range 
likely to be encountered in actual service, due to the fact 
that when operating with minimum trolley voltage the 
switches open and close with the same force as when oper- 
ating with maximum trolley voltages. 






2V 4 







Commencing February 1st, the Jacobs-Shupert U. S. Firebox 
Co. will run a series of tests, on its locomotive firebox, at Coates- 
ville, Pa. The tests have been outlined by and will be made 

Number of tubes 

Length of tubes 

Diameter of tubes 

Inside length of firebox 

Inside width of firebox 

Height of top of crown of firebox 
above bottom of mud ring 

Number of sections composing fire- 

Diameter of radial stays — 1 

Each firebox compartment is completely isolated from its tube 
compartment by means of an extension of the flue sheet; and the 
first series of tests, known as series ''A," will concern the de- 
termination of efficiency data for each firebox independently of 
its lube compartment. 

Upon the conclusion of the series "A" tests, it will be necessary 



Tabes -290, a^Uta. 

516- l'i, Screw Stays 
1081 f'Screw Stays. 

10 H 


General Design of Test Boilers. This illustration shows stay bolt firebox applied. 

3 3 Pope - 

General Arrangement of Boiler Ready for Testing. This illustration shows Jacobs-Shupert firebox applied. 

under the direction of Dr. W. F. M. Goss, dean of the engineer- 
ing school of the University of Illinois, who will also prepare 
the report of the same. 

These te*sts are to be made in the presence of whomsoever may 
desire to witness them. They are to be conducted at Coatesville, 
Pa., where a special testing plant has been erected. Upon the 
conclusion of the efficiency tests, the boilers are to be removed 
to a point about one-half mile distant, and prepared for the 
low water tests. Provision will be made for spectators to 
observe these tests without danger of injury in case of ex- 

There have been provided two boilers, identical in construction, 
except for the fireboxes. The principal dimensions are given be- 
low : 

Jacobs-Shupert Stay Bolt 
Boiler Boiler 

Inches. Inches. 

Outside diameter of shell of boiler 

at front end 70 70 

Diameter of throat of boiler 83% 83% 

to dismount the boilers and disconnect the fireboxes and remove 
the blind diaphragm consisting of the extension of each flue 
sheet, and the boilers again will be put together and remounted 
on the testing plant for the test of series "B," during which, 
therefore, each boiler will be in its normal condition. It is esti- 
mated that about two weeks' time will elapse between the tests 
of series "A" and the tests of series "B." 

The boilers are designed for locomotive service and are, so 
far as possible, identical in their general dimensions. They dif- 
fer from each other only in the construction of the firebox and 
its staying. 

Three different series of tests are to be made, hereafter re- 
ferred to as those of series A, B and C respectively. 

Series "A" will consist of comparative tests to determine the 
relative amount of heat absorbed by the fireboxes of the two 
boilers under similar conditions of operation. The original con- 
struction of each boiler provides a diaphragm which will sep- 
arate the water space of the boiler into two compartments, one 
of which includes the tube surface and the other the firebox sur- 
face. In the course of the tests these compartments are to be 

I February, 1912. 



separately fed with weighed water, an arrangement which will 
permit of a separate determination of the heat transmitted by 
the firebox and by the tubes respectively. The series will con- 
sist of three evaporative tests upon each boiler. Tests No. 1 of 
this group will be made under low power; tests No. 2 will be 
made under average or normal power; and tests No. 3 will be 
made under maximum power. It is expected that the results ob- 
tained from these tests will disclose the difference in the heat 
absorbing capacities of the two fireboxes in question. The re- 
sults will also give certain facts which American engineers have 
long wished to know with reference to the relative capacity of 
a unit area of firebox heating surface as compared with the ca- 
pacity of a unit area of tube heating surface. 

Series "B" — The boilers will then undergo such reconstruction 
as may be necessary for the removal of the diaphragms. This 
accomplished, they will in each case be entirely typical of normal 
boilers in present day service; that is, one will be a normal 
stay-bolt boiler and the other will be a normal Jacobs-Shupert 
boiler. Each boiler will then be subjected to a series of three 
evaporative tests, under rates of power similar to those em- 
ployed in series "A." These tests will establish the evaporative 
efficiency and the capacity of the two boilers in question. In 
addition to data usually secured in ordinary boiler testing, it is 
proposed to attempt, by the use of special equipment, and also 
through the employment of expert assistance, to secure some in- 
formation concerning conditions affecting the circulation in the 
two boilers. A comparison of the results of these tests should 
give an accurate measure of the relative performance of the two 
boilers under all possible rates of power. 

Series "C" — After the completion of the efficiency tests, the 
two boilers are to be arranged for a test of strength under low 
water conditions — hereafter to be referred to as low water tests. 
The boilers are to be set in a location where their explosion 
would result in no harm to surrounding property and are to be 
equipped with instruments of observation located within shelter, 
to provide for the safety of the observers. In the course of 
these tests, the boilers are always to be operated at a prede- 
termined rate of power, which rate shall be a close approach 
to the maximum that the boiler is capable of delivering. Each 
boiler is to be subjected to a progressive series of tests until 
the destruction, or serious deformation, of the firebox occurs, 
the series to begin and proceed substantially as follows : 

Tests No. 1. In anticipation of this test, the boiler is to be 
brought into action and operated under normal conditions at 
the predetermined rate of power. These conditions secured, the 
feed is to be cut off until the water reaches the level of the 
upper surface of the crown sheet. The feed pump will them be 
started and the water level restored, after which, as a precau- 
tion insuring safety to observers, the pressure in the boiler will 
be reduced and a careful examination made of all parts. If nec- 
essary, the boiler will be cooled and even emptied after these 
tests. If minor defects appear, such as leaky stay bolts, they 
will, so far as possible, be corrected before proceeding with 
the next test. 

Test No. 2. Test No. 2 will be similar to Test No. 1, ex- 
cept that the water level will be dropped to a point one inch be- 
low the upper surface of the crown sheet. 

' Test No. 3. Test No. 3 will be similar to Test No. 1, except 
that the water level will be reduced to a point three inches below 
the top of the crown sheet. 

Test No. 4. Test No. 4 will be similar to Test No. 1, except 
that the water level will be reduced six inches below the top 
of the crown sheet. 

Test No. 5. Test No. 5 will be similar to Test No. 1, ex- 
cept that the water level will be reduced twelve inches below 
the level of the crown sheet. 

The series of tests will be continued for each boiler until the 
defects are so serious as to require the reconstruction of the 

Fuel — The fuel for all tests will be oil, the use of which will 
permit the satisfactory operation of fires during the low water 

tests, when the observers are at distance from the boiler. Sup- 
plementary tests with coal are contemplated. 

Those interested in the tests are welcome to remain in Coates- 
ville from the beginning until the end of the work, but it is 
realized that there will be many who are particularly interested 
in some certain phase of the tests or in some particular series. 
While it is impossible to state on just what date any certain 
test will be made, prospective visitors will be advised as early 
as possible. 

A letter or telegram addressed to the Jacobs-Shupert United 
States Firebox Co., Coatesville, Pa., will receive prompt reply. 

The tests of series "A" will begin on February 1, 1912. The 
low water tests will begin on or about April 1, 1912. 

By C. R. Gilman, Chief Electrician, C, M. & St. P. Ry. 

While the general system of head end train lighting is 
the same as used 15 years ago, there have been a number 
of improvements and changes made. These, with the adop- 
tion of the new types of electric lamps, storage batteries, 
fixtures and reflector glass ^vare, makes this system very 
efficient and reliable, where first-class uniform lighting is 
required on a heavy train. 

While some are acquainted with the method of operation 
of a head end lighted train, a short description is thought 
necessary to enable others to better follow the paper. A 
head end system is one where a steam turbine driven dyna- 
mo is placed either on the locomotive or in the baggage 
car, taking steam from the locomotive to operate it. Auxili- 
ary lighting is maintained, when locomotives are changed or 
cars stand in terminals, by two, three or four storage bat- 
teries, depending on the number of cars in train. These 
batteries float on the main train wires in parallel with the 
dynamo, lighting the lamps should any thing happen to 
dynamo, turbine, steam hose or train part and pull out a 

One of the advantages of the head end system is that the 
number of cars put on the train to light is limited only by 
the number the locomotive can haul. I am, therefore, going 
to take a seventeen mixed car train as an example. 


One 25 kw. Curtis tubo generator, 3,600 R. P. M. 110-125 

Switch board and dynamo connection in baggage car. 

Automatic loop connectors. 

Standard 2-compartment tray of train- lighting batteries. 

The train is made up as follows: 

1 dyanmo baggage car 14 lamps 

2 mail cars 66 lamps 

1 mail tender 8 lamps 

1 Comp. sleeper 60 lamps 

1 12 section sleeper 80 lamps 

1 buffet car 82 lamps 

5 12 section sleepers 400 lamps 

1 dining car , 42 lamps 

1 parlor car 42 lamps 

3 coaches 78 lamps 

17 cars 872 lamps 

Eight hundred and seventy-two 104 volt 8 c. p. lamps are 
used and the total lamp load is 20,627 watts. The losses in 
machine and train lines is 22 per cent so the load on dynamo 
is 25,219 watts, which is the full capacity of the machine. 

In actual operation we seldom get continual steam pres- 
sure enough to operate this load, so allow the storage bat- 
teries to help out until the number of lights is reduced, as 
passengers retire for the night. 

Previous to April, 1910, we connected our batteries in par- 

*From a paper read before the Western Railway Club, 
Jan. 16, 1912. 



[February, 1912.] 

allel with the lamps on the two outside mains, allowing them 
to float on the lamp system. Later when the sleeper pas- 
sengers had retired and the load was largely reduced we 
raised the dynamo voltage to 118 or 120 and gave the bat- 
teries what is known as a floating charge. One hundred and 
twenty volts is not high enough to properly charge the bat- 
teries, but was as high as we deemed advisable to run our 
lamps. We found, however, that the batteries took a fairly 
good charge at 120 volts and with an initial charge in the yard 
at full capacity twice a month they remained in good condi- 

Early in 1910 I went seriously into the subject of charging 
batteries on the trains, as our charging plants are small and 
the number of batteries to charge continually on the increase. 
Charging batteries en route require plenty of current, lamp 
regulation and means to determine the amount of charge and 
discharge the batteries are receiving. 

While there are a number of very good automatic lamp 
regulators on the market, they are quite expensive and each 
car on the train has to have one. Owing to the large num- 
ber of cars required to make up this train, the cost of auto- 
matic regulators would have been over $1,700, and we cast 
about to see if we could not substitute some means to accom- 
plish the desired results at less expense. Without altering 
or adding to the present three wire standard this we have 
done by connecting the battery to the same main wires as 
the dynamo and placing a hand operated resistance in the 
main lamp return wire, in baggage car. This lamp resistance 
is brought into use by opening the connector loop in rear of 
train and closing it on switch in baggage car. 

On account of the high steam pressure needed to operate 
the dynamo, the baggage car is run next to the locomotive. 
On this train there are three mail cars without end doors 
between it and the train. Our baggagemen therefore, can- 
not get into the train while it is in motion and as they oper- 
ate the electric lighting, it is very necessary for them to have 
simple rules to run by. I will therefore quote our charging 
instructions as they fully explain the operation of charging 
the batteries. 

Instructions to Dynamo-Baggagemen. 

At about midnight or when lamp load has fallen to the 
minimum begin charging. 

Arrange previously with rear-brakemen to open rear con- 
nector loops. 

Better arrange to do this at some station. Just before ar- 
riving at this station throw in your front end loop, otherwise 
train will be in darkness as soon as rear loop is opened. 

Now, with everything running as it should be, put volt 
meter switch on lamps, throw in first point of large lamp 
resistance. That will lower voltage, raise lamp voltage to 
104. Now read dynamo voltage, if it stands at about 128 or 
130 let it alone; if not, throw large resistance to No. 2 and 
again raise lamp voltage to 104. Continue this until you 
have about 104 volts on lamps and 128 to 130 volts on dy- 
namo. Let it run now until ampere load has fallen to 
about 5 or 10 amperes for each battery back of your car 
in addition to the lamp load. Then shut down dynamo. 
Pay particular attention to the amount of steam neces- 
sary to operate the dynamo and call for as little as pos- 
sible. This is very important. It saves coal, saves steam 
for the locomotive (where it is sometimes badly needed) and 
saves bursting steam hose, an expense to the company, delay 
to the train, and trouble to yourselves. 

With an automatic loop connector to open the loop, it is 
only necessary to insert the male connector. Therefore, if 
all connectors are in place there are no loops in the train 
except the one on rear of last car. Should train part from 
accident or is parted for switching, as soon as male connector 
is taken down the automatic loops immediately set, form- 

ing a circuit for the current, either from the dynamo in front, 
or battery on last part of train. 

The total cost of equipping a train for this system is $67.50. 
This includes hand lamp resistance, automatic cut out and 
extra main car feeders brought from roof main down to 
switch box and connections made in 4-battery cars. 

This system of charging has cut down the lamp renewals 
30 per cent, has enabled us to do our charging on the road, 
and keeps the batteries in good condition. 

The controlling of the charge is done by having ampere 
hour meters in circuit with each battery. These are read 
at terminals and baggage men advised to charge more or 
less as the conditions demand. 

Lighting a 17-car train having over 800 lamps, and being 
about a quarter of a mile long is no mean undertaking, and 
on account of the heavy all night load 75 amperes it was 
found hard to keep the batteries charged and give satisfactory 
illumination. I therefore suggested to our people that we 
reduce the load on this train by adopting 60 volts, and using 
tungsten and tantalum lamps. 

Many of you are aware that for more than two years I 
have been a strong believer and an earnest worker in en- 
deavoring to bring about a standard of 60 volts on all the 
head end lighted roads, and while most electrical men can see 
advantage in it, the mechanical people so far on some roads 
have not taken it very seriously. It gave me great satisfac- 
tion, therefore, that our people allowed me to try it out on 
the Pioneer Limited. 

On November 10, 1910, this train arrived in the yard at 
11:00 A. M., 110 volts, and when it left at 5:30 P. M. had been 
changed to 60 volts, lamped and tested. The operation that 
night was all that was expected and the lighting was beyond 

To convert the 110-volt dynamo into a 60-volt machine, 
we placed an extra field rheostat in series with the old one 
and a shunt across the compound field terminals. I had pre- 
viously tested out a number of these generators and knew 
just what to do with them. The cost of converting this ma- 
chine from 110 to 60 volts is $7.50. 

Diagram No. 1 is a test sheet of this train at 64 volts. 

It will be noted by comparing it with test sheet No. 2 of 
104 volt train that the amount of steam required to operate 
dynamo averaged about 18 pounds less. That the battery 
charging current available was 50 per cent greater. The volt- 
age was more uniform, 12 C. P. lamps were used instead of 
8 C. P., increasing the light on train 60 per cent. 

Now let us compare the operation costs of the two sys- 

As there are six items that differ in each train operation, 
we will compare them only. 

Consumption of steam. Lamp renewals. 

Weight hauled. Yard labor. 

Battery depreciation. Total candle power. 

110 Volt Train, See Sheet No. 2. 

We find that on a 110 volt train the average load was 
14.96 kw. 

Taking tests made by Mr. Wray, Bulletin No. 268, Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin, for the efficiency of the turbine, we find 
that at 15 kw. load 88 lbs. of steam was used per kw.h. 88x15 
kw. equals 1,320x19 hours per trip equals 250,080 lbs. steam 
used. This divided by 5:5 lbs. water evaporated per lb. of 
coal equals 4,560 lbs. as used per trip 182 trips per year equals 
829,920 lbs. coal divided by 2,000 (lbs. per ton) equals 415 tons 
multiplied by $2.00 equals $830.00. 

Cost of Hauling Batteries. 

Four sets of 54 cells each, 216 cells at 173 lbs. each equals 
37,368 lbs. divided by 2,000 (lbs. per ton) equals 18.68 tons, 820 
miles per trip multiplied by 182 trips multiplied by 18.68 
equals 2,787,803 ton miles multiplied by .0015 cents per ton 
mile equals $4,181.70. 

[February, 1912. J 


































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Arrangement of Apparatus, Head-end Lighting System. 

Battery Depreciation. 
Battery depreciation figured at 15 per cent. . . .$679.40 
Yard labor 554.80 

Lamp Renewals. 
Carbon lamps cost 20 cents each, 5,232 lamps were used, 
which equals $1,046.40. 

60 Volt Train, See Sheet No. 1. 

The average load is 10 kw*, the average steam used is 105 
lbs. per kw.h. 

Figured in the same as for the 110 volt train the cost of 
coal for this train was $660.00. 

Cost of Hauling Batteries. 
Four sets of 32 cells each 128 cells at 173 lbs. equals 22,144 
lbs. or 11 tons equals $2,503.80. 

Battery Depreciation. 
Battery depreciation at 15 per cent $403.20. 

Yard Labor. 
While there are 40 per cent less batteries to handle the 
other work on the train remains the same, so I have taken 
65 per cent of the yard cost of the 110 volt train which 
amounts to $360.12. 

Lamp Renewals. 
Forty-seven cents each is average cost of tungsten and 
tantalum lamps. We have figured 10 per cent more lamps 
used than on the 110 volt train. Cost of lamps $2,704.85. 
Table of Costs, 110 Volt Train. 

Coal for operating dynamo $ 830.00 

Batteries, cost- of hauling 4,181.70 

Battery depreciation 15 per cent 679.40 

Yard labor 554.80 

Lamp renewals 1,046.40 


[February, 1912.] 
































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[February, 1912.] 

Table of Costs, 60 Volt Train. 

Coal for operating dynamo $ 660.00 

Batteries, cost of hauling 2,503.80 

Battery depreciation 403.20 

Yard labor 360.12 

Lamp renewals 2,704.85 


Total saving by 60 volt system $ 660.33 

• Total C.P. 110 volt train 6,976 

Total C.P. 60 volt train 10,464 

While the difference in operating expense is not great, 
the lighting service is 100 per cent better. In fact, our 
operating troubles have been so greatly reduced, that where 
we formerly received constant reports of poor lighting, we 
seldom if ever now get a report of that kind. 

Closing, I wish to say that the interchange of cars, on 
our western roads is on the increase, and a uniform voltage 
for the head end lighted trains is more than ever necessary, 
and I hope the day is close at hand when those roads that 
have not adopted the 60 volt system as standard will soon 
see their way clear to do so. 

The Guelph Radial Railway locomotive is ruggedly built. 
The frame is of channel iron construction, and the cab is 
substantially built of clear ash fitted together with joint 
bolts and corner plates. The trucks are of the standard 
Baldwin electric M. C. B. equalizer-bar type with chilled 
cast-iron wheels. 

The electrical equipment consists of four type No. 101-B-2, 
40 h. p., 500 volt Westinghouse railway motors and K-28-B 
control. It is also equipped with Westinghouse automatic 
and straight air brakes with outside equalizing driver brakes. 

The principal dimensions are: 

Length over end sills 23 ft. in. 

Width over all 8 ft. in. 

Truck centers 12 ft. in. 

Rigid wheel base 6 ft. in. 

Total wheel base 18 ft. in. 

Wheel diameter 33 in. 

The hauling capacity of this locomotive is given in the 
table below: 

Number of cars weighing 45 tons with load at 10.75 miles 
per hour at 500 volts. 

27-Ton Electric Locomotive, Guelph Radial Ry. 



The Guelph Radial Railway, Guelph, Ont, has recently 
purchased a 27-ton Baldwin-Westinghouse direct-current 
locomotive. The cab, trucks and all mechanical parts were 
built by the Baldwin Locomotive Works, and the electrical 
equipment, including, motor and control, was furnished by 
the Canadian Westinghouse Co., Limited, of Hamilton, On- 
tario, after the design of the WestingTiouse Electric & Manu- 
facturing Company of East Pittsburgh, Pa. 

This locomotive is compactly built and may be used for 
freight and switching service. Interurban and city railways 
are using locomotives like this one, and larger for various 
kinds of service, for a road's earning capacity can be mate- 
rially increased by using locomotives to haul freight during 
the night or idle hours, thus improving the load factor. 
Many city roads also use similar locomotives for hauling 
construction material and refuse to dumping grounds. 

Straight ^Maximum Grade 


Road y 2 % 1% 2% 

17 cars 7 cars 4 cars 2 cars 

The figures given for "Straight, Level Road" show the 
load which may be handled in switching service. The val- 
ues given under "Maximum Grade" are safe when the grade 
requires a pull of but five or ten minutes' duration. In any 
particular case, the number of cars that can be handled may 
be greater or less than the values above tabulated, depend- 
ing upon the profile, curves and operating conditions. 

*On a fairly level and straight road, the load to be han- 
dled is determined by the maximum grade. 

The Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis proposes 
to build a new enginehouse this year at Elkhart, Tnd., also 
one at Carey, Ohio, and one at Terre Haute, Ind. 

[February, 1912.] 



WORK OF RAILWAY TESTING DEPARTMENT.* tific papers and the drawing up and standardizing of specifica- 

By E. P. Tilt, Engineer Tests, C. P. Ry. tions for materials. Next year the International Society for 

* , . . Testing Materials meets in New York, and the engineering 

Up to the year 1875 there had been constructed in America fessions from manufacturing country in the world will 

about 75,000 miles of railway, and this was the year just pre 
ceding the introduction of the automatic air brake, when we 
find the Pennsylvania Railroad establishing what we believe 
to be the first railway chemical laboratory in America. The 
man selected to be the head of this department was the late 
Dr. Charles B. Dudley, who became a world wide known au- 
thority on railway materials. His own words written some time 
after taking the position in November, 1875, show how he, a 
college trained chemist, and his department were regarded: 
"So little was the possible use of a chemist appreciated, and so 
little work was known that he could do, that permission to 
have a chemist was granted more as a concession and as an 
experiment than with any faith or belief that the scheme would 
prove to be permanent or valuable. It is also fair to say that 
at that time the field for work was as much unknown to the 
chemist himself as to the railroad officers." Consider the con- 
ditions at this time: railways were expanding very fast, much 
material had to be purchased and the standards of quality de- 
sired had largely to be investigated and determined, and suit- 
able specifications drawn up to cover the purchase of these 
materials. The laboratory staff then consisted of Mr. Dudley 
and one or two untrained helpers and this grew until today 
there is a force of over thirty chemists and other assistants, in 
addition to a staff of about 200 inspectors of various kinds. 
The laboratories of the Pennsylvania Railroad report that in 
1910 there were 35,872. samples of various materials examined 
in the chemical laboratories on which there were made 121,970 
determinations. In the physical testing laboratory 58,193 
routine tests were made which included the inspection of the 
following material: The inspection of 97,759,972 lbs. of bar 
iron, of which 4,007.049 lbs. were rejected; 840,750 pieces of 
air brake hose, of which 108,300 were rejected; 3,000,480 lbs. of 
waste, of which 1,008.275 lbs. were rejected; 33,734,552 lbs. of 
steel castings, of which 1,161,379 lbs. were rejected; the inspec- 
tion of 211,453 wheels, of which 2,519 were rejected. We have 
given these figures as representing the work done by the largest 
railway testing department that we know of and the figures well 
serve to give some idea of the quantity of materials required by 
a big railway, and the rejections prove the necessity of inspec- 
tion. There is not a trunk line in America today which has not 
its testing laboratory in greater or less degree and we find by 
inquiry and estimate that railways are spending from $10,000 
to $150,000 per year on their testing departments. One railway 
informs us that as a result of an investigation made by their 
testing department they effect a yearly saving of $80,000 in 
the treatment of cross ties as compared with their previous 
practice, while the testing department on another road recently 
got a reduction of $1,500 on a single shipment of telegraph wire 
which was not up to specification. 

The principal economies which are being effected by railway 
testing departments, outside of the economy which results from 
the use of good material instead of inferior material, are those 
relating to the purification of boiler waters, studies on fuel con- 
sumption, investigations in connection with rails, tyres, paints 
and rubber goods. Some testing departments supervise the 
manufacture of disinfectants, deodorizers, metal polish, fire ex- 
tinguishers, boiler compound and cutting compound; and one 
railway company makes all of the freight car paint which it 
uses. As an indication of the amount of inspection and testing 
done we may say that there was formed in 1898 in Philadel- 
phia the American Society for Testing Materials, and this has 
today a membership of about 1,400, made up of engineers of 
all kinds and the manufacturers of engineering materials, and 
a five Hays' session is held each year for the discussion of scien- 

*From a paper read before the Canadian Railway Club. 

probably be represented. It is very evident therefore that the 
testing of railway materials is now on what may be termed a 
standard practice basis and there is a wealth of literature deal- 
ing with the technique of inspection and the qualities desired 
in the materials used. The time is therefore long since past 
when the question of whether a railway testing laboratory is a 
necessity or not, and the fact of such a department existing 
in every progressive railway organization indicates that it is 
necessary and must therefore be a paying investment. 

The management of the Canadian Pacific Railway had early 
recognized the value of a railway testing department, and since 
1891, when W. Bell Dawson started the first laboratory, with 
Milton L. Hersey as assistant chemist, there has been a de- 
partment of some magnitude, greater or less, depending upon 
what purchases of supplies were being made. Within the last 
few years there has been a division of the system into Western 
and Eastern lines, the former of which has had its own chemi- 
cal laboratory at Winnipeg since 1905, which has specialized in 
water troubles with much success, in addition to doing the other 
routine work which comes to a railway chemical laboratory. 
The work on Eastern lines is done conjointly, by commercial 
testing companies who do all of the foreign mill inspection ; 
Dr. Milton L. Hersey and associates, of Montreal, who do all 
of the chemical work ; and the testing department with labora- 
tory at Angus shops, who do a portion of the domestic mill 
inspection, and who take charge of the routine sampling and 
inspection of materials received at the Angus shops, where are 
located the locomotive and the car departments and the general 
stores. The duties of the Angus shops testing department in- 
clude also the preparation of suitable specifications, the in- 
vestigation of the failures of materials and the studies of 
processes or special materials. The testing of devices is handled 
by the mechanical engineers of the locomotive or the car de- 

In the purchase of materials of such wide variety and origin 
as are required for our company the question of economical 
inspection is important and the present organization has been 
found to be a satisfactory and cheap one. A great deal of 
our heavy materials are bought in Europe and the United States 
and the keeping of our own inspectors at these distant points 
would entail much expense. Otherwise we would inspect the 
materia! on receipt at the point where it is to be used, which is 
certain to be unsatisfactory if the material is not acceptable, 
and the equipment waiting for it would be held up. This for- 
eign inspection has been well handled by outside inspection 
companies who work under our instructions and with our 
specifications, and who guard our interests, whether the ma- 
terial is offered at Sheffield, Essen or Pittsburgh. 

Our chemical work is done by Dr. Milton L. Hersey and 
his associates, whose large staff enables them at any time to 
rush special work or to take care of any sudden increase in 
work. The staff, which includes among others, Dr. Milton L. 
Hersey, who has been chemist for the C. P. R. since the in- 
ception of a testing department, Robert Job, formerly chief 
chemist for the Reading Railroad, and later of the firm of 
Booth, Garrett & Blair, Philadelphia; Charles R. Hazen, former 
assistant chemist of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, 
are all available for consultation, regarding any matter con- 
nected with the railway, and this places at the railway's disposal 
talent which would not otherwise be available in an ordinary 
railway organization. In doing all of the chemical work for 
the mechanical departments at Angus shops, Dr. Hersey is kept 
in touch with all of the inspection and testing, and in addition 
makes all the fuel analyses for the fuel department, makes in- 
vestigations and reports of various kinds for the freight claims 
department and the express company: makes different analyses 



[February, 1912.] 

for the engineering department, examinations of foods and 
water- for the hotel and dining car department, and assays of 
ores and varied analyses for the industrial department. A large 
amount of good work is being done by the chemical department 
in the treatment of waters for locomotives and stationary boil- 
ers and in the selection of the proper boiler compound. This is 
one of the economies which is hard to show in exact figures, 
yet we believe that it is a matter of saving hundreds of dollars 
monthly, for the cost alone of a proprietary compound to re- 
place our present standard boiler compound would be an in- 
creased expense to the company of $500 a month. One man 
is kept constantly on the road to see that the compound is 
properly used and to keep the chemical laboratory advised of 
conditions generally on the line. 

The staff at Angus shops consists of an engineer of tests and 
an assistant, who pay particular attention to the special tests 
and investigations in connection with material, the considera- 
tion of specifications and the checking and reporting to the 
proper officials of the work done by the outside inspection com- 
panies. There is a chief wheel inspector, who has an assistant 
to inspect the daily output of our wheel foundry,, and who 
has in addition charge of the stocks and of the mixtures for the 
cupolas of the wheel foundry and the grey iron foundry. He 
also inspects and reports on all failed cast iron wheels and 
makes special tests of new materials which are submitted for 
the use of the foundries. There is a laboratory assistant who 
has charge of all the physical testing and who is assisted by 
from six to ten of the best apprentices from the shops in the 
testing and inspection which is done at Angus. We are at 
present taking shop apprentices for a period of from four to 
six months, as assistants in the ordinary physical testing and the 
inspection of material. In this way our apprentices become 
familiar with the principal characteristics of the common metals 
and materials which they may meet in the shops, and thus we 
hope to make them more interested in their work and inculcate 
the idea that inferior material must always be looked out for. 
This gives us a large number of inspectors which can be drawn 
on as required to suit the varying demands. There are, of 
course, some disadvantages, one of which is that every new 
boy must be trained, and about the time that he becomes truly 
valuable he must be returned to the shops; but on the whole 
the system is working out very well. 

The heavy materials are inspected at the mills, and this in- 
cludes firebox and flange plates, structural shapes for cars, 
axles, tyres, automatic couplers, billets, springs and cast iron 


Inspection and testing is done upon receipt at Angus of the 
following materials : bar iron and steel, chain, steel castings, 
rubber goods, wire cable, bronze and brass castings, babbitts, 
solders, waste, boiler tubes, brake beams, paints, oils, soaps, 
cleaners, fabrics, etc. 

The inspection of rails and fastenings, bridges and struc- 
tural material is at present done by outside companies directly 
for the engineering department, which gets the records of these 


Where locomotives or cars are to be built outside, the pur- 
chasing department advises us what portion of the inspection 
work we are required to take care of, and this is provided for, 
as well as seeing that the other inspection work is done, and the 
necessary reports made and checked. The inspection made dur- 
ing the building of locomotives outside is done by inspectors 
from our own locomotive shop who see as to the compliance 
with our drawings, pass judgment on the workmanship, fit and 
finish, and assist us in taking samples and following up the 
tests which indicate the quality of the materials used. Where 
cars are built outside, the inspection is made in part by men 
from our own car shops working in conjunction with an out- 
side inspection company, and we are called on for such addi- 
tional tests of materials as may be considered necessary. The 
outside construction companies are of course supplied with our 

specifications, and purchase materials in accordance with them 
and the materials are subject not only to inspection by the 
purchasing company but are often checked by ourselves. 

The question of where a railway testing department should 
tit in or how it should be related to the railw-ay organization 
is an important one. It seems to us that the logical place to 
look for this department, which questions the quality of ma- 
terials offered or purchased for all other departments and which 
makes reports thereon to the heads of the departments, should 
be under some general officer. In our case the testing depart- 
ment has been successively under the engineering department, 
the stores and the general manager, and is now reporting direct 
to the vice-president's office; and the most satisfactory relations 
to all have been while under the general manager or the pres- 
ent arrangement. In our opinion then, the testing department 
should be responsible only to the management, and while re- 
porting to all other departments, should be independent of 
them, that is, should be a free lance. 

The testing department must necessarily stand close to the 
general storekeeper, advising him promptly when the material 
is not of the desired grade and suggesting its disposal or its re- 
jection. We make all of our reports on the quality of materials 
to the storekeeper, with copies of the reports to the heads of 
the departments for which the material is intended, and it is 
taken for granted by the shops that if material is given to 
them by the stores, it is of the proper quality, and that it has 
had the necessary inspection. We have alw r ays taken the view- 
point that we should be distributors of information of general 
interest, and in the making of our reports, copies are usually 
sent to the chief officers in other departments, who are in- 
directly interested. The testing department can also be of 
much service to the purchasing department, advising them of 
the merits of samples as compared with what has been pre- 
viously purchased, and in working out such specifications as 
will ensure of their securing a reasonably good commercial 
material, or article for the purpose intended at a fair price. 
The cost of inspection, outside of the cost of the material which 
may be destroyed, varies greatly and may be as much as 5 per 
cent of the value of the material or as little as .2 per cent. 

The making of a specification is a very important part of the 
duties of a testing department, and the perfect specification 
should secure the best material at the lowest cost; but in real- 
ity the usual specification is very much of a compromise. In 
drawing up a specification the use of the material should first 
be carefully considered and the attributes necessary to meet the 
demands of service well studied. It must then be determined 
what accelerated or laboratory tests will best show the capacity 
of the material to meet the service required of it. The de- 
partments interested must be consulted regarding the size, shape 
or form in which the material is desired and the stores must 
say about the shipping and the storage. The specification must 
then be submitted to the purchasing department, who send it 
out to the manufacturers and after some modification and 
changes we have a general compromise which gives us a ma- 
terial which will be considered a run of mill product purchase- 
able at a reasonable price. We know often that material bought 
in this way is not the best material of the kind made, but it 
probably is the best material, price considered. 

In the use of specifications, the ideal way is to send them 
to all manufacturers of that particular line, an open market 
so to speak, and after quotations are received, buy from the 
lowest priced firm. While this again is theoretically correct, 
yet it is impossible to ignore the claims of manufacturing com- 
panies situated on a railway line, and others who for equally 
good reasons must be considered, and while the virtues given 
to materials bought through influence of that sort are of the 
kind which the engineer of tests is unable to detect, yet where 
judgment is used and a careful inspection made, this is no 
doubt good railway politics. Then, again, the skill, equip- 
ment, tradition, pride and other factors all have a bearing on 

[February, 1912.] 



the quality of material, and it is a fact that materials bought 
under the same specification from different manufacturers will 
differ as to absolute quality, though of course the differences 
are usually of minor importance and are generally those of 
finish and appearance. 

The difficulty of drawing up and enforcing what may seem 
to be a reasonable specification is well shown in the case of 
steel tyres. All railways want a tyre which will wear a long 
time and which will not break. The tyre manufacturer has 
taken the view that he should not be told what to make, 
how to make it, and be held responsible for the result, and then 
in addition be held down to a price which allows a very small, 
if any, margin of profit. The result of this disagreement has 
been that there are very few railways in America today, with 
tyre specifications upon which tyres are purchased ; the Ameri- 
can Society for Testing Materials has a specification which is 
more or less used, and the Master Mechanics' Association is 
at present drawing up a specification which it is hoped will put 
the manufacture and purchase of steel tyres on the same basis 
as rails and similar products. Our company has taken care of 
this particular difficulty by drawing up what we term a Tyre 
Standard. This shows the physical qualities of the tyres with 
which we are being supplied and which are being found satis- 
factory, so that when a new tyre manufacturer wishes to 
tender, he is given this standard to consider, and if he can 
supply the material at a fair price he is given an opportunity 
and his product is carefully watched to see what results it 
gives in service. We wish to say here that we have found that 
the manufacturers of tyres take a pride in keeping up the qual- 
ity and retaining their good reputation in the same manner in 
which the conservative manufacturers of some years ago did. 

Our specification covering merchant shapes of steel is based 
entirely upon analysis as being the principal consideration, and 
steels of different carbons are purchased for particular pur- 
poses, thus steel of .25 per cent carbon is used for engine and 
rod bolts, center plate pins and any place where wear is a con- 
sideration .60 per cent carbon is used for knuckle pins and .75 
per cent carbon for crosshead keys. 

A couple of years ago we added a freezing test to our air 
brake hose specification. We found difficulty in keeping our 
train line tight in very cold weather due to the hose becoming 
stiff, and on investigation it was found that there was a great 
difference in the stiffness of different makes of hose at the 
some temperature. We decided finally upon a maximum 
weight necessary to bend the hose through a certain arc at 
zero, Fahrenheit, and all air hose supplied to us must satisfac- 
torily pass this test. Since then we have been supplied with a 
hose of greater flexibility at low temperature, and we may say 
a better hose too than we previously used. 

The manufacture of material, such as disinfectants, boiler 
compounds and so forth, by a testing department or under the 
supervision of a testing department, is to our mind a question 
procedure, and while we are at present making a boiler com- 
pound, yet we anticipate at an early date purchasing this ma- 
terial to -our formula and specification. We believe that a 
suitable formula and specification will enable the purchasing 
department to buy any material with greater satisfaction for 
use than can be given by intermittent manufacture with all its 
drawbacks due to irregularity of the quality of raw materials, 
changes in the workmen during the manufacture and other vari- 
able factors. We believe that the following definition of a rail- 
way given by Mr. Julius Kruttschnitt, of the Harriman Lines, 
covers the situation, "A railway is a machine designed to manu- 
facture freight and passenger transportation, it makes ton miles 
and passenger miles." From a limited observation of railway 
manufacture, we consider that the great majority of railway 
materials can be purchased outside with greater satisfaction and 
economy than they can be made, and we may mention such 
things as bronze, brass, and steel castings. 

The management of the iron mixtures for our foundries is 

one which has effected a very large saving as compared with 
previous practice. All of our mixtures are carefully calculated 
from the analyses of the materials entering into the mixtures, 
and the uniformity of the product is an evidence of the value 
of this. In our wheel foundry the difference between wheels 
too hard or too soft for use and good wheels is only a few 
hundredths of a per cent of silicon or manganese so that great 
care must be exercised in the choice of materials. In the grey 
iron foundry we produce three different grades of iron, each 
day from the same cupola ; cylinder, machine and a common 
iron for grate bars and such castings. Every car of pig iron 
and coke received is analyzed, as is also our limestone and 
scrap from time to time, in order to check them. 

The scrap dock has been a popular direction for many testing 
departments to turn to to effect economies, and the following 
are among the principal items considered in a paper recently 
read before the Central Railway Club by Mr. J. P. Murphy, 
general storekeeper of the L. S. & M. S. Ry. Knowing how 
dear economies in scrap material are to the average railway 
man and appreciating its importance we quote this in full. 

"All bolts and iron suitable for making bolts are assorted, 
straightened, cut to length, threaded and turned into stock 
for further use. 

"Washers are made from old sheet on a punch which is 
available for the purpose. 

"Nuts are sorted to size and retapped. 

"Track spikes and bolts fit for further service are returned. 
"Tie plates, angle bars and rail braces are sorted out, the 
plates often repunched to other sizes, rail braces straightened. 

"Coupler pockets sheared from couplers by a hydraulic press 
and reissued. 

"Old bridge channels and angles made into angle iron face 
plates for cars. 

"Frog and switch parts dismantled, and good parts assembled 
for use in manufacture of new frogs and switches at our rail 

"Passenger brake shoes unfit for that service sorted and deliv- 
ered for use on freight cars. 
"Brake beams repaired. 

"Forgings capable of being worked over sorted. 
"Journals bearings relined. 
"Air hose refitted and old couplings used. 
"Splice hose for work equipment. 
"Throttle packing made from scrap hose. 
"Union gaskets made from old air hose gaskets. 
"In the handling of scrap the same is sorted for mill classifi- 
cation, thus allowing the purchasing agent to obtain better 
prices for it." 

There are undoubtedly many things to be learned and econ- 
omies to be effected from an investigation and study of ma- 
terials at the scrap dock, and our locomotive and car depart- 
ments are watching this very closely. Our investigations into 
re-using scrap materials have been very limited, but one in- 
cluded the recovery of oil from discarded dope, and without 
entering into details we may say that this recovery was an eco- 
nomical proposition when nothing was allowed for the scrap 
value of the dope, but when the reclaiming process was charged 
with its market value the proposition was non-paying, to say 
nothing of the trouble which the use of the reclaimed oil made 
because of its inferior quality. We have heard of washed waste, 
which no one wished to use, and of recut files which it was 
difficult to have mechanics give a fair show to, and it is our 
opinion that if some of these so-called economies are properly 
investigated, it will be found that if they bear all the charges 
which should properly be set against them, that the saving is 
very small. 

The inspection of failed material is made together with a 
representative each from the drafting office and the shops, so 
that the question of design, and fit or workmanship, can be 
considered before chemical and microscopic analysis and physi- 



[February, 1912.] 

cal testing are done. The results of these investigations of 
failed materials are usually the finding of inferior material, 
otherwise there follows modifications of design, variation in shop 
treatment of material or a change in the specifications for the 
materials used. 

We have done a great deal of testing during the last few 
years of high speed steels, and drills of different designs made 
from these steels. We have made tests of files and are 
called upon continually to judge as to the merits of different 
brands of shovels, handles, lanterns, hose and many other small 
devices and materials which it is difficult to satisfactorily cover 
with a specification. Studies are being carried on relating to 
steel tyres, cast iron wheels, rubber hose of various kinds, and 
paints with a view to seeing what improvements can be effected 
which wiU result in greater economy to our company. 

Paints have always been a favorable and a necessary field for 
the investigation of the railway testing department, and great 
difficulty is experienced in securing the materials which are 
specified. No one will question the knowledge which the paint 
maker has regarding the use of paints and the attributes of the 
materials which he uses, but the greatest objection which we 
have found is that the paint manufacturer does not always -seem 
desirous of carrying out the requirements of the specifications 
which a railway company draws up, and he tenders on, but 
prefers to supply the materials which are the best in his judg- 
ment. We do not wish to be unfair to the paint manufacturing- 
business, but we believe that more sophistry is practised in that 
branch of the manufacturing business than any other that we 
know of. 

The sampling of materials is a very important and difficult 
matter and often does not receive the attention which it should. 
A sample must be representative of the average quality possessed 
by the material of which it forms a part, so that judgment and 
care are necessary to prevent a selection of the best or the 
worst portion of the material that it is desired to sample. 

The forms for reports is a most important consideration and 
is something upon which a great deal may be said for each par- 
ticular material and condition requires its own treatment. How- 
ever, we shall not elaborate on something which is not of gen- 
eral interest, though we may say that we make all ordinary re- 
ports in letter form as we think they receive more attention and 

Before closing we wish to say a few words about the supply 
men whom we have come in contact with, and we may tell you 
that in all the reports made either for or against materials we 
have not found any who were not willing to believe that the 
work had been done impartially and who were not ready to give 
our work reasonable consideration. 

We are sure that we have only touched on the question of a 
railway testing department in this paper, but if we have stimu- 
lated some little additional interest in that work or have called 
attention to work which has hitherto passed unnoticed we feel 
that our effort has not been in vain. 


A steel storage bin is now being marketed which is in- 
tended for manufacturing plant, jobbing house, or wherever 
small appliances and parts are carried in bulk, such as ma- 
chine parts, valves, nails, nuts, bolts, screws, pipe elbows, 
unions and similar articles. The bins arc made in the form 
a large cabinet, and the sizes of the bins are adjustable to 
varying needs: 

They are made entirely of steel, the shelving being so 
arranged that articles varying widely in size can be stored, 
by making the compartments small or large. This is done 
by adjusting the partitions, which are easily inserted and 
bolted in place. 

The design of the bin is somewhat similar to the ordinary 
egg crate. It is made up of a continuous center partition 
or back, the full length of the bin. This is lied into up- 

rights placed at right angles, by stove bolts through angles 
turned on the uprights. This center partition, which is a 
back for a single face bin, serves as a center or dividing 
back partition for a double face bin. The uprights at right 
angles to the center partition or back carry a part of the 
shelf load, the shelves being attached to them at the front 
and back by stove bolts. 

The bottom shelves tie the construction together at the 
bottom while the top ledge ties it together at the top. The 
intermediate shelves are bolted to the uprights and center 
dividing partitions, tieing the whole together by means of 
stove bolts which may be easily removed or respaced. 

Flat pieces of steel form the back and dividing partitions, 
upright and horizontal. Stove bolts through the angles 
made the entire bin secure and permit of adjustment. The 
shelves are held at the front by shelf supports when it is 
desired to use the shelf as a bin, to prevent small material 
from falling out. When it is desired to use it simply as a 
shelf, the shelf of steel is supported by a hanger. 

The bin section can be erected with ordinary labor, the 
only tool necessary being a screw to tighten up the stove 
bolts. When erected the bins are tied together on every 
side and when loaded demonstrate their ability to carry very 
heavy loads. 

Tests have been made to prove the strength and utility 
of the bins. One test was the placing of heavy loads in 
the various compartments of a section, slabs of spelter 
being used, averaging 63 pounds each. The bins were each 
loaded with from 819 to 1,827 pounds. The total weight of 
the spleter in the bin section was 15,220, more than 7 l / 2 tons 
— and there was no apparent deflection at any point. 

F. K. Allen succeeds W. G. Weber as purchasing agent of 
the Algoma Central & Hudson Bay. Office at Sault Ste. Marie, 

E. H. Beard has been appointed master mechanic of the Arkan- 
sas & Gulf at Laark, La. 

W. F. Harris has been appointed general foreman of the Balti- 
more & Ohio Southwestern at Cincinnati, succeeding W. H. 
Keller, transferred to Flora, 111. 

A. T. Shortt succeeds R. A. Pyne as master mechanic of the 
Alberta division of the Canadian Pacific with office at Calgary, 

P. C. Linck is now general foreman of the Chicago & Eastern 
Illinois, at Danville, 111. He succeeds W. D. Smith. 

S. C. Kennedy succeeds J. F. Donellan as locomotive foreman 
of the Great Western at Clarion, la. 

J. W. Senger has been appointed master car builder of the 
Lake Shore & Michigan Southern at Chicago, to succeed T. 
H. Goodnow, resigned. F. H. Hanson succeeds Mr. Senger 
as supervisor of material, locomotive and car departments 
with office at Cleveland, O. 

F. K. Murphy is now master mechanic of the middle division 
of the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis, with head- 
quarters at Shelby St., Indianapolis. He succeeds J. A. Gib- 
son, P. J. Hickey and F. M. Lawler. D. J. Mullen is master 
mechanic of the western division with office at Mattoon, 111. 
W. K. High lias retired and Mr. Mullen's division now includes 
the old Cairo and St. Louis divisions. 

1). O'Leary is master mechanic of the Columbia & Puget Sound 
with headquarters at Seattle, Wash. 

J. H. Shull succeeds Milton Y.etter as president of the Dela- 
ware Valley, with office at Stroud si mrg, Pa. 

O. W. Hitt has been appointed general foreman of the Detroit, 
Toledo & I ronton, with office at Jackson, O. He succeeds T. J. 

[February, 1912.] 



J. S. Pyeatt, formerly division superintendent of the St. Louis 
& San Francisco, has been appointed vice president and general 
manager of the Ft. Worth & Rio Grande and the St. Louis, 
San Francisco & Texas, vice W. B. Drake, resigned. His 
office is at Ft. Worth, Texas. A. A. Graham succeeds C. E. 
Boss as master mechanic of these two roads with office at 
Sherman, Texas. Mr. Boss has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Texas & Pacific at Big Springs, Tex., vice J. 
Pottor, resigned. 

J. C. Benson succeeds J. L. Miller as master mechanic of the 
Great Northern with office at Grand Forks, N. D. P. S. Markley 
has been appointed car foreman at Fargo, N. D., vice P. Cebula. 

Jas. Ashworth, master mechanic of the Louisville & Nashville, 
has had his office moved from Birmingham to Boyles, Ala., where 
new shops have been opened. 

The Minneapolis & St. Louis R. R. has absorbed the Iowa Cen- 
tral, which is now known as the eastern division of the former 
road. C. E. Gossett continues as general master mechanic 
with jurisdiction over the whole system. His office remains 
at Minneapolis. \ 

W. C. Lambert suceeds J. P. Worthley as district foreman of 
the Oregon Short Line, with office at Montpelier, Ida. 

E. A. Kelley has been appointed general manager of the New 
Orleans Terminal Co., vice R. B. Fowler, resigned. 

C. K. Shelby has been appointed master mechanic of the Penn- 

motive power of the Pennsylvania, with headquarters at 
Altoona, Va. 

W. A. Reddie has been appointed road foreman of engines of 
the Vandalia, with office at Indianapolis, Ind. He succeeds J. 
Q. Mowry, who has been transferred to Terre Haute, Ind., 
vice J. M. Lindley. 

The Bakersfield & Ventura R. R. is now known as the Ventura 
County Ry. 

Fred M. Baumgardener has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Springfield division of the Illinois Central R. 
R., with headquarters at Clinton, 111., effective February 1, 
vice Louis E. Hassman, resigned to accept service with an- 
other company. 

T. H. Goodnow has been appointed general superintendent of 
the Armour Car Lines, with office at the Union Stock Yards, Chi- 
cago. He succeeds W. E. Sharp, who recently joined the forces 
of the Grip Nut Co. Mr. Goodnow began railroad work in 1890 
in the locomotive department of the Norwalk, O., shop, of the 
Lake Shore & Michigan Southern. He remained continuously 
with that company in various positions until August, 1906. At 
that time he was appointed master car builder in charge of the 
Michigan Southern division, also the Chicago, Indiana & South- 
ern and the Indiana Harbor, which position he held until Janu- 
ary 15, 1912, when he received his present appointment. Mr. 
Goodnow is vice-president of the Western Railway Club. 

D. J. Mullen. T. H. 

sylvania at Olean, N. Y. W. J. Rusling succeeds Mr. Shelby 
.as master mechanic of the Northern Central at Elmira, N. Y. 

Page Harris has been appointed superintendent of transporta- 
tion of the Texas & Pacific with office at Dallas, Tex. The 
transportation department has been made an independent de- 
partment and all matters pertaining to it will be under the 
direct supervision of Mr. Harris. 

John D. Isaacs, consulting engineer of the Southern and Union 
Pacific, has had his headquarters moved from Chicago to New 

Jesse G. June succeeds J. M. Barrett as superintendent of ter- 
minals of the Erie, with office at Jersey City, N. J. 

T. N. Russell has been appointed superintendent of the car de- 
partment of the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton, with office at 
Cincinnati, O. 

Stewart Lee has been appointed superintendent of the Thou- 
sand Islands Ry., to succeed P. B. Whiteley, with office at Can- 
anoque, Ont. 

V. M. Robinson has been appointed general foreman car de- 
partment of the Trinity & Brazos Valley. His office is at Teaguc, 

J. T. Wallis has been appointed general superintendent'of 

Goodnow. C. M. Hitch. 

Major Charles Hine has been elected vice-president and general 
manager of the Arizona Eastern and the Southern Pacific R. R. 
of Mexico. Major Hine graduated from West Point and later 
from the Cincinnati Law School where he was admitted to the 
bar. He served the Big Four in a number of capacities from 
freight brakeman to trainmaster, and left this road to serve in 
the Spanish war as a major of the volunteers. Since the close 
of that war he has done special railroad work of an advisory 
capacity in various parts of the country and is best known as the 
originator of the Hine system of organization which is modeled 
on the army plan. This system is being used very extensively 
on the Harriman lines and has just been established on the 
Georgia & Florida. Major Hine's railroad career has been 
unique, diversified and successful. 

C. M. Hitch. 

C. M. Hitch, general car foreman of the Cincinnati, Hamilton 
and Dayton R. R., at Cincinnati, Ohio, has been promoted to 
the position of general car foreman of that company's shops at 
Lima, Ohio. 

Mr. Hitch commenced work in the car department of the old 
Kentucky Central R. R., now a part of the Louisville and Nash- 



[February, 1912.] 

ville, in 1885. He left that road to take service with the Chesa- 
peake and Ohio in 1889, as car repairer and inspector, and was 
promoted to foreman of the passenger car department in 1891, 
which position he held until 1894, when he resigned to accept a 
similar position with the Cincinnati, Hamilton and Dayton. May 
i ust, 1904, he was made general car foreman at Cincinnati, hold- 
ing that position until January 10th, 1912, when he was promoted 
to general car foreman of the general shops at Lima, Ohio. Mr. 
Hitch is a member of the Chief Interchange Car Inspectors' and 
Car Foremen's Association of America, and secretary of the Cin- 
cinnati Car Foremen's Association. He leaves a host of warm 
personal friends at Cincinnati, who wish him success in his new 
field of labor. 


W. F. Buck. 

W. F. Buck, superintendent of motive power of the Atchi- 
son, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry. at Chicago, 111., died January 
31 from acute tonsilitis. Mr. Buck's death' occurred on a 
special train on which he was being rushed from Albuquer- 
que, N. M., to Los Angeles for treatment. He entered rail- 
way service as a machinist with the Northern Pacific Ry. 
and from 1893 to 1895 he was shop foreman of the same 
road. From 1895 to 1899 he was general foreman of shops 
at Missoula, Mont.; 1899 to 1902 general foreman of shops 
at Helena, Mont.; 1902 to February, 1904, master mechanic 
of the Rocky mountain division of the same road at Missoula, 
Mont. In February, 1904, Mr. Buck severed his connection 
with the Canadian Pacific to become master mechanic of the 
Arizona division of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry. 
Coast Lines at Needles, Cal., finally becoming superintendent 
of motive power of the entire Santa Fe system. 

Edwin Hawley. 

Edwin Hawley, vice-president of the Chicago & Alton R. 
R. and the Toledo, St. Louis & Western R. R. and chairman 
of the board of directors of the Minneapolis & St. Louis R. 
R., the Iowa Central R. R., and the Missouri, Kansas & 
Texas Ry., died early Thursday morning, February 1, at his 
home in New York City. Heart failure was the immediate 
cause of his death. Mr. Hawley was recognized as one of 
the foremost railroad men in the United States. He was 
born in 1850 at Chatham, Columbia county, N. Y., and en- 
tered railway service as a clerk with the Erie R. R. in June, 
1867. He was employed in various minor capacities by the 
Ohio & Mississippi R. R., the Chicago, Rock Island & Paci- 
fic Ry. and the California Fast Freight Line. In 1883 he was 
appointed general eastern agent of the Galveston, Harrisburg 
& San Antonio Ry. and the Southern Pacific Co., and two 

years later was made general eastern agent also of Morgan's 
Louisiana & Texas R. R. & Steamship Co., Louisiana West- 
ern R. R., Houston & Texas Central R..R., Texas & New 
Orleans R. R. and the Mexican International R. R. In 
March, 1890, after the amalgamation of these properties he 
was appointed assistant general traffic manager of the South- 
ern Pacific Co., at New York, which position he resigned in 
1902. In October, 1894, after the reorganization of the Min- 
neapolis & St. Louis R, R., Mr. Hawley was made vice-presi- 
dent and in October, 1906, he became president of that road. 
By the purchase of a controlling interest in the Iowa Central 
R. R. he _ became president of that road also in June, 1900, 
which titles he held up until a recent date. Mr. Hawley was 
a senior member of the firm of Hawley & Davis, of New 
York, and was a director in a large number of banks, trac- 
tion companies and other concerns. Among the railroads 
in which Mr. Hawley had heavy interests were the Chicago 
& Alton, the Des Moines & Fort Dodge, Norfolk & Western, 
Southern Pacific, Iowa Central, Chesapeake & Ohio Minne- 
apolis & St. Louis, Colorado & Southern and the Western 
Pacific. He was also a director in the Colorado Fuel & 
Iron Co., the American Exchange National Bank, the Guar- 
anty Trust Co., the Cromwell Steamship Line and the Pa- 
cific Mail Co. 


James T. Harahan, until recently president of the Illinois 
Central; Frank O. Melcher, second vice-president of the 
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific; E. B. Pierce, general solicitor 
of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific; and E. E. Wright, 
assistant counsel of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, were 
killed January 22 in a rear-end collision of two Illinois Cen- 
tral trains at Kinmundy, 111. The party was riding in Mr. 
Melcher's private car at the rear of train No. 25, south- 
bound, when it was struck, while taking water at Kin- 
mundy, by train No. 3, also southbound. The private car, 
which was of wooden construction, was almost completely 
demolished, but the damage to the rest of the train and 
passengers was slight. 

Other occupants of the private car, Byram Curry, secre- 
tary to Mr. Melcher; Thomas B. Busbee, attorney for the 
Rock Island, and two colored servants, were uninjured. The 
schedule of the two trains is only about 30 minutes apart 
at this point, but the foremost train was about 30 minutes 
late. A public hearing to place the blame for the disaster, 
conducted by the Illinois Central at Champaign, 111., found 
the conductor and flagman of the foremost train, No. 25, 

J. T. Harahan. 

[February, 1912.] 



guilty of negligence in not flagging back or using fusees 
properly, and the engineer of train No. 3 guilty of neli- 
ence in failing to see the tail lights of the train ahead and 
in failing to observe a caution signal displayed by a tower 

James T. Harahan. 
Mr. James T. Harahan was born in Lowell, Mass., Jan. 12, 
1841. He entered railroad service in 1864 at Alexandria, Va., 
subsequently becoming a switchman on the Orange & Alex- 
andria R. R. During the fall of 1865 and to t'he summer of 
1866 he was in the employ of the Nashville & Decatur R. R. 
at Nashville, Tenn., after which, from 1866 to 1870, he was 
in the service of the Louisville & Nashville R. R. in various 
capacities. From 1870 until August, 1872, Mr. Harahan was 
in charge of the Shelby R. R., following which until 1879 he 
was roadmaster of the Nashville & Decatur R. R. He then 
became superintendent of the Memphis line of the Louis- 
ville & Nashville R. R., which position he held until 1881. 
Subsequently, until December, 1883, he acted as superintendent 
of the New Orleans division of the Louisville & Nashville and 
on January 1, 1884, became general superintendent of the same 
road with jurisdiction south of Decatur, 111. On July 1, 1884, he 
was appointed general manager of the entire line, remaining 
in this capacity, however, only six months, following which, 
until April 1, 1885, he was general superintendent of the 
Pittsburgh division of the Baltimore & Ohio R. R. He the^ 
re-entered the service of the Louisville & Nashville as as- 
sistant general manager, later becoming general manager 
of the road. From October, 1888, until November, 1890, Mr. 
Harahan was successively assistant general manager of the 
Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Ry., general manager of 
the Chesapeake & Ohio Ry. and general manager of the 
Louisville, New Orleans & Texas Ry. On November 1, 
1890, he went to the Illinois Central R. R. as second vice- 
president, becoming president of this company in Novem- 
ber, 1906, continuing in that position until January 12, 1911, 
when he was succeeded by Mr. Charles H. Markham, the 
present president of the Illinois Central. 

Frank Otis Melcher. 

Frank Otis Melcher was born June 14, 1864, at Dama- 
riscotta, Me. He was graduated from Tufts College in 1887 
and received a C. E. degree in 1895. He entered railway 

and on July 1, 1890, became division superintendent of the 
Fitchburg division of the Boston & Maine R. R. He re- 
signed this position on November 1, 1902, to become superin- 
tendent of the Illinois division of the Chicago, Rock Island 
& Pacific Ry. On February 15, 1904, he became general 
superintendent of the Choctaw district of the same road, 
later becoming general manager of the Central and North- 
ern districts and subsequently becoming second vice-presi- 
dent of the road, which position he held at the time of his 

Edward B. Peirce was born at Kosciusko, Miss., August 
14, 1868. Mr. Peirce took his degree in law at the Uni- 
versity of Mississippi in 1889. He practiced law at Van 
Buren, Ark., where he was attorney for a number of rail- 
road lines. He became general solicitor and attorney for 
Arkansas for the Choctaw, Oklahoma & Gulf R. R., remain- 
ing in the service of this road until March 4, 1904, when he 
became attorney for Arkansas for the Chicago, Rock Island 
& Pacific Ry. Mr. Peirce had been general solicitor for the 
Rock Island since December 1, 1909, making his home in 
Highland Park, a suburb of Chicago. 

Eldridge E. Wright was a prominent lawyer in Memphis, 
besides holding' the office of attorney for Tennessee for the 
Rock Island. He was a son of General Luke E. Wright, 
former Secretary of War, and was a part owner of the 
Memphis Commercial Appeal. 

F. O. Melcher. 

service in 1887 as instrument man on the Fitchburg R. R. 
He was gradually promoted to assistant engineer, chief en- 
gineer, division superintendent and general superintendent, 

By W. W. Wood, 245 pages, cloth, 5x7%; published by 
the Norman W. Henley Publishing Co., 132 Nassau St., New 
York, Price $1.50. 

This book is divided into four divisions as follows: 
Analysis of the Walschaert Valve Gear, Designing and Erect- 
ing the Walschaert Valve Gear, Advantages of the Wal- 
schaert Valve Gear, Questions and Answers Relating to the 
Walschaert Valve Gear, Setting Valves with the Walschaert 
Valve Gear. While primarily the work is a treatise on the 
Walschaert motion, it embraces the other types of outside 
radial gears which have been adopted to considerable extent 
as improvements. Its purpose is to assist in the education 
of those who already are familiar with general locomotive 
practice, and to instruct them in the erecting, repairing 
and setting of radial gears. To this end numerous diagrams 
have been included in the form of folded inserts and a list 
of important questions with answers follows the description 
of each type of gear. The book seems to be best adapted 
to the needs of the roundhouse and shop man who finds it 
necessary to thoroughly inform himself on the subject of the 
proper handling of locomotives equipped with outside valve 
motion. It is assumed that the reader has previously ac- 
quainted himself with ordinary valve setting. 

* * * 

MORE & OHIO R. R. By J. Snowden Bell, 157 pages, cloth, 
6x9; published by the Angus Sinclair Co., New York. 

Although the Baltimore & Ohio is not the oldest railway 
in the United States, it did operate the first locomotive, 
that built by Peter Cooper and placed in service August 28, 
1830. An historical review, therefore, of Baltimore & Ohio 
Locomotives is comprehensive of practically all types of the 
locomotive used on the railways of this country to date. In 
a book of this nature, the interest depends considerably 
upon the illustrations and it must be admitted by all that 
Mr. Bell has secured and reproduced a very unusual collec- 



[February-, 1912.] 

tion of photographs and drawings. The book is one which 
should absorbingly interest those concerned with the de- 
velopment of motive power. 

George Bradshaw; 173 pages, paper 4J^ x § l / 2 ; published by 
the Norman W. Henley Publishing Co., 132 Nassau St., New 
York. Price 50 cents. 

The author of this work is employed by the New York 
Central & Hudson River R. R. in special service for 
the prevention of accidents. For many years he has been 
constantly engaged in the study of railroad accidents by 
personal and persistent investigation of the facts. In most 
cases he has examined the particular machine, equipment, 
structure or place involved and secured statements from 
those who could give information as to causes, conditions 

or consequences. One of the conclusions is that the majority 
of preventable acidents are due, not to defective material or 
improper method, but to the human element. This work 
takes up the human element in a heart to heart talk with em- 
ployes. It shows them (1) the seriousness of the personal 
injury problem and that they are the real sufferers from 
present conditions; and (2) how they themselves are re- 
sponsible for the personal injury record and how they can 
improve it. 

Considerable of the subject matter was first delivered in 
an address at various division headquarters to employes of 
the N. Y. C. & H. R. R. R. Attendance was wholly volun- 
tary, yet so great was the interest aroused that special 
trains became necessary to accommodate employes who 
wished to attend and at many of the meetings from 1,500 to 
2,500 employes were present. 

mongjTfc Iftl&nufacturens 


Arrangements have been made and anticipations have been 
realized to a considerable extent for a comprehensive per- 
manent exhibit of railway supplies, in Chicago. The Karpen 
building recently built by S. Karpen & Bros., located on 
Michigan Bvld. is to be used, in so far as several of its 
floors are concerned, for this purpose. 

Not the least important feature of this innovation is its 
club facilities which are adequate and are for the use 
of exhibitors. The present arrangement places the exhibits 
on the twelfth floor and the club rooms on the eleventh. It 
is proposed to make the exhibition a central headquarters for 
the display of appliances, used in railway operation, where 
railway officers may examine samples or models of new 
devices or improvements. 

The floor contains 26,000 sq. ft., exclusive of aisles, de- 
voted to exhibit booths. The space has been divided into 
150 booths, and the size of allotments are arranged in ac- 
cordance with the requirements of exhibitors. A large 
number of applications for space have already been received, 
enough to ensure the success of the project, and several 
booths are in readiness for exhibition. 

The entire floor is free of partitions and is well lighted. 
In addition to the exhibit booths the plan of arrangement 
includes a secretary's office, a large meeting or directors' 
room, several smaller committee rooms and a large assem- 
bly hall seating 400 persons. This hall will be placed at the 
disposal of both railway and supply men's organizations for 
meetings free of charge. 

Booth spaces are separated by bronze railings and the 
management provides each booth with a desk, chairs, and a 
table, all of mahogany, also a telephone and light. Elec- 
tricity, steam or water for the operation of models or ma- 

chinery is also provided, as well as telegraph facilities, public 
stenographer, etc. 

It is the purpose of the management to exercise care in 
regard to the character of the exhibits admitted. It is be- 
lieved that the establishment of a permanent exhibition will 
fulfill an important function, enabling a railway man to in- 
spect in a single visit the principal devices and appliances in 

Karpen Building. 

which he is interested without the necessity of traveling to 
several different plants. 

Extensions of the project will place maintenance of way 
exhibits exclusively on the second floor leaving the present 
space for the exclusive use of exhibitors of mechanical de- 
partment appliances. 

Interior View, Railway Supply Exhibit. 


The Buffalo Foundry & Machine Co. has commenced the 
manufacture of a new line of steam hammers. The illustra- 
tion shows a view of the 1,500 pound size. 

This hammer has a cylinder 10J/> inches in diameter, with 
a length of stroke of 42 inches. The anvil base is an oDen 

[February, 1912.] 



hearth steel casting, having a weight ratio to the weight 
of the falling parts of approximately twenty to one. The 
lower die-holder is a hammered steel forging, and is se- 
cured to the anvil base by a heavy steel taper key. The 
frames or columns of the machine are also open hearth steel 
castings, into the recesses of which aru snugly fitted the 
adjustable V-shaped guides for guiding the hammerhead. 
These guides have a taper gib between them and the column 
for taking up the wear. The hammerhead is of ample length 
and is made of vanadium steel. The piston rod has the pis- 
ton head forged solid thereon, and is a nickel-chrome-va- 
nadium steel forging with an elastic limit of 85,000 pounds 
and a tensile strength of 120,000 pounds. This forging was 
very carefully heated before machining. At the top of the 
frames are two cross tie-bolts, and also a steel cap plate, 
the outer end of which is gibbed both to the cylinder and 
to the frame. The cylinder is very heavily proportioned 
throughout and strongly ribbed. The valve motion is of 
the well known balanced piston valve type, with removable 
sleeve in the piston valve chest. The hammer has expansion 
or stuffing box joints for the steam and exhaust pipes, and 
the exhaust pipe is arranged so that no water can remain in 
the bottom of the cylinder of the hammer. The hammer is 
supplied with an automatic force-feed oil pump, which forces 
the oil into the throttle valve chest from the movement of 
the hammer itself. A new feature is the provision of the by- 
pass pipe and valve to the throttle valve chest, arranged so 
that after the throttle valve is closed the by-pass will allow 
sufficient steam to enter to barely hold the hammerhead at 
the top of the stroke; or, if desired, a further amount of steam 
sufficient to keep the hammer operating on very short stroke 

at the top; or the by-pass can be closed entirely and the 
hammer allowed to come to rest. 

The makers have called particular attention to the. strong 
and secure' method of attaching the columns to the baseplate, 
and also to each other and the cylinder at the top end. The 
distribution of metal throughout the hammer has been 
worked out very carefully, so that the machine will stand 
up to the hard and unusual strains encountered in steam 
drop hammer work. 


A new taper turning tool in which the taper bar forces the 
cutter out from the center of the bar, therefore insuring the 
proper taper, has been brought out by the Acme JVIachine 
Tool Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. This is exactly opposite 
from the ordinary taper turning tool, which depends on a 
spring to force the tool out against the taper bar, there 
being nothing to prevent the tool from gouging into the 
work. It will be noted that the new construction eliminates, 
this trouble. 

The pressure of the cut and a small spring holds the tool 
down firmly against the taper guide. The cutter is mounted 


Taper Turning Tool. 

in a vertical slide which is connected by means of the long 
adjusting screw shown, to the "L" shaped piece, to which 
the taper bar engages. This taper bar is held in position 
by the bolt shown which is screwed to the head cap of the 
machine. The back rests precede the tool and work against 
the straight diameter of the work. 

Buffalo Steam Hammer. 


A new "American" 24-inch high duty lathe which is dis- 
tinguished for its capability of transmitting high power has 
just been put on the market by the American Tool Works 
Co. of Cincinnati, O. An idea of its strength and power 
may be gained from the results of a test of the machine, in 
which it removed 837 pounds of machinery steel in an hour, 
using but one tool. The patented geared head of this ma- 
chine affords eight spindle speeds through the medium of 
twelve gears, two frictions and one jaw clutch. The speeds- 
are produced in geometrical progression and cover a range 
from 7.3 to 270 R. P. M. All gears are wide face, are cut 
the coarsest pitch practical with special cutters, are tested 
for accuracy on a special gear tester, and are mounted on 
short shafts whih are rigidly supported, thereby eliminating 
the possibility of vibration. 

One of the new features incorporated in this lathe is the 
thread cutting and feeding mechanism. It is of the cone 
and tumbler type, embodies only seventeen gears and three 
levers and produces forty-eight changes for threading and 



[February, 1912.] 

•24- Inch High Duty 

feeding. The cone and tumbler gears are cut from high- 
grade steel castings with twenty degree involute Brown & 
Sharpe cutters, which -produce a tooth of unusual strength, 
and one which is pointed at the top. 

The advantage of this type of tooth over the 14 degree 
tooth generally used lies in the fact that the pointed tooth 
is much more easily engaged, due to its pointed construc- 
tion and eliminates the riding of the gears on top of one 
another before dropping into mesh. 

A distinguishing feature of this mechanism is the non- 
speeding up feature which enables the power to be trans- 
mitted direct through the cone for cutting the coarse 
threads and feeds, and thus eliminates the necessity of 

American Lathe. 

speeding up by compound gearing to obtain sufficient speed 
to the lead screw to cut the coarse threads. The advantage 
of this is that inputting the coarse threads when the great- 
est power is required, the drive is direct, and consequently 
a minimum of power is lost in transmission. 

The apron is of double plate construction, which forms 
an outer support for all studs, including the cross feed stud. 
All gears in this mechanism are steel and studs are hardened 
and ground to size. The oiling of the apron has been made 
a feature, the oil beings introduced from the outside and by 
means of pipes, led to reservoirs formed in the back plate 
of the apron which contain a large supply of the lubricant. 
The oil is then fed to the different bearings by means of 
oil ducts, the oil being filtered and the flow regulated by 
means of strips of felt placed over the openings of the ducts. 

The tailstock is of the four bolt type, the back bolts ex- 
tending to the top of the barrel while the front bolts extend 
only a trifle above the base of the tailstock. This construc- 
tion makes it convenient for the operator when clamping 
the tailstock to the bed. 

Journal Bearing Press. 



The press which is illustrated herewith was designed for 
F. F. Gaines, superintendent of motive power of the Central 
of Georgia Ry., and has proven very successful for pressing 
journal box bearings into and out of place. This press is also 
useful for broaching, key-seating, putting gears on shafts, 
pressing bearings, handling; mandrels and general railroad 
shop work where heavy pieces are to be forced together. A 
crane bracket and beam are extended from one end so that 
the work may be swung into the press without any hard 
manual labor. A back-geared motor mounted upon the pedes- 
tal on top of the press drives the pump shaft. Upon the 
other end of this shaft are two pump eccentrics. The pump 
pistons are both >4 in. diameter by 2 in. stroke and the 
pedestal legs act as reservoirs for the pump. The operating 
valve shown is a single screw stem valve which releases the 
pressure from the work when open and starts the ram down 
when closed. A safety valve is used in connection with the 
pump to stop dangerous overload. The press is made in two 
sizes, 60 and 100 tons capacity, respectively, and is also fur- 
nished hand or belt-driven if desired. This press is built by 
the Watson-Stillman Co.. of 50 Church street, New York. 

[February, 1912.] 





The increasing interest with which hollow staybolt iron 
is being regarded by locomotive engineers has received 
marked stimulus owing to the rule of the federal boiler in- 
spection making a tell-tale hole compulsory in staybolts. 

Staybolts produced from hollow charcoal iron make tell- 
tales on fractured or broken stays, and, furthermore, every 
hollow rolled stay is said to possess more endurance than 
that made from the best solid iron. Danger of stoppage, it 
is claimed, does not exist in the case of Falls Hollow stay- 
bolts, as the passage of air currents through the entire stay 
prevent stoppage, and is a great advantage in combustion. 

The following reasons are given by the Falls Hollow 
Staybolt Co. why hollow staybolt iron should be used in the 
construction and repair of boilers: 

Because it complies with the new federal boiler inspection 
rule, requiring that all rigid stays have a 3/16 in. hole ex- 
tending in them from the outer end, and that all solid stays 
be regularly inspected and condition recorded. 

Because the tell-tale hole is rolled throughout the entire 
length of the hollow staybolt in the process of manufacture, 
and will therefore indicate a fracture by a slight leak at both 
ends, instead of at one end, as in the case of the drilled 

Because hollow stays do not close up. the suction created 
by the exhaust of the locomotive tending to keep open the 
hole in the hollow stays. 

Because hollow bolts are automatically inspecting at all 
times, and are more reliable than any human inspector, as 
they give warning immediately in case of breakage by a 
little escaping steam at the end of the stay, while the best 
boiler inspectors are often deceived by uncertain sound or 
vibration of the sheet. 

Because the hollow rolled staybolt, being specially flexible, 
possesses great durability. 

The staybolts in question are supplied by the Falls Hol- 
low Staybolt Co., of Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio. 


A notable addition to the line of hammer riveters, built by 
the John F. Allen Company, 370 Gerard Avenue, New York 
City, is shown in the illustration herewith. This riveter, on 
account of its shorter reach and lighter weight, is intended 

for work that is beyond the scope of the regular Allen 
boiler riveting machines and should have a wide applica- 
tion. Its reach is lo l / 2 ins. and it is sufficiently powerful to 
drive rivets from Y% in. to 1 in. diameter. 

In operation the work to be riveted is placed so as to 
bring the rivet head on die "D" with the free end of the 
rivet pointing toward the axis hammer cylinder "C." Upon 
moving handle "B" toward "C" air is admitted to cylinder 
"A." This closes arms "X" and "Y," and with a pressure 
of about 4,000 lbs. firmly secures the plates to be riveted 
between die "D" and nozzle "N." 

When button "G" is pressed air is admitted to cylinder 
"C." This causes the hammer to strike the end of the rivet 
a series of swift blows, heading the rivet in a few seconds. 
Upon releasing the pressure upon button "G" the motion of 
the hammer is arrested. Moving handle "B" toward the rear 
of the riveter immediately opens arm "X" and "Y" and re- 
leases the plates which are moved immediately upon insert- 
ing the rivet into position and the riveting operation re- 

The machine is in balance when suspended from hook 
"S" and can be swung in any direction. It turns on its long- 
axis "L-L" by means of the handle wheel "W" which oper- 
ates a worm engaging a worm-wheel enclosed in the support- 
ing "R." 

This' riveter operates on air at a pressure of from 60 to 
100 lbs. 


The Independent Pneumatic Tool Company of Chicago, 
New York, Pittsburgh, San Francisco and Atlanta, has re- 
cently placed on the market a new "One-Man" drill equipped 
with compound planetary gears which is particularly adapted 
for drilling, tapping and screwing in stay-bolts and studs 
of all sizes up to 1%. ins. 

Heretofore such work required at least two and sometimes 
three men to lift and balance a portable machine with suffi- 
cient capacity to perform this work, which accounts for the 
new and appropriate designation of "One-Man" drill. 

The drill is of course of the reversible type, weighing but 
20 lbs., equipped with No. 3 Morse taper socket, and, like 
all Thord drills, has Corliss valves with which users are 


Improvements and new ideas in car windows and window 
sashes are constantly being brought out, and the Acme 
weatherproof window shown in the illustrations is one of the 
most recent and efficient devices of the nature. The motive 
which is the basis of its construction is that the external 
wind pressure on a car window should be used to more thor- 


.'V >, . *:,. - 

Allen Hammer Riveter. 

Cross-Section Showing Weatherproofing Features. 



[February, 1912.] 

oughly seal the joints instead of having the tendency to open 
them wider. For this reason the weatherproofing features 
are placed on the inside and are of metal instead of wood. 
The general details of its construction are easily seen from 
the illustration. A V-shaped metal strip at the bottom of 
the sash fits over a similar strip on the sill, and the weight 
of the sash rests on the sill strip, thus insuring a tight and 
even joint. 

The vertical strips comprise a pair of pressed steel guides 
which are fitted to the sash before it is placed in the casing. 
A strip of brass attached to the sash on the outside bears 
against a lip on the pressed guide, thus making a tight joint. 
A good contact at this point is always assured because of 
the fact that the notches for the latch pins are inclined and 
caused the sash always to be forced into contact with the 

An eighth of an inch play is allowed the sash, and as it is 

f k| 







Acme Dust Deflector. 

stop for curtains, a new deck sash and fixture, which is 
weather and dust proof, and several types of pressed steel 
car doors. 

Acme Weatherproof Window. 

equipped with two fixed rollers at one side and a spring 
mounted roller at the other there is ample protection against 
binding. When the window is closed it is sealed at the top 
with a strip of plush. It is said that no leakage has been 
observed through the stops, while being tested with com- 
pressed air and with water. Although the illustrations show 
the strips as applied to new windows, they can easily be ap- 
plied to old cars without making any changes in the sash, 
the bottom strip simply being fastened to the surface of the 

Another improvement for window sashes is the Acme dust 
and cinder deflector shown in the accompanying illustration. 
The movement of the train causes the air to follow the trend 
of the curved plates, thus causing a vacuum near the base 
of the sash. 

These devices have just been brought out by the Acme 
Supply Co. of Chicago. Other new products of the above 
firm are a perfected curtain stop which provides a positive 


The accompanying drawing shows the shrouded glass sys- 
tem for locomotive water gages made and sold by the 
Prince-Groff Co., of Camden, N. J. 

The principle of the shrouded glass is well known and its 
advantages are many. The flexible steam connection, the 
shroud protected glass, and the separate passageway for 
steam have overcome breakage, leakage, steam erosions, and 
the destructions from expansion and contraction, whether 
caused by heat and cold or high and low pressure. The 
positive cleaning means (brush) for water connection to the 
boiler and gage column black background and glass insures 
reliable readings. False readings from a clogged passage- 
way are thus avoided. The frame is red, the water black, 
and the steam shines with a silvery luster, making a strong 
contrast. Low water reading is made possible by bringing 
the gage down close to the water connection. The extended 
bevel at the bottom of the sight opening covers up the clear 
end of the reflex glass and gives a sharp, distinct, disap- 

Shrouded Glass Water Gage System. 

[February, 1912.] 



pearing water column. The large open passageway from 
which packing is entirely eliminated and the straight way 
valves are features of merit. The protection rendered the 
operatives is an additional feature of the Prince-Groff system. 

Kfiistri&l Notts 


Burton W. Mudge & Co. have issued two circulars, the 
first describing the Garland ventikitor for buildings and 
shops; the second descriptive of the Garland door closing 
and opening device for refrigerator cars. The building 
ventilator works on the same principle as Garland car ven- 

:fc ^ # 

The T. H. Symington Company of Baltimore, Md., has 
just issued a new and attractive booklet illustrating and 
describing the Farlow draft rigging. The written matter 
is subdivided under three heads, mechanical, transportation 
and economic. The best method of assembling is illustrated 
and described for the benefit of car foremen and others in- 
terested in the proper application of the draft rigging to the 

car frame. 

* * * 

An illustrated folder showing octagonal sectional expand- 
ers, roller expanders, flue cutting machines and other boiler 
tools has been issued by the Faessler Mfg. Co. of Mober- 
ly, Mo. 

A paper on "Steel Pipe Versus Wrought Iron Pipe in 
Refrigerator Work," which was read at a recent meeting 
of the American Society of Refrigerating Engineers, is re- 
published in Bulletin 5 of the National Tube Co., Pittsburgh, 
Pa. Bulletin 7 is devoted to the N. T. C. regrinding valve. 

^ ^ * 

"Insulation of Railway Equipment" is the title of a new 
book of 125 pages for railroad men interested in refrigerator 
cars, steel passenger cars, ice houses, railroad hospitals, or 
the subject of insulation in any way. It is the result of ob- 
servation, test and study by railroad men, chemists and 
mechanics, and is issued by the Union Fibre Co., or Winona, 


^ * % 

Automatic starting control for motor driven machinery 
is rapidly gaining favor on account of the improper manipu- 
lation of hand starters, which often results in considerable 
damage. The Reliance Electric and Engineering Co. of 
Cleveland, O., has brought out an automatic starting device 
which is thoroughly described in Bulletin No. 7010. 

The Armstrong Manufacturing Company, of Bridgeport, 
Conn., has just issued a new half-tone 6x9 catalog showing 
its full line of pipe threading machines and parts. Each part 
is either lettered or numbered, so a customer can order re- 
pairs to replace broken or worn parts from the catalog and 
save time, which is very important in case of a break down. 

* * * 

An excellent catalog of oil filters, exhaust heads and ven- 
tilators has been issued by the Burt Mfg. Co. of Akron, O. 
The reading matter is printed in large readable type and a 
large number of illustrations are scattered throughout. It 
is an example of very good catalog work and is worthy of 
the attention of anyone interested in the above line. 

^K * % 

The Locomotive Equipment Co. of Detroit, Mich., has 
issued a catalog dealing with the Newcomb journal box. It 
is said that this box effects a great saving in lubricating oil, 
waste and journal brasses. 

The Chain Belt Co. of Milwaukee, Wis., has opened an 
office in_ Chicago at 900 Old Colony building, under the 
charge of Mr. Benjamin S. Reynolds, a member of the en- 
gineering staff. 

C. A. Delaney, for a number of years superintendent of the 
Dickson Works of the American Locomotive Co., New York, 
with offices at Scranton, Pa., later sales representative at that 
place, has been made western representative, with offices in 

On February 1 the interests of the Empire Iron & Steel 
Co. of Niles, O., will be absorbed by the Brier Hill steel 
Co. of Youngstown, O. The new merger involves several 
large independent steel interests of the Mahoning valley. Of- 
ficers will be elected February 1. 

William J. Coane, manager of the Philadelphia, Pa., branch 
of the Joseph Dixon Crucible Company, Jersey City, N. J., 
and for 25 years with that company, has been- made second 
vice-president and sales manager of the Ajax Metal Co., 

C. R. Jamison, for the past five years connected with the 
Berger Manufacturing Company, Canton, Ohio, has been 
made sales manager of the Acme Supply Company, Chicago. 

Joseph T. Ryerson & Son, Chicago, have opened a branch 
office in the Ford building, Detroit, Mich., in charge of J. H. 

The American Bridge Co. has received an order from the 
Texas & Pacific for three 75-foot deck girder turntables, 
165 tons. 

James B. Brady has been elected vice-president of Man- 
ning, Maxwell & Moore, New York, succeeding W. O. Jac- 

Mr. L. A. Darling, formerly of the R. G. Peters Manufac- 
turing Co., Grand Rapids, Michigan, has affiliated with the 
Remy Electric Co., Anderson, Indiana, as engineer of the 
locomotive headlight department. 

J. A. Fay & Egan Co. announces that new offices have been 
opened at 170 Broadway, Suite 1617, New York City. 

The Baldwin Locomotive Works, has decided on the Calu- 
met region as the location for its proposed western plant 
which will employ about 6,000 men. The site is at Indiana 
Harbor is bounded by Cline and Parrish avenues, Indiana 
Harbor Belt and Baltimore & Ohio Chicago terminal, com- 
prising 750 acres. 

The Grip Nut Company announces the engagement of Mr. 
D. F. Lillis as Eastern Sales Agent, with headquarters at 
New York. Mr. Lillis has been in railroad work for about 
twenty years, filling various positions, including chief clerk 
to four presidents and general managers of the Lake Shore 
and Michigan Southern, and later was secretary to Mr. J. F. 
Deems, general superintendent of motive power and rolling 
stock of the New York Central Lines. 

Mr. A. D. McAdam has been appointed Chicago represen- 
tative of the Ralston Steel Car Co., of Columbus, O., with 
offices at 720 People's Gas building. 

The Southwestern Iron Works, Guthrie, Okla., has made 
a contract with the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific to fur- 
nish castings for the next year, the contract being estimated 
at $150,000. 

"On February 1st, the Westinghouse Air Brake and Trac- 
tion Brake Company moved the office of their southeastern 
manager, Mr. E. A. Craig from the general office, Wilmerd- 
ing, Pa., to 308 Westinghouse Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

The Zug Iron & Steel Co. is moving its general offices from 
13th and Etna to 14th and Etna Sts., Pittsburgh, Pa. 



[February. 1912.] 

By Major Charles Hine. 

As a result of the studies undertaken something over three 
years ago under the direction of Mr. Julius Kruttschnitt, 
director of maintenance and operation of the Union Pacific 
System — Southern Pacific Company, there has been progres- 
sively inaugurated upon the Harriman Lines within the 
last three years a system of organization differing from that 
of other railways. It is intensely divisional, but it is more. 
Carried to its logical conclusion it reaches down even to 
the sub units of a division. This system is predicted upon 
the doctrine that the individual is the indivisible unit of 
society. We start with the individual and build up from 
him in groups of varying size, until we reach all of the per- 
sons employed in that particular activity. Please keep that 
in mind, that the individual is the unit. 

Following this to its conclusion, we say that if the indi- 
vidual is the indivisible unit his name is his birthright, and 
that his signature is his patent of enlightened manhood. 
We say that no man should sign the name of another, 
primarily, because it is not honest, it attempts to convey the 
idea that Mr. So and So is in his office when as a matter of 
fact he is a hundred miles out on the road. Since custom 
tempers and modifies this condition, I grant you it is not as 
bad as it seems. Furthermore, it is a violation of the funda- 
mental laws of the matter. It is not scientific to say that 
a man can be in two places at the same time. You will 
find the same subtle arguments to bolster up that view, 
however, that you find used by the learned men of the 
middle ages in bolstering up the institution of Feudalism. 
The lawyers and the clergy of that period were very prolific 
in legal fictions and in the justification of practices which 
made the feudal laws supreme over the fief or the particular 
body of land to which adherence belonged. 

As stated before, the organization, the financial organiza- 
tion of the country and its corporate organization, in the 
broader view are largely feudal. We find that same idea 
projected in the lower ranks. We do not find as yet those 
checks and balances against the caprice of individuals in 
authority. We find the tendency to regard this as "my 
property." "my office" and "my men." Gentlemen, we are 
not the subjects of a king, or the creatures of a president; 
we are citizens of the United States. The President, as 
the chief magistrate, the man clothed with temporary au- 
thority, administers the laws of the country under certain 
checks and balances imposed by the Constitution. So in the 
conduct of the corporation. We do not belong to the boss. 
He is responsible in a greater degree than we by reason' 
of his superior rank, but we all who are entrusted with 
authority are trustees in varying degrees of rank. And 
remember that rank is an indispensable accompaniment of 
the exercise of authority. The purest democracies clothe 
their chosen leaders with temporary rank, which is exercised 
under prescribed methods. 

So in working out a new organization for the Harriman 
Lines we endeavored to be scientific. All management is 
scientific, bat some are more scientific than others. The 
man who runs a wheelbarrow has a system; if you watch 
him all day he does it about the same way; but the great 
problem is to co-ordinate his system of running that wheel- 
barrow with the general activity. And you will find that 
other fact: when we speak of men as unsystematic they are 
less systematic than others. System is a purely relative 
term. So in endeavoring to work out a more scientific sys- 
tem we tried to work from these fundamental laws. I am 
perhaps not exactly fair to state it that way, because some- 
times, you know, just as a woman's mind jumps over and 
by intuition reaches a conclusion and says "because," there 

Trom an address before the New England Railroad Club. 

arc some of these things, I confess, that we went back and 
found the reasons for afterwards. But the thing is. do they 
square? That is the point, gentlemen. We tested them by 
every method we knew how, and we found they do square, 
that our woman's intuition, if you please, had been correct. 
The first thing we said was that if it is not honest for one 
man to sign another man's name, if it is not good adminis- 
tration, if it leads to a feeling of lessened responsibility, why, 
let us cut it out. And there we were confronted by a great 
many people who said, "It can't be done." "Why?" "We 
have always done it the other way, and you cannot run a 
railroad in this way. Just think, the superintendent will 
lose in prestige. ' But with a more or less complete applica- 
tion, for three years we have been doing that very thing. 
If you should go out and check up you would find numerous 
departures, but there we would ask you to remember again 
that we are not pertect, that ideas are greater than men, 
that principles are immutable, however crude may be their 
application, and we should ask you to look beyond the par- 
ticular individuals who might "be faltering and not quite 
measure up as well as you feel you would do and see whether 
the idea squares with the possibilities of things — with the 
possibilities, not with the way it ma3 r have been done be- 
fore. These ideas have proved so workable that they are 
now applied on twenty-seven operating divisions of the 
Harriman Lines* and it is expected that on January 1 the 
remaining ten divisions will be reorganized. They are now 
in effect in six general offices, with four more yet to be 
reorganized. We hope that by the first of January we will 
be able to state that all the operating department has been 
reorganized under the new system. 

We no longer defend, we explain, because those to whom 
we are amenable, the public authorities and the owners of 
the property, the directors and officers, are satisfied. They 
are the people to whom we have to make good. Of course 
if other people adopt these ideas it strengthens our own 
position, and we are very grateful therefore, but we, the 
officers of the Harriman Lines, are alone responsible to our 
superiors and to the public as to what we accomplish. We 
find, though, human nature is the same, and there is a 
tendency among visiting statesmen who honor us by coming 
out to say, "We will try a part of this and not the other, 
that will be easier." My stock reply is that if you are 
going to cut off a man's finger you would not make it easier 
for him by cutting off a piece at a time. If you are not 
prepared to come up to this don't fool yourself into believ- 
ing that you can just take a part, because the chances are 
you will be disappointed in that particular part unless you 
work it altogether. Then, too, as a sporting proposition, 
never try to beat a man at his own game until you learn it. 
Play it his way first. Now, that is what we did. We played 
the old game as well as we knew how, learned it as thor- 
oughly as we could, and then we started the new game. So 
we ask you not to pronounce finally upon the merits of this 
until you have actually played in the game yourself. 

Xow 1 will explain the details, assuming that the general 
outline is more or less familiar to you all. 

Beginning at the first step we do this: Taking a division 
as a typical unit of organization, the first thing to do is to 
bring the assistant superintendent to the office, put him in 
charge of the office. If there is no assistant superintendent 
there should be one appointed, if necessary appointing a 
train master for his outside duties. Usually in the begin- 
ning people said to me, "Here, we can't spare that man. 
He is the boy that gets out and makes the cars jump over 
each other. Why, he will raise these blockades. We cannot 
spare him for the office." I say, "then there arc two 
reasons why he should go in the office, First, he may die 
some day, and it is high time you broke in an understudy, 
because the railroad cannot stop running its trains when he 

[February, 1912.] 



dies. Second, we want him in the office because we want 
the railroad atmosphere in the office." When a boy starts 
to learn the barber's trade he begins in the shop blacking 
shoes. Why? To get the atmosphere of the business, to 
learn how to handle gentlemen, how to treat the public, 
and it may be long time before he is allowed to touch the 
head or the face. So there is a great deal in atmosphere. 
When the railroads were small it did not matter so much. 
Everybody knew everybody else. There was, perhaps, one 
clerk in the superintendent's office, and that clerk would 
take out a train if the conductor laid off, and it was a 
happy family. It worked out very well. And here is a 
beautiful example of a state of affairs existing by reason, 
and good reason. There was a reason for all these things 
when they started them that way, but we feel that that 
reason has been outgrown and that that conception is not 
workable with the present magnitude of affairs, because, 
remember that the average division of today is as large as 
many railroads of forty years ago. So this man comes in 
and takes charge of the office. Some of the men who have 
come in were men of very limited opportunities for educa- 
tion in the beginning, and they have made some mistakes 
in grammar, but they did not make very many in judgment. 
Then the next step; we go over to the shop and pick up 
the master mechanic and bring him to the superintendent's 
office. The old theory has been that the master mechanic 
at the shop supervised his shop forces, which works out 
admirably for that one shop. The tendency is for the 
master mechanic either to be in that shop and so active 
that he dwarfs and unconsciously belittles his general fore- 
man, who becomes a fifth wheel, either that happens or the 
master mechanic sits in an office near the shop and writes 
letters to the superintendent and to the superintendent of 
motive power, assuring them of his distinguished considera- 
tion and telling them that the engine could not possibly 
have failed because they had done all this work- on her. 
Now, we find that when the master mechanic is over in the 
superintendent's office, why, before he knows it he i,s going 
in and looking at the train sheets, to see that the engine 
goes out in a little bit better shape to make time than she 
did before. That is largely unconscious on his part. Organiza- 
tion is a branch of a larger science, sociology, which is the 
science of human nature, and true organization so unites 
these human elements that we get the maximum effort of 
the man whether consciously or unconsciously. We hear 
less and less about "my department," and more and more 
about "this division" and "the company." 

Having already at headquarters the division engineer, the 
train master and the chief dispatcher, we consolidate the 
files of all these gentlemen and dispense with that beautiful 
custom which was in vogue when I was a chief clerk to the 
superintendent, by which I dictated a letter and signed the 
superintentdent's name, to the division engineer in the next 
room, and then he dictated a letter and signed his superior's 
name, and it came back to me and I incorporated the sub- 
stance of that in a third, signed the superintendent's name 
and sent it to higher authority, both of our bosses being out 
on the road all the time and entirely ignorant as to the 
particular details of that transaction. We don't do that 
any more. We say that this is all the superintendent's 
office, that, because it is all the superintendent's office, if a 
paper happens to be in a particular room and on the desk 
of the old division engineer it is in the superintendent's 
office. We have one consolidated file for all of these gentle- 
men. Normally the superintendent does nofwrite to one 
of these staff officers any more than he writes to his own 
chief clerk. 

With all our mania for records and for building up a file 
against the other fellow, you don't find a man building up 
a file against his own chief clerk. Why should he build one 
up against his own division engineer or his own train master? 

We borrowed that idea from the civil courts. You may 
find in the court of a large city a dozen judges on the bench, 
and you find perhaps in many of the States they rotate 
those judges from the probate court to the criminal court, 
or some other court perhaps. It varies in different parts of 
the country. But you find one office of record, under a 
clerk of court, with as many deputies as may be necessary. 
When a judge wishes to know what another judge has done 
he does not write that judge a letter and ask him, and start 
a file back and forth, he sends to the clerk's office and gets 
the record in the case. 

For over three years the office of Mr. Kruttschnitt, who 
has the largest operating jurisdiction in the world I am told, 
some 18,000 miles of railroad, employing from 80,000 to 
100,000 men, earning in round numbers something like $225,- 
000,000 gross per year, has been handled with a consolidated 
file. Gentlemen, if that can be done it is idle to say thai 
"our division" is so peculiar and "our local conditions" are 
so different that we cannot do it. We have not found a di- 
vision yet where it will not work. 

Having consolidated those files we then change the titles 
of the whole blooming bunch to assistant superintendent. 
Usually we take all these steps at once. When we get ready 
perhaps we do the whole thing at once, have a grand mov- 
ing and get it over with. 

Then we give to the division three principles in the nature 
of a constitution. First, no man shall sign another man's 
name; second, there must be an official in charge of the 
office, which is railroading right through. We say to a 
conductor on the way freight, "You have two, three, four, 
five brakemen. Assign them on the train wherever you see 
fit, except you must have a flagman on the rear car." We 
say to the superintendent, "Put these assistants wherever 
you see fit, but you must have a flagman in your office." 
Just straight railroading, you see! That is the second 
principle. ' » 

The third principle is that normally communications shall 
be addressed impersonally. That is based upon the prin- 
ciple that authority is abstract and impersonal. The court 
exists if the judge is dead. The governor's position exists 
if the governor is dead. The exercise of authority, however, 
is very concrete and highly personal. The court is silent 
until the judge speaks. The office of governor is inert 
until the governor acts. So here again we are up against 
straight railroading. A conductor comes to the office and 
reports for orders. It is none of his business what dispatcher 
is on the second trick or on the third trick; he has a right 
to know that a competent person is on duty and is not 
drunk or crazy, but he cannot dictate as to who that person 
shall be. He takes the order and runs on the last orders 
he gets. Now, we carry that a step further, and we say 
that it is none of the conductor's business normally who 
will handle a letter he sends in, so we ask him to address 
his letter assistant superintendent. Under the system as I 
shall explain, some assistant superintendent will handle it. 
A a matter of common sense and good administration, if 
that report or letter is about a broken wheel we are going 
to have the old master mechanic, if we possible can, handle, 
it, because it is a technical matter in which he is our expert. 
And there in the beginning we struck the greatest objec- 
tion. The master mechanic said, "This is a technical mat- 
ter. I don't believe in anybody else handling that; it is 
technical." "Suppose you were out on the road, who would 
handle it?" "M.y chief clerk." "Is he a technical man?" 
. No, but he has been with me a great many years, he un- 
derstands about these things." Right there we say that 
rather then have that handled by a chief clerk we would 
have it handled by one of the other officers, perhaps the old 
train master. 

(To be continued.) 



[February, 1912.] 

Ilcenf T&ilflsay Mechanical T&fenfo 

1,014, SOT — Samuel P. Bush, assignor to the Buckeye Steel Castings 

Co., Columbus, O. 

1. This car truck frame consists of compression and tension 
members and two jaws at each end, all cast integral, the, lower 
jaws each being provided with an upwardly projecting lug, adapted 
to yield or give vertically, whereby each journal box may be en- 
tered side-wise between its jaws and over the lug, and when in 
place be held against lateral displacement by the lug on the yield- 
ing lower jaw. 

1.014.S25 — Fred B. Howell, assignor to the General Electric Co., 

New York. 

This patent relates to an electric locomotive comprising a frame, 
driving wheels and axles, a transverse jackshaft between the 
axles, a gear wheel on each end of the jack-shaft, crankpins on 
the wheels and gears, and side rods connecting the crank-pins. 
Two electric motors are supported above the jack-shaft and be- 
tween it and the driving axles, the motors having armature shaft- 
extending across the locomotive, and a pinion on each end of each 
armature shaft, the pinions on each side of the locomotive both 
meshing with the gear w r heel on that side. 

1,015,152 — John DuRoth, Johnstown, Pa. 
A car truck embodying two sets of side frames, journal boxes 
supported by the ends of frames, wheels arranged between the 
journal boxes, oppositely disposed stub axles carried by the wheels 
and extending into the journal boxes. Transverse beams connect 
the side frames, corner straps connect the inner frames with the 
transverse beams. Cushioning device connected by transverse 
beams are carried by each set of frames, the car bearing is sup- 
ported centrally of the transverse beams and a yoke connects the 
cushioning devices. 


1,015,152 — Michael P. Newcomb, Sandpoint, Idaho. 

The combination with a journal box having a threaded opening, 
of a cap mounted in the opening provided "with an inwardly pro- 
jecting sleeve, having an internally threaded portion. A threaded 
shank is provided with an abutting head mounted within the 
sleeve portion and extending out through the cap, the shank being 
provided with an internally, threaded portion, and a bolt adapted 
to thread in the threaded portion of the shank. 

1,015,340— Edward Sosson, Chicago, 111. 
A car roof comprising a supporting framework, metal sheets laid 
thereon side by side, means to hold the sheets approximately in 
place but permitting slight adjustment thereof relatively to each 
other and to the framework. The securing devices comprise clips 
each having one end fastened between the side wall of the bar 
and the fascia and the other end reaching up over the lateral edge 
of the roof sheets. ' 

1,015,387 — Belden D. Jones, Chicago, 111. 
The combination with a car body having a car door opening, of 
a door mounted to move across the opening, a door post at either 
end of the opening, a door stop at one end thereof, and a weather 
guard comprising an angle iron secured to the door at its end 
remote from the stop. One flange of the angle iron extends across 
the vertical edge of the door but is spaced away from the latter 
to form a vertical channel. 


1,015,405— Charles A. Shroyer, Oak Park, 111. 
The patent relates to a car having a rabbeted door opening, a 
door, a lower guide track extending from one side of the door 

opening along the side of the car, a shoe secured to the lower 
corner of the door, and outer and inner depending lips upon the 
shoe adapted to engage the outer and inner sides, respectively, of 
the guide-rack. The outer and inner lips are off-set in the direc- 
tion of the width of the door, the lower edge of the inner lip being 
adapted to rest upon the lower edge of the rabbeted door opening 
and to support the door in such manner that when the door is 
closed the outer lip will disengage the guide-track while the inner 
lip still lies behind the same. 

1,015,501 — William McArthur, Tenino, Wash. 
A locomotive boiler including a Are box and a combustion cham- 
ber, there being a flame receiving opening in the bottom of the 
combustion chamber through which communication between the 
fire box and combustion chamber is constantly maintained. There 
is a constantly open air inlet in one wall of the combustion cham- 
ber, the bottom of the chamber being arranged to direct uncon- 
sumed particles through the bottom opening and back into the 
fire box. There is also a smoke box, flues connecting the smoke 
box and the fire box, a single flue connecting the upper portion 
of the smoke box with the lower portion of the combustion cham- 
ber, and flues extending from the upper portion of the combus- 
tion chamber to the smoke outlet. 


1,015,529 — George A. Woodman, assignor to Kirby Equipment Co., 

Chicago, 111. 

A sectional journal box comprising a pressed steel body section, 
and a cast yoke section embracing the body section and having 
two arch bar seats integrally connected together by a pair of 

1,015,533 — Landon Botchlor, Lawrenceberg, Ind. 

This patent is a drawhead having a bifurcated jaw and a rotat- 
ing knuckle, a ball chamber within the drawhead, a ball movable 
therein, the lateral wall of the ball chamber having a slot therein 
through which, the tail of the knuckle projects. A locking lever is 
pivoted on a horizontal axis with its center of gravity in front of 
and below the pivotal point, and provided with claws to engage the 
ball on opposite sides, and a recess to receive and carry the ball. 
The upper claw of the locking lever holds the ball within the path- 
way of the travel of the knuckle hook. Means are provided 
whereby the knuckle may be rotated when the ball is shifted by 
the shifting of the locking lever. 








...... r .... - .^m 'i^. 

[March, 1912.] 




The World's GreatestRailway Mechanical Journal 

Published at the World's Greatest Railway Center 

Established 1878 


WILLIAM E.MAQRAW, Pres.andTreas. 

CHAS. S MYERS, Vlce-Pres. 

LYNDON F. WILSON, Managing Editor 

C. C. ZIMMERMAN, Bus. Mgr. 

OWEN W. MIDDLETON, Assoc. Editor 

J. M.CROWE, Mgr. Central Dist. 


Office of Publication: Manhattan Building, Chicago 

Telephone, Harrison 4948 

Eastern Office: 50 Church Street, New York 

Telephone Cortlandt 5765 

Central Office: House Bldg., Pittsburg, Pa. 

A Monthly Railway Journal 

Devoted to the interests of railway motive power, car equipment, 

shops, machinery and supplies. 
Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are solicited. 
Subscription price, $2.00 a year; to foreign countries, $2.50, free of 

postage. Single copies, 20 cents. Advertising rates given on 

application to the office, by mail or in person. 
In remitting, make all checks payable to The Railway List Company. 
Papers should reach subscribers by the 16th of the month at the 

latest. Kindly notify us at once of any delay or failure to 

receive any issue and another copy will be very gladly sent. 

Entered as Second-Class Matter June 18, 1895, at the Post Office 
at Chicago, Illinois, Under Act of March 3, 1879. 

Vol. XXXVI = Chicago, March, 1912 No. 3 


Editorial — 

Locomotive Manufacture in Railway Repair Shop 83 

Better Materials and Better Workmanship De- 
manded 83 

Locomotive Efficiency 84 

Starting Something 84 

Pacific Type Locomotive, C, M. & St. P. Ry 86 

The Coupler Problem 88 

Railway Motor Passenger Cars 89 

Locomotive Efficiency 90 

5ong of the Shop 93 

Canadian Railway Statistics 93 

Steel Wheels 94 

Electric Welding 98 

German Portable Sand Blast 100 

Calgary Shops, C. P. R 101 

Automobile Cars for C, M. & St. P. Ry 102 

Use and Abuse of Inspection 103 

Experimenting with a Diesel Locomotive 105 

Oil-Burning Locomotives 106 

American Railway Tool Foremen's Assn 109 

Railway 'Shops in Pittsburgh 109 

American Association of Railway Superintendents 109 

Relation of Railways to High Cost of Living 109 

Railway Operating Organization Ill 

Personals 116 

Among the Manufacturers — 

Summers Steel Cars 118 

Flexible Steam Conduit 118 

All Geared Sliding Head Drill 119 

"J. C." Geared Screw Jacks 120 

Combination Dynamotor-Compressor 120 

Mosher Jacks 121 

New Literature '■ 121 

Industrial Notes 122 

Recent Railway Mechanical Patents 124 

Executive Committee Meeting, C. J. C. I. & C. F. Assn... 122 


The question of just how far a railway can success- 
fully enter the manufacturing field through the use of 
its own shop forces and shop equipment, is somewhat 
hackneyed. So many arguments of local application 
only, have bearing and are used on both sides in the 
consideration of the subject, that general conclusions 
seem impossible. Several railways have undertaken 
the manufacture of motive power as well as other 
rolling stock on a large scale and it is not difficult for 
their officials to show distinct financial advantages 
gained thereby — if we accept their method of comput- 
ing. Similarly those who favor the purchase of all 
equipment from specialists among manufacturers are 
able to produce figures conclusive in their favor if it 
were not for the fact that they usually refuse to take 
into consideration certain contributing facts which 
have to do with local conditions at the railway shop, 
such as the continuous employment of forces and ma- 
chinery which would otherwise be on short time. 

The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe has built a num- 
ber of locomotives in its Topeka shops which are 
admirably equipped for the purpose, but it must be 
stated that much of this work was of experimental 
nature which, it was judged, could be best handled at 
home. The Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul has made 
a remarkable showing along these lines in that it has 
built upwards of five hundred and fifty locomotives 
in shops not of modern type and of only ordinary 
equipment. These engines are representative of nearly 
every class in use on the road and are giving or have 
given good account of themselves in exacting service. 

On another page of this issue we describe and il- 
lustrate one of an order of fifteen Pacific type pas- 
senger engines now being built at the Milwaukee 
shops of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Ry. 
These engines are of exceptionally excellent design. 
There has been worked into their construction every 
applicable idea which has been developed to such ex- 
tent as to warrant its use. The use of the brick arch 
is in accord with practice of long standing on this 
road. The installation of Schmidt superheaters is not 
looked upon here more than elsewhere as experimen- 
tation. The DeVoy trailer trucks have rendered ser- 
vice creditable to their inventor. Generally speaking 
it is doubtful if a class of locomotives, better adapted 
to strictly local conditions of service, was ever fur- 
nished an operating department. With respect to the 
cost of manufacture it is probable that we will be able 
in a later issue to publish some very interesting fig- 


Retrenchment and the agitation for economy has 
during the last few years operated to lower standards 
of quality and workmanship in railway shop repair 
and construction work. This is a fact which, al- 



[March, 1912. J 

though humiliating to admit, becomes evident when 
working conditions, which should not, in the experi- 
ence of foreign railways, be termed anything but or- 
dinary, are imposed upon rolling stock. Use of the 
superheater has developed, in locomotives, troubles 
which may be attributed solely to poor materials and 
poor workmanship judged by the standards of years 
ago, or by those of other countries. One road reports 
fair success with a certain superheater, while another 
obtains diseouragingly poor results with the same su- 
perheater in the same type of power. Study of the 
conditions reveals with surprising frequency that the 
first road has simply cut down on the quality of ma- 
terial and workmanship a little less than the second. 

Good practice in the use of the superheater de- 
mands, for instance, that piston rings not only be 
made of metal which will not partially fail under the 
high temperatures and conditions in connection there- 
with, but that they be reshaped on the lathe or mill 
after having been sawed and sprung. This process 
is one with which nearly every master mechanic is 
familiar — it was customary in the careful work of his 
apprenticeship. It was discontinued as an unneces- 
sary expense in later years but it must be readopted 
if the best results are to be obtained from superheat- 
ing. It has been found in tracing lubrication difficul- 
ties, that the use of the best grade of metal in the 
cylinder casting of superheater locomotives is of para- 
mount importance. In recent years so little atten- 
tion has been paid to the grade of metal used in these 
castings that troubles have developed on this account 
even with saturated steam locomotives. Needless to 
say the application of the superheater forced attention 
to this detail. 

Generally speaking a certain reversion to early prin- 
ciples in specifications for manufacture and particu- 
larly in the maintenance of locomotives which are des- 
tined for exacting service, is demanded. 

or another their inability to find a system whereby 
such comparisons can Jbe made, this contribution will 
receive unusual consideration. 


What we consider one of the most important, in- 
teresting and instructive articles on locomotive effi- 
ciency is that written by Earnest Cordeal, bonus su- 
pervisor, Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry., and pub- 
lished on another page of this issue. Mr. Cordeal has 
advanced what seems to be a new method of ascer- 
taining the facts with respect to a somewhat elusive 
subject. His article shows originality and is evidently 
the result of considerable study. His formulae may 
be open to criticism, but nevertheless they come nearer 
to being the means of obtaining absolute and accurate 
figure bearing on his subject than any thus far sug- 

We believe that Mr. Cordeal has produced a means 
of arriving at standards for locomotive operation, 
which should prove of real value to mechanical depart- 
ment officials in comparing performance efficiency be- 
tween various divisions. In view of the fact that most 
students of such problems have confessed at one time 


It is often very noticeable that it is difficult to get 
up a lively and enthusiastic discussion of papers pre- 
sented before various railway clubs. In general this 
is not because the papers are uninteresting and do 
not cover the subject; in fact, perhaps the contrary is 
true. Most of the papers presented are good and 
show a considerable amount of work on the part of 
their authors. Occasionally advance copies of the 
papers are not sent out by the secretary in sufficient 
time for the members to look them over before com- 
ing to the meeting and this, of course, is a great 
drawback to an enthusiastic discussion. There are 
always plenty of the members who are qualified to 
discuss any particular subject; the difficulty is to get 
them started. Often a presiding officer will call on 
half a dozen members before getting one who will 
say something, and then oftentimes the member will 
say that he can add nothing as the speaker has covered 
his viewpoint so thoroughly. A presiding officer can 
do much to enliven discussion but he can not extract 
it from the mouths of members with a pair of for- 
ceps. The stimulus for discussion must come from 
the paper. itself. 

One thing is noticeable, however, that papers which 
present a general view of a subject from all sides do 
not provoke as much discussion which a paper does 
which presents a one-sided view. The paper which 
considers the subject from all angles does not leave 
room for as much discussion because of the fact that 
it touches the viewpoint of practically all present. 
But if the writer of a paper to be given before a 
railway club, wants to start something, let him in- 
corporate into his paper a very decided view on the 
subject in hand; let him give a positive opinion on 
every point and state that this is the only viewpoint 
which can be taken of the matter. Such a paper will 
not lack for discussion for immediately when you 
state a positive viewpoint, it will arouse a combative 
spirit and everyone will take a turn at the speaker. 
It may not be so pleasant for the speaker but it wilt 
be much more beneficial for the society as a whole. 
It is difficult to get up much of a discussion- on such 
a paper as "The Development of the Locomotive," 
for instance, but it would be pretty easy to get up 
a lively discussion on a paper in which the writer 
strongly favored making box cars entirely of steel. 
Of course it is not contended that the writer of papers 
make absurd claims or statements, but rather that 
they present all the strongest facts and arguments in 
support of one view of the question, which will give 
the members a chance to bring out their arguments in 
support of other ideas and thus provide room for dis- 
cussion. And it need not detract from the value of 

[March, 1912.] 



the paper, which would then cover one idea thor- 
oughly. The man who prepares a paper gets a great 
deal of good from, it, but he should try to share the 
benefit with the members, for the problem with most 
of our clubs today is to keep a lively interest among 
its members. The next time you have to prepare a 
paper, leave something for your listeners to do, too; 
start something. 

THE COST OF COLD WEATHER is shown in the re- 
ports of railroad earnings for the month of January. It cost 
the Chicago & Northwestern 97 per cent of its revenue to 
operate and its report shows a deficit of $587,469 for the 
month. The net revenue for January was $115,778, as com- 
pared with $1,445,452 for December, which startling differ- 
ence is accounted for largely by the difference in weather 
conditions. The Chicago Great Western, the Erie, Union 
Pacific and a number of other roads show corresponding de- 
creases in net revenue for the same period. The Canadian 
Pacific, on the other hand, shows a net increase in revenues, 
although there was a large increase in operating expenses. 
The combination of snow and cold weather strikes both the 
receipts and expenses, for in addition to the increased cost 
of operation, the receipts fall off due to the inability to 
handle traffic. This inability is due to clogging of switches, 
difficulty in keeping up steam, keeping tracks clear, as- 
sembling trains and the numerous other difficulties which 
railroad men know only too well. The months of January 
and February, 1912, have been the worst in years for rail- 
road operation, and this has also been evinced by the nu- 
merous wrecks which have occurred. It seems that anti- 
railroad legislators have even enlisted the weather-man to 
their cause. 

THE COMMERCE COURT and the Interstate Commerce 
Commission continue to conflict with each other and the contro- 
versy between the two was made more acute by a recent de- 
cision of the court which annulled a decision of the Commission 
regarding certain freight rates of the Louisville & Nashville be- 
tween New Orleans and a number of nearby cities. The New 
Orleans board of trade alleged that the Louisville. & Nashville 
had made discriminating rates against New Orleans and the 
commission upheld the board's contention by reducing the rates. 
The commerce court, after a thorough hearing, decided that 
there was nothing to justify the reduction, which the L. & N. 
had said would result in a loss of $200,000. The court stated 
that the interstate commerce commission has assumed a great 
deal of authority which Congress never intended for it. How- 
ever at the time" of its formation, a commerce court was not 
contemplated and it can scarcely be denied that the interstate 
commerce commission has been doing its work well and has 
rightfully used any powers it has assumed. Certain mem- 
bers of Congress are now making efforts to have the Com- 
merce Court abolished, although the president has said that 
he will veto any legislation along this line. 

railway equipment. This committee is composed of J. E. Sague, 
of New York; W. J. Wood, of Indiana, and Charles Elmquist, 
of Minnesota. It will hold a number of hearings and will en- 
deavor to make recommendations regarding improving the qual- 
ity of equipment, in its report. 

FIRST AID TO THE INJURED is being taught to the em- 
ployees of the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western, by series of 
lectures and by the distribution of booklets on the subject. 
Instruction classes are also held in which the practical applica- 
tion of the methods is practiced upon some one of the men. 

Packets of gauze, bandages and other first aid materials are 
placed at various points in and about shops, round houses, yards 
and stations. The system has been extended to all departments 
and when an employee uses one of the packets, he sends in a 
report of the accident to the proper official. It is well known 
that the first few minutes following an accident are the most 
important and therefore the necessity of having competent first 
aid is a very essential feature; Perhaps the greatest difficulty 
will be to keep up an interest in the work when its practical 
application is required infrequently 

THE HOOSAC TUNNEL of the Boston & Maine 
near North Adams, Mass., was blocked on Feb- 
ruary 20 by a rear end collision between a 
string of freight cars and a passenger train. This 
tunnel was recently electrified as described in the November, 1911 
issue of the Railway Master Mechanic. The steam locomotives 
are now towed through the tunnel, with their fires banked. A 
freight train had been stopped at the east portal of the tunnel 
and the passenger train, with its electric locomotive ahead of its 
steam locomotive, crashed into it. Four men on the electric 
locomotive were killed and a fire at once broke out. The heat 
was so intense that nothing could be done to clear the tunnel 
and it is said that considerable damage was done to it. No 
passengers were injur d. 

TESTS ARE BEING MADE of Chicago's air by the com- 
mission on electrification, in order to determine just what it 
is composed of and to ascertain the percentage of carbon di- 
oxide, sulphates, nitrate and solid matter. An effort is to be 
made to determine the percentage of pollution due to locomotives, 
factories and office buildings. If this test is fairly carried 
out it will show that the railroads have been taking the blame 
for a large percentage of pollution which is caused by other 
agencies and it is hoped that the report will be given due pub- 

AN INVESTIGATION is to be made by a committee of the 
National Association of Railway Commissioners on rails and 

BILITY and Workmen's Compensation Commission was trans- 
mitted to the president on February 14. The report is practically 
as outlined in the January issue of the Railway Master Mechanic, 
providing specified and compulsory payments by the rail- 
roads to their employees in case of accidental death or in- 
jury. It was considered by the president and transmitted 
to Congress with a message urging its enactment, although 
it is probable that it will not come up until the next session. 



[March, 1912.] 

Pacific Type Locomotives, C. M. & St. P. Ry. 

Among roads building their own equipment, the Chicago, 
-Milwaukee and St. Paul has always taken a leading place, 
-and the shops at Milwaukee, Wis., have turned out a large 
number of locomotives and cars, as may be attested by the 
-fact that altogether over 550 locomotives have been built 

These shops are now working on an order of 15 Pacific 
type engines for passenger service. Nine of these have al- 
ready been put in service, and the remainder are on the pits 
in advanced stages of completion. These engines were ne- 
cessitated not only by the growing needs and scope of the 
road, but also by the increasing use of heavy steel coaches 
with the consequent need of more and heavier motive 
power, as on an average 12 steel coaches are about equal 
in weight to 15 wooden ones. The engines are to be used 

with rigid staybolts, radial staying and has the standard 
hand rocking grates. The Walschaerts valve gear is used 
with standard reverse quadrant and the eccentric crank has 
a throw of 20 ins. 

Frames have a spread of 43 ins. and were made at the 
Milwaukee shops. The cylinders are 25x28 ins. and are 
supplied with balanced piston valves, which have a travel 
of 6 ins., with 1^4-in. steam posts and 23/& exhaust ports. 
They are equipped with a five feed lubricator, the two ad- 
ditional feeds being applied to the cylinders on account of 
the use of superheated steam. Trailer truck is of the De 
Voy inside bearing type. The tender underframe is made 
of 13-in. channels and the tender has a capacity of 8,500 
gallons of water and 10^4 tons of coal. Its weight, light, is 
62,700 pounds, and it is 25 ft. in length by 9 ft. 10 ins. in 

Pacific Type Locomotive Built at Milwaukee Shops, C. M. & St. P. Ry. 

for heavy passenger service between Chicago, Milwaukee 
and Minneapolis. They are known as class F 5, numbers 
3100 to 3114, inclusive, and are similar in design to the 
present type of Pacific engine in use on the St. Paul with 
the exception of the addition of a superheater. For this 
reason they have a tractive force of 39,000 pounds as com- 
pared with a tractive force of 36,500 pounds on the present 
saturated steam engines. The weight is practically the 
same as of the present Pacifies, with the addition of 2,000 
pounds for the superheater. The heating surface has been 
increased by the addition of the superheater to 3,633 square 
feet. The superheater is of the improved Schmidt fire tube 
type as manufactured by the Locomotive Superheater Co., 
cf New York, and has outside steam pipes leading down 
directly to the valves, thus relieving the smoke box of con- 
gestion. The 1^4-in. superheater pipes are placed in 28 
flues, 5^-in. in diameter and the total heating surface of 
the superheater flues and pipes is 1,365 sq. ft. The boiler 
is of the wagon-top type, carrying 185 pounds steam pres- 
sure. The firebox is equipped with a brick arch; in fact, 
all engines on the St. Paul are so equipped. It is provided 

width. The illustrations show a general view and detailed 
arrangement of the locomotives. 

Following is a table of weights, dimensions and ratios: 

Gauge 4 ft. 8 l / 2 ins. 

Cylinders 25x28 ins. 

Valves Balanced piston 

Boiler — 

Type Wagon top 

Material Steel 

Diameter 72 ins. 

Working pressure 185 lbs. 

Fuel Coal 

Staying Radial 

Fire Box — 

Material Steel 

Length 107^ ins. 

Width 65^ ins. 

Thickness of sheets, sides Y% in. 

Thickness of sheets, back *: Y% in. 

Thickness of sheets, crown V% in. 

Thickness of sheets, tube %i in. 

Elevation Showing Principal Dimensions, Pacific Locomotives, Builtby C. M. & St. P. Ry. 

[March. 1912.] 



Front End of C. M. & St. P. Locomotives, Showing Arrangement of Superheater Header and Outside Pipes. 

Cylinder and Saddle Castings, Pacific Type Locomotives, C. M. & St. P. Ry. 



[March, 1912. J 

Water Space — 

Front 4% ins. 

Sides 4 ins. 

Back 4 ins. 

Tubes — 

Diameter §Y% and 2 ins. 

Material Steel 


Number 5^ in., 28; 2 in., 203 

Length 19 ft. 

Heating- Surface — 

Fire box 179 sq. ft. 

Tubes 2,009 sq. ft. 

Arch tubes 27 sq. ft. 

Combustion chamber 53 sq. ft. 

Superheater flues 745 sq. ft. 

Superheater pipes 620 sq. ft. 

Total 3,633 sq. ft. 

Grate area 48.8 sq. ft. 

Driving Wheels — 

Diameter, outside 69 ins. 

Diameter, center 62 ins. 

Journals 10j4xl2 ins. 

Engine Truck Wheels — 

Diameter, front 33 ins. 

Journals 6^x12 ins. 

Diameter, back 43 ins. 

Journals 8j4xl4 ins. 

Wheel Base — 

Driving 14 ft. 

Rigid 14 ft. 

Total engine 35 ft. 7 ins. 

Total engine and tender 68 ft. 3^4 ins. 

On driving wheels 162,000 lbs. 

On truck, front 46,000 lbs. 

On truck, back 42,700 lbs. 

Total engine 253,000 lbs. 

Total engine and tender, about 407,000 lbs. 

Tender — 

Wheels, number 8 

Wheels, diameter 34^ ins. 

Journals 8 J4xl4 ins. 

Tank capacity 8,500 gals. 

Fuel capacity 10^ tons 

Service Passenger 

Ratios — 

Weight on drivers ■— tractive power 4.06 

Total weight -f- tractive power 6.34 

Tractive power X diameter drivers -r- heat surface. . .757.46 

Total heating surface -f- grate area 74.44 

Firebox heating surface -4- total heating surface, per 
cent 4.92 

Weight on drivers -4- total heating surface 52.10 

Total weight -=- total heating surface, per cent 69.63 

Volume both cylinders, cu. ft 15.90 

Total heating surface -f- volume of cylinders 228. 

Grate area -h- volume of cylinders 3.07 

Factor of adhesion 4.06 


The Chicago, Burlington & Quincy system has ordered five 
engines that are expected to handle 60,000-ton freight trains 
over any ordinary grade on its roads. The new engines will 
be equipped with automatic stokers and either slack or crushed 
coal will be the fuel used. 

If these engines prove satisfactory, a large number will be 
ordered for the Galesburg division in the coal fields and for 
general freight traffic. They will be put in service next fall. — 

By J. B. Thomas. 

It will be noted that throughout the entire discussion of 
the coupler problem at the V M. C. B. convention in 1911 the 
minds of the several speakers (F. W. Brazier, J. F. Deems, 
J. J. Hennessy, C. E. Fuller, C. A. Schroyer, J. F. Walsh) 
were focused upon devising some way by which the diver- 
sity of designs in couplers could be reduced to one or two, 
with their several perishable parts interchangeable. To my 
own mind there is a way— and that a simple one — to ac- 
complish this end. It will be remembered that at the M. 
C. B. convention of 1910 two specific essentials were agreed 
upon. These were: First, the bearing surface of the lock 
against the knuckle tail should be at least four square inches; 
second, the knuckle throw should be so designed that it 
would force the knuckle open to the limit from any position 
the latter might assume incidentally or otherwise. In de- 
signing a coupler that would meet with these specific re- 
quirements the principal question involved is that of dura- 
bility. Quite a few designs of couplers possessing these 
functions in their incipient stage had been extensively ap- 
plied in previous years, but a few months' service had dem- 
onstrated the fact that not one of them could be counted 
as reliable. In fact, the mechanism of most of them would 
become so seriously impaired, after a few shocks, the Master 
Car Builders' Association had to condemn the principle upon m 
which they had been constructed; namely, that of being 
operated by a vertical lift through a hole cast in the top 
of the coupler body. The one remedy for this is to have 
the lock, lock set and knuckle throw to move in a horizontal 
plane, and consequently in harmony with the natural move- 
ment of the knuckle. This design has been perfected to 
such an extent that the several parts are guaranteed not to 
become impaired either by service shocks or by ordinary 
wear. This guarantee is made in the form of a clause in 
the contract, which reads as follows: 

"For every five couplers orders an extra set of the lock 
mechanism will be supplied free of any additional cost; and, 
if any of the several parts of the lock mechanism in any 
drawbar shall fail because of wear or breakage of such 
pieces before the drawbar itself shall have been broken 
or worn to a point where it will have to be retired from 
service, such pieces will be renewed upon receipt of broken 
or worn pieces of such lock mechanism free of cost." 

The reader cannot fail to understand that such a conces- 
sion can be made only in case the parts pertaining to the 
lock mechanism are not subject to impairment by either 
breakage or wear. The contention of the designer of this 
coupler is that the lock mechanism — in any of its features — 
is thoroughly protected by the coupler head. According to 
the computation given out by Mr. Brazier and others, the 
defective lock mechanisms now in existence are costing the 
railroads millions every year to maintain them. The designer 
— and developer — of this coupling device would also inform 
the railroads that no one manufacturing concern has a 
monopoly of same; that in contracting for this coupler any 
railroad can indicate its preference as to the concern which 
shall manufacture same, provided such concern will consent 
to fill such orders at a price equal to that of the lowest bid- 
der, a complete set of patterns being furnished without cost. 
One of the most important features of the design of coupler 
here referred to is the fact that it will operate in the same 
measure of efficiency as many as twenty different designs 
of knuckles now known to be in use. The bearing surface 
of the tails of these several knuckles against the lock of 
this coupler is from 50 to 75 per cent greater than they are 

*From a paper read before the St. Louis Railway Club, 
Dec. 8. 1911. 

I March, 1912.] 



against the locks for which they were specifically designed. 
With these claims set forth — the designer of such a coupler 
assuming the burden and expense of proving same — the only 
thing that is left for the M. C. B. coupler committee to do 
is to specify: 

First, that the coupler designed for a standard shall stand 
the drop test prescribed by the M. C. B. Association, and a 
pulling strain of 250,000 pounds; second, that there shall be 
at least four inches bearing surface of the lock against the 
knuckle designed for same; third, that the lock set should 
automatically release the lock only after the knuckle has been 
pulled open or partially so; fourth, that the knuckle throw 
must force the knuckle open to the limit from any position 
it might assume by the manipulation of the uncoupling rod 
or lever; fifth, that it. shall not be subject to impairment from 
service so long as the coupler body is not broken or worn 
to a point where it is necessary to retire same from service; 
sixth, that it should receive and operate with the same meas- 
ure of efficiency at least five different designs of knuckles, 
any one of which shall have been previously applied to at 
least 50,000 freight cars. 

It is a self-evident proposition that such a design of coupler 
is the only one that can possibly meet with future require- 
ments of service, and the sooner steps are taken to raise the 
coupler to such a standard of requirement the better it will 
be for all concerned. 

Two-Trailer Steam Train vs. One Gas-Electric Car. 


On Jan. 19, W. B. Potter, chief engineer railway depart- 
ment, General Electric Company, read a paper on self-pro- 
pelled cars before the New York Railroad Club. He de- 
scribed his company's gas-electric cars, which weigh 40 tons 
to 50 tons and are capable of a maximum speed of 60 m.p.h. 
Electric control and transmission were used to utilize the 
inherent characteristics of the gas engine to the best ad- 
vantage and to relieve the engine from mechanical strain 
and shock. Series-parallel motor control and regulation of 
the generator voltage gave a wide range of speeds. The 
tractive effort at the slower speeds was 12,000 lb. or more. 
As there was no mechanical connection between the engine 
and driving wheels, the engine could be slowed or shut 
down without regard to the control system. With the car 
standing still or moving the power of the engine could be 
safely applied in either the forward or reverse direction. 

Mr. Potter stated that the engine used on these cars had 
eight 8-in. x 10-in. cylinders and at the normal speed of 
550 r.p.m. would deliver 100 kw. to the motors with some 
margin to spare. The gasoline most used was "painters' 
naphtha," which could be purchased for about 6 cents per 

The motors, which were, standard 600-volt railway ma- 
chines, were mounted on the forward truck under the en- 
gine, thus placing about 65 per cent of the total weight of 
the car on the driving wheels. As the traction voltage 
varied from 200 volts to 800 volts, the current for lighting 
the car was supplied by a separate gas-electric generating 
set. The two-cylinder engine of this set also had an air 
compressor cylinder for supplying compressed air to start 
the large engine. The cars had both straight and automatic 
air brakes, the latter for handling trailers. The engine com- 
partment is in the forward end and is about 12 ft. long. 

Performance curves of a 70-ft. car, as submitted by Mr. 
Potter, showed that with stops 2 miles apart the schedule 
speed would be about 25 m.p.h. and the maximum speed on 
level track about 60 m.p.h. He also presented the following 
table, showing the comparative cost of operating a train of 
two coaches and a steam locomotive and of a gas-electric 
car on a daily run of 150 miles, except Sundays, amounting 
to 3,900 miles a month: 

Mr. Potter also gave a table, published above, for three 

Steam Train 
per Mile. 
Waees of crew:* 

Engineer or motorman $0.0400 

Fireman 0.0240 

Conductor 0280 

Baggagemaster 0.0183 

Motor Car 
per Mile. 


Total wages of crew , . 

'Based on no overtime allowance. 




Fuel, water and ensrine lubricatior • 

Coal for locomotive, 67 lb. at $2.25 per ton $0 0750 

Water for locomotive 0.0050 

Painters' naphtha. 6 gal., at $0.06 per gal 

Engine lubrication 0.0025 

Other expenses: 

Locomotive, repairs ; 0.0850 

Locomotive, engine house expenses 0.0050 

Coaches (2), repairs and expenses 0.0250- 

Gas-electric motor car, general overhaul 

Gas-electric motor car, running repairs and 

expenses , 

Other supplies , 0.0025^ 

Superintendence • • _• * 

Total cost per train mile $0.3303 $01813 

*For steam locomotive this is assumeji Id be included in items of 
locomotive repairs and engine house expenses. 

Saving per train mile $0J'490 

Saving per diem (except Sunday), 150 miles a day 22.35 

Saving for twenty-six-day month ■ • • • 581.00 

Gross yearly saving ./. 6.970.00 

Note. — When no baggage and exnress is handled and when operating 
conditions will permit the gas-electric motor car can be operated without 
the third man. 




Three Months' Operation of Gas-Electric Cars. 

Number of days actual -service 92 

Total mileage, five motor cars '. 39,352 

Number of trailers hauled occasionally 1 or 2 

Total mileage trailer cars , 7,879 

Per Train 
Total. Mile. 

Total wages of crew.. ...$2,249.40 $0.0573 

Fuel and lubrication, engine: 

24,944 gal. of gasoline at $0,062 per gal 1,534.20 0.0391 

755 gal. of gas engine oil at $0.25 per gal.. 189.76 0.0048 

Running repairs and expenses: 

Total running repairs, material and labor.... 410.36 0.0104 

Car cleaning, materials and labor 135.70 0.0035 

Other supplies .> 81.83 0.0021 

Total expense $4,601.25 


months' operation on the Minneapolis, St. Paul, Rochester & 
Dubuque Electric Traction Company ("Dan Patch" line), 
which operates five of these cars. The stations on this line 
are 1.4 miles apart. The figures cover operation over 37.5 
miles between Minneapolis and Northfield for July, August 
and September, 1911. 

Mr. Potter further suggested certain forms for keeping 
an accurate record of the cost of operating such motor cars 
with or without trailers. 

In conclusion Mr. Potter said that a special study has 
been made to secure a light-weight car for this service. The 
body weighed 28 tons, the trucks 6 tons, and the motive 
power equipment 15 tons, a total of 49 tons for a 70-ft. car. 
This was equivalent to 1,000 lb. per seated passenger. The 
gas-electric car had proved very reliable in the coldest 
weather. The "Dan Patch" line had operated during very 
heavy snow with the temperature 15 deg. to 30 deg. below 
zero when steam trains in the same territory were helpless. 
This line was using painters' naphtha at 5% cents per gallon. 

The proceedings of the nineteenth annual convention of 
the Traveling Engineers' Assn. are published in exceptionally 
neat and attractive style. The books are bound in flexible 
leather, all diagrams and tables which could not be reduced 
to read clearly within the limits of the pages are placed on 
folded inserts. This year there are ten obituaries for de- 
ceased members as follows: A. J. McKillip, J. M. Burford, 
D. J. McOsker, C. E. Randall. L. S. Ross, H. E. Stone, Chas. 
Davis, J. F. Patterson, F. J. Bullock and F. L. Woolwine. A 
complete list of the membership of the association is included 
and the book is carefully indexed. 



[March, 1912.] 

Locomotive Efficiency 

By Ernest Cordeal, Bonus Supervisor, A. T. & S. F. Ry. 

The efficiency of the work performed by locomotives in 
service is a question which, by reason of its. relative im- 
portance in the problem of conducting transportation, de- 
serves the greatest consideration. 

Comparison of performance- on the usual bases are at the 
best mere makeshifts, reflecting a condition without taking 
into consideration extenuating circumstances, nor in any 
way suggesting means of improving past records. 

A report showing the gross tons per engine mile may re- 
flect the fact that this year a certain division handled 1,600 
tons, while the figures for the previous year were only 1,500 
tons. At first glance this would appear as a good relative 
performance; however, on looking farther it may be found 
that the average speed with which this tonnage was handled 
was only ten miles per hour, against twelve miles per hour 
the previous year. It may further develop that the addition 
of new power had increased the average tractive force of 
locomotives in a per cent as great or greater than the in- 
crease in tonnage. Reductions of grade or improvement of 
track may have been responsible for the increase in tonnage 
and what appears to be a good performance may in reality 
only be the natural consequence of expensive betterments. 
It is generally recognized that comparisons between dif- 
ferent railroads or betwen different divisions of the same 
road on a ton mile or engine mile basis are far from satis- 

Variations in types of power, differences in weather condi- 
tions, the influence of grades and curves, the density of traf- 
fic must all bear their part in determining the standard of 
performance for different territories at different periods. 

The only way in which comparisons can be equitably made 
is by reducing the various influencing items to a mathemat- 
ical basis, by giving them a definite value in their relation 
to performance, and by setting standards which comprehend 
these items in their ratial value. The establishment of such 
standards should not be attended by any great degree of diffi- 
culty. The effect of grades and curves on train resistance 
has been definitely determined, even weather conditions may 
be transposed into definite figures, the average hauling ca- 
pacity of assigned power is a matter of simple calculation, 
and all that remains is to study the existing conditions and 
set standard of performance accordingly. 

In determining the efficiency of the work performed by 
locomotives in service, there are four items which should 
be given consideration: 

1. The proportion of time in actual service. 

2. The average speed in service. 

3. The average load hauled. 

4. The cost of maintenance, handling and operation. 
Reducing these four items to a mathematical basis, for the 

purpose of determining a definite efficiency per cent, we have 
the following formulas: 

( Hours in service. 

(1) Service efficiency = 

(2) Speed efficiency 

(3) Load efficiency 

(4) Cost efficiency = 

( Hour s in 

j Total 

*- Standar 




d ratio. 

Engine miles. 

Hour s in servi ce. 

Standard speed. 

Gros s ton mil es. 

En gine miles . 

Standard load. 

Sta ndard cos t. 

Total cost. 

Gross ton miles. 

In formula one "Hours in service" includes all hours spent 
by locomotives between terminals, while "Total hours" is 
figured at twenty-four hours a day for each assigned en- 
gine whether in actual service, in shop or laid up. 

In formula two "Engine miles" includes the total mile- 
age of all engines assigned, "Hours in service" being the 
same as in formula one. 

In formula three "Gross ton miles" and "Engine miles" 
are self explanatory. 

In formula four "Total cost" includes all items of service, 
such as repairs, labor and material, enginemen's wages, en- 
ginehouse expenses, cost of fuel, lubricants and supplies. 

The determination of service efficiency provides a means 
of checking and comparing the records of various divisions 
or various periods, as regards the actual amount of time 
service rendered by locomotives in relation to the total 
amount of power assigned. A variation in service efficiency 
between different divisions or between different periods on 
the same division may indicate any one or a combination of 
a number of conditions. A low efficiency in this item might 
be the result of an overassignment of power in relation to 
the amount of business to be handled. Again, the cause 
might be in the fact that locomotives were detained for ex- 
cessive periods while undergoing repairs or waiting for 
shop room. Lack of expeditious handling at enginehouses 
would also have a tendency to lower the efficiency of this 
item. A high service efficiency would presuppose an equit- 
able assignment of power; it would mean that shop deten- 
tion was not excessive and that handling and repairing of 
locomotives at enginehouses was being performed without 
loss of time. It would not follow, however, that the divis- 
ion, with the highest service efficiency, was the most fault- 
lessly handled, as a high quality of service may be attained 
at the expense of other items. 

High service efficiency together with low speed efficiency 
would not reflect a creditable condition, nor would high 
service efficiency coupled with high speed and low load effi- 
ciency indicate economic performance. A low cost efficiency 
together with high service efficiency might mean that power 
was being handled and repaired more quickly than was con- 
sistent with reasonable unit cost. 

The item of speed efficiency is of particular value as a 
check on the service and load features. Locomotives may 
be loaded beyond the economic limit, but such a practice 
would immediately make itself evident by a decrease in 
speed efficiency. Power may be kept in service a longer pro- 
portion of the time than is consistent with efficient opera- 
tion. This condition would have its effect not only on speed, 
but on load and cost efficiency as well. It is not enough 
that locomotives should spend the desired amount of time 
in actual service, nor that they should pull their allotted 
tonnage, but they should also be able to make a certain 
performance as to miles per hour. 

In the present day of sixteen hour laws the speed with 
which trains can be handled over a division takes on an 
added importance over and above a mere question of econ- 
omy of operation. There is, of course, an economic limit 
to the speed at which trains should be handled, which being 
overstepped will be indicated by a rapidly decreasing load 
efficiency. Some place between the extremes of high speed 
and light tonnage and low speed and heavy tonnage lies the 
efficient and economic means which renders possible the 
handling of the maximum amount of traffic at the minimum 
cost. This point where speed and tonnage meet, to give 
the best performance, is an elusive thing not to be guessed 

[March, 1912.] 



at or arbitrarily set for all conditions and all times, but to 
be determined by careful study of conditions and facilities 
and an intelligent reading of trial results. No better data 
can be furnished to assist in the determination of this mean 
than that provided by the interrelation of service, speed and 
load efficiencies. 

Load efficiency is' an item of much importance and it has 
undoubtedly been given the greatest amount of study by 
men versed in the science of railroad operation. Leaving 
out of consideration the question of time and cost of opera- 
tion, the maximum load which an engine could pull would 
be the ideal tonnage rating, but such a rating in practice 
would so decrease the efficiency of service and speed and in- 
crease the cost per unit as to far more than nullify the in- 
crease in load efficiency. Comparative figures covering ton- 
nage per engine mile are useless as far as determining the 
relative efficiency of different divisions or different periods 
is concerned, unless compared with a carefully prepared 
standard, varied to conform to conditions and facilities. 
Comparing the tonnage of today with that of twenty years 
ago, the increase appears marvelous. However, by introduc- 
ing into the equation the relative tractive force of locomo- 
tives, then and now, we find that our railroad forefathers 
were not behind us in efficiency of loading, but were accom- 
plishing, with the facilities available, feats that to us would 
be stupendous. The fact that some divisions are level and 
devoid of curves, and that others are encumbered by both, 
that the types of power vary with different districts, and 
that railroads operate both in summer and winter seasons, 
does not mean that intelligent, equitable comparisons cannot 
be made; but it does mean that careful study is necessary 
in setting the standard by which each division shall be meas- 
ured, and it means further that the standard of today can- 
not be the standards of tomorrow. Changes in conditions, 
improvements in roadway, development of power, must be 
taken care of by constantly revised standards. 

Cost efficiency is the item demanding the closest attention 
from mechanical department officials. The steady increase in 
the remuneration of labor of all classes, and the greatly in- 
creased cost of materials used, have made it imperative that 
the greatest amount of economy consonant with good service 
be exercised. Efficient methods must be introduced to bring to 
a minimum the labor charges. Conservation of materials must 
be practiced to a degree unheard of in the past. Economy 
in use of fuel, lubricants and supplies must be made a study 
in order that wastes of all kinds may be eliminated. It is 
impossible to set an arbitrary standard of cost covering all 
conditions and all periods of time. No matter what the basis 
of comparison may be the results obtained by correlating the 
records of different divisions or different periods must be at 
variance. Making a comparative study of the cost of locomo- 
tive repairs it will be found that the variation, on any basis you 
desire to use, amounts to hundreds of per cent, as between vari- 
ous systems. 

Borrowing figures compiled by the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission, we find that on a train mile basis, cost of locomo- 
tive repairs varies from four to thirteen cents, on a locomotive 
mile basis from four to seventeen cents. Costs per locomotive 
per year range from $1,300.00 to $3,700.00. The figures repre- 
senting cost per one thousand revenue ton miles show a diver- 
gence from thirty cents to $1.25, the post per pound of trac- 
tive force from five to thirteen cents per year. On the basis 
of the various road and work units the difference in the results 
is practically the same. 

Taking the item of fuel for locomotives ; it will be found that 
there is a difference between various roads on the train mile 
basis of from four to twenty-three cents; on an engine mile 
basis from eight to twenty-two cents ; and on a one thousand 
revenue ton mile basis from forty-five cents to three dollars. 

The cost per locomotive per year varies from $2,200.00 to 

It would be ridiculous to affirm that the road which was keep- 
ing up the repairs on its locomotives for thirty cents per one 
thousand revenue ton miles was attaining 100 per cent efficiency, 
while the road expending $1.00 was only making 30 per cent. 
In truth the reverse might be the case. The railroad which 
shows a fuel cost of eight cents per locomotive mile may be 
less economical than that with a cost of twenty-two cents. It 
will be seen then that in order to make any equitable compari- 
son between the performance of different divisions or different 
periods, separate standards must be set which will take into ac- 
count all controlling conditions. Even after equitable cost stand- 
ards have been made and comparison arrived at from this basis, 
it should not be considered that the division or system with the 
highest cost efficiency is the most economically operated. It 
often happens that the efficiency of locomotive operation cost 
must be sacrificed to the advantage of the greater item total 
efficiency of conducting transportation. 

Any comparison then which may be made with a view to 
determining the relative efficiency of locomotive operation should 
not be based upon any single item, nor should a fixed stand- 
ard be used to cover all conditions. Such comparisons should 
comprehend all features and should be founded on standards 
varying to accord with conditions. 

Determination of Standards. 
The standard of service may be arbitrarily set, as physical 
conditions, types of power or other influences should not affect 
the relative amount of time that locomotives are in service. On 
divisions with long mileage between terminals or where grades 
and curves demand slow speed, the longer detention necessary 
at enginehouses in order to put engines' in condition for return 
trips, will equalize with the shorter mileage or more even pro- 
file of other divisions where power can be turned in consider- 
ably less time, but must be handled more often. The lapse of 
time will have but little effect on the standard of service, as no 
matter what improvements may be made in the line of roadway 
or power, the relative time of detention required for repairs 
should remain about the same. Any improvement in the facili- 
ties for handling and repairing power will, to a certain extent, 
be reflected by an increase in efficiency of service, but as ex- 
pedient handling of locomotives is more a matter of competent 
supervision than of improved facilities, this feature may be 
overlooked in the consideration of this problem. In order to 
arrive at a standard ratio between locomotive hours in service 
and total locomotive hours, the record of all divisions for the 
period of a year should be perused. It will be found that, 
excepting a few extreme cases, there will be but little 
variation in this ratio. A sudden increase or decrease in 
business may cause the ratio -to vary to a considerable ex- 
tent for a short period as may a protracted siege of bad 
weather, but on the whole, well managed divisions will 
diverge but little from the straight line. Let us suppose 
that by compiling the year's averages for all the divisions 
of a system we find the best record to have been 36 per cent 
of the time in service, while the poorest was 31 per cent. 
The standard ratio should then be set slightly above the 
best average record, possibly at 38 per cent. 

By setting the standard above the best average an incen- 
tive is provided for improvement both on the division having 
the best record and that having the worst, while the rela- 
tion between their performance will remain the same as 
though the best were considered to be perfect or 100 per cent 
efficient and other divisions compared with its record. 

In determining the standard of speed a separate study 
must be made of each division and district. Grades and 
curves must be given their time value as set forth by well 
known laws governing train resistance. The length of the 
division must be given consideration as must the density of 
traffic and frequency of available meeting points. Average 
weather conditions should not be overlooked. 



[March, 1912.] 

The speed of trains is so closely interwoven with the load 
that neither standard can be set without consideration of 
the other. Speed standard cannot be arrived at as the re- 
sult of study of past records, although such research may 
be of some value, and standards once set must be constantly 
revised to keep pace with changes and improvements in 
conditions and facilities. Modification of grades or curves 
would entail a change in standard of speed or load or very 
likely both. New types of power would also call for a re- 
vision of standard. Although complexed by a multiplicity of 
influencing features, the determination of a just and proper 
speed standard, at which the greatest efficiency is attainable 
under the varying conditions, is by no means an impos- 
sibility, nor should it be attended by any great degree of 
■difficulty, provided the standard setter is thoroughly con- 
versant with the subject and has at hand the data on which 
to base his deductions. After all information has been gath- 
ered it is a comparatively simple matter to compile tables 
from which can readily be determined the most efficient speed 
standard for any set of conditions, and after standards are 
once established for each separate division the necessary 
revisions, due to changing conditions, will become a mere 
matter of routine. 

The subject of tonnage rating in all its complexities has 
received such an amount of study from the best railroad 
talent, of times past and present, that it should not be* par- 
ticularly difficult for the investigator of today to set equit- 
able standards for locomotive loads on the various divisions 
of his system. The best standards of load, however, may 
not correspond with current practice, nor should this stand- 
ard be arrived at by averaging the tonnage rating of the 
locomotives in service. As in the case of speed' stand- 
ard, map and profile must receive consideration in their rela- 
tion to practical loads. The average tractive force of power 
assigned offers the best initial basis around which to group 
the other items governing load standard. Computing from 
the average tractive force, the most economical train load 
for a level straight division, the other features of curves, 
grades, weather conditions, length of divisions, density of 
traffic, economic speed, service ratio, and cost economy will 
•express themselves as modifying per cents. 

Load standards once determined are no more stable than 
those of speed, but must be constantly and intelligently re- 
vised to cover ever-changing conditions. 

The efficient load of last year is not the efficient load of 
today, nor will today's standard fit in years to come. A 
standard, in order to be effective to provide the incentive for 
improvement which is necessary to advancement, must be a 
progressive standard, not out of reach, but far enough ahead 
of attainment to proclude the possibility of even the most 
efficient resting in the equanimity of self satisfaction. Load 
standards then should not be set from an average of past 
performance nor from the best current performance, but 
should conform to the best attainable performance under the 
governing conditions. 

Standards of cost are undoubtedly the most difficult of 
determination of any of the four items under consideration. 
The variance of past and present records, as between vari- 
ous systems or different portions of the same system, abro- 
gate the possibility for arriving at equitable standards from 
a comparison of such data. The controlling items of cost 
of operation are infinite and in many cases almost inde- 

The remuneration and efficiency of labor. The cost and 
•quality of raw material and the distance of their source 
from the point of use in their various and sundry aspects 
must influence the standard cost of service. Standards of 
cost must be to a degree subservient to standards of service, 
speed and load. The simple fact that unit cost of service 
is low is by no means an indication of efficient management. 

In any line the cheapest article is rarely if ever the most 
economic. Coal at two dollars a ton may prove far more 
expensive than coal at five dollars a ton. Labor at thirty 
cents an hour may be an expensive luxury compared with 
labor at fifty cents an hour. Aside from the influence of 
varying labor conditions and cost of materials, the severity 
of service to which power is subjected will have its influence 
on the item of cost. Curves promote rapid tire wear, bad 
water necessitates frequent renewal of flues and fire boxes, 
high per cent grades, by imposing heavy and continual 
strain, cause rapid wear of working parts. Some types of 
power are more expensive of maintenance than others un- 
der identical conditions. For the purpose of deciding upon 
standards of cost to cover widely varying conditions, 
the subject should be divided into a number of separate items, 
each one of which should be studied individually and in its 
relation to all the others. 

(1) Cost of locomotive repairs — labor. 

(2) Cost of locomotive repairs — material. 

(3) Wages of enginemen. 

(4) Enginehouse expenses. 

(5) Cost of fuel. 

(6) Quality of fuel. 

(7) Cost of lubricants. 

(8) Cost of other supplies. 

The item of labor should vary directly with the difference 
in rates of pay on the various divisions, presuppossing phys- 
ical conditions to be ideal. Any variation in power types or 
in profile or alignment of roadway must be taken care of by- 
increased allowance. Such allowance, however, should not 
be made as an off-hand estimate, but only after a careful 
study of all features to determine their exact bearing on the 
cost of labor per unit. Material allotments will be influenced 
by the same items as those relating to labor, and in addi- 
tion must be regulated to allow for transportation charges 
from the place of purchase to the point of use. Wages of 
enginemen may be figured in direct proportion to the vary- 
ing rates paid on different territories. Enginehouse expenses 
will be influenced by the rate of pay for the class of labor 
employed and by the type of power handled. Economic 
fuel costs should be based on price and heating value and 
also on the distance transported. Lubrication standards 
should vary but little, although small allowance may be made 
for variation in type of power or for unusual weather condi- 
tions. For example: additional allowance should be made 
on desert districts where, owing to heat and dust, lubrica- 
tion costs must of necessity be unusually high. Standard 
cost for miscellaneous supplies, an item of relative small 
importance, may be set uniformly for all divisions regard- 
less of conditions as any slight variation in this item would 
be neglectful in its imperceptible bearing on the cost prob- 
lem as a whole. 

Before attempting to determine a standard cost of service, 
it would be well to set standards for each of the composing 
items under the influence of the varying conditions. After 
this is done the allotment of a standard for any division en- 
tails only the determination of the controlling conditions and 
a simple addition of the standard of the various items cor- 
responding. Any change in conditions demanding an altera- 
tion of standard may also in this way be easily taken care 
of. _ 

Under the prevalent systems of comparison, the man 
with a low efficiency will bring forth endless excuses 
why it is impossible for his division to operate as economi- 
cally or efficiently as others, and without accurate standards 
comprehending varying conditions, it is next to impossible 
to discredit his claims, or if his contention of unequal con- 
ditions is ignored, it is more than likely that an injustice 
will be clone to one who is delivering the best of service 
consonant with controlling conditions. 

I March, 1912] 



The value of comparison which can be depended upon to 
reflect the 'true ratio between the performance of locomo- 
tives on various divisions will not be questioned. Standards 
determined as outlined will give a true and accurate basis 
for the meting out of praise or censure to the individuals 
responsible for the various items of performance. 

A race between an automobile and a man on a bicycle on 
■equal terms would be devoid of interest. The man depend- 
ing on his own power would know from the start that vic- 
tory was impossible and would be possessed of a discour- 
agement which would prevent him from doing even the 
best that was in him. The man with the automobile would 
be so certain of victory that he would exert no special effort. 
Introduce into the race a handicap, giving each man a task 
commensurate with his powers, and at once you arouse the 
spirit of rivalry so necesasry to the breaking of records. 

The race between the man and the machine is different 
only in degree from the strife for supremacy in any other 
line. Given equitable standards, handicapping divisions ac- 
cording to the conditions affecting their operations, a spirit 
of rivalry and competition will be aroused which will better 
the performance of all, while the discouraging feature of 
trying to compete with others more favored and less ham- 
pered will be eliminated. 

Any one who has tried to argue from the point of efficiency 
will realize that the mere statement that the per cent of 
efficiency has been increased or decreased will in the ag- 
gregate carry but little weight. What the stockholder or 
director of a railroad wants to know is, what saving or loss 
in actual dollars and cents has resulted? In order then to 
establish a correlation between efficiency per cent and dol- 
lars and cents, let us take a few concrete examples to show 
just what an increase ratio of performance means in the 
ultimate cost. 

A division has an assignment of one hundred locomotives, 
the average earnings of which have been $150 per day. The 
service ratio has been 30 per cent, which, compared with a 
standard of 40 per cent, showed an efficiency of 75 per cent. 
An increase of business is handled without additional power, 
raising the service ratio to 32 per cent or 80 per cent 
efficeincy. This increase in service efficiency means an in- 
crease in average earnings per locomotive proportional to 
the increased efficiency. To determine the earnings per 
locomotive at the new service ratio we have the equa- 

Present earnings: past earnings:: present service efficiency: 
past service efficiency 
$150 X 80 

or present earnings = = $160. 


This shows that by increasing the efficiency of service 
5 per cent the average earnings per locomotive were in- 
creased $10 per day, or $1,000 per day increase in gross 
revenue for the total power assigned. 

These figures assume, of course, that the improvement in 
service ratio was accomplished without lowering the efficiency 
of speed, load or cost. 

Substituting either speed or load efficiency in the fore- 
going equation for that of service and the results would 
remain the same. 

Any increase in cost efficiency would not evince itself as 
an increase in gross earnings, but as a decrease in opera- 
tion expense and a corresponding increase in net earnings. 
For example: let us say that a certain division handling 
eighty million gross ton miles per month increased its cost 
efficiency from 80 per cent to 90 per cent, assuming that 
the cost per thousand gross ton miles at 80 per cent efficiency 
was 25 cents, the cost on a like basis at 90 per cent would 
be 22.22 cents. The total operating cost, which at 80 per 
cent was $20,000, would be reduced at 90 per cent to $17,776, 

or a saving for the month of $2,224, which also represents 
the increase in net earnings. 


The Drawing Room! The Drawing Room! 
It's enough to make one curse and fume; 
There's something missing on our sheet; 
The reach rod ends, — they will not meet, 
He's dropped a line, some lazy loon, 
That works up in the Drawing Room. 

The Drawing Room! The Drawing Room! 

There troubles rise and errors loom. 

I want a print; I want a card; 

I want a sketch and want it hard; 

But let it go — we'll be immune; 

We'll charge it to the Drawing Room. 

The Drawing Room! The Drawing Room! 

And always it's the same old tune. 

If it wasn't serious, 'twould be a joke 

To put on guides without a yoke. 

We'll stand round, with an air of gloom 

Till they send us one from the Drawing Room. 

The Drawing Room! The Drawing Room! 

Where errors thrive until they bloom. 

If a piece " short, if a piece is long, 

If any old thing is going wrong, 

You'll hear us wail till the crack of doom; 

The Drawing Room! The Drawing Room! 

E. M. C. in "Loco." 


From a report made by John Lambert Payne, comptroller of 
railway statistics for Canada, the following interesting in- 
formation is obtained: 

"The total track mileage is 25,400, an increase of 669 miles. 
At the end of June last the period covered by the report, 7,000 
miles of road were under construction, of which 1,578 miles 
were in actual operation, though not formally declared so by 
the railway commission. In the year $118,391,514 was added to 
capital liability of railways, of which $61,650,300 was in stocks 
and $56,741,214 in funded debt. The capital liability is $1,528,- 
689,201, or $55,821 per mile. 

"Passengers carried totaled 37,097,718, an increase of 1,203,- 
143, while freight totaled 79,884,282 tons, an increase of 5,401,- 
416. From all sources gross earnings were $188,733,494, an in- 
crease of $14,777,277 over 1910. Operating expenses aggregated 
$131,034,785, making the net earnings $57,698,709, as against 
$53,557,776 in 1910. A total of 4,219 locomotives, 4,513 pas- 
senger cars, and 127,158 freight cars were in service during 
the year. 

"Fatal accidents numbered 493, while 3,300 persons were in- 
jured, a decrease of 120 in fatal and 1,190 in other accidents. 
Of the total of those killed 202 were employees, while of the 
total injured 1,314 were so engaged. One passenger in every 
1,324,919, therefore, was killed, and one in every 124,489 in- 
jured. Level crossings caused 36 persons to be killed and 108 

"Employees in 1911 aggregated 141,224, an increase of 17,- 
456. In wages $74,613,318 was paid out, an increase of $7,- 


The railways of Denver, Colo., have formed a "Joint Car 
Interchange and Inspection Bureau." This bureau has been 
placed under the management of Win. Hansen, Denver, Colo. 



[March, 1912.] 

By Chas. G. Bacon, Jr. 

One of the features of the situation which has been of great 
interest during the past few years, since the solid steel wheel 
outgrew the infant class, passed the experimental stage, and 
joined the ranks of full-fledged necessities, has been, and is 
to-day. the item of standard designs, and so closely interwoven 
with this item is that of specifications that it is well to con- 
sider them almost as one. 

The wheel committee of the Master Car Builders' Association 
«vas instructed by the executive committee, shortly after the con- 
vention at Atlantic City, last June, to consider these items of 
design and specifications, and to report thereon at the conven- 
tion to be held this coming June. I do not believe that I am 
divulging any confidence when I state that the wheel committee 
held a meeting somewhat over two months ago at which were 
present, by invitation, representatives of the solid steel wheel 
manufacturers, in the hope that they would assist the commit- 
tee in its arduous work. This, in my opinion, was a splendid 
move in the right direction. The interests of manufacturers 
and railways are identical. 

Upon learning that the subject of specifications covering solid 
steel wheels had been under consideration for upwards of two 
years by a special committee of the American Society for Test- 

give a standard, or recognized basis to work upon, which can be 
amended and developed from time to time in future so as to 
serve the greatest good of the greatest number. 

As regards the question of designs, it is but proper that 
the question be thrown open to all, so that there may be full 
expression of opinion, and so that manufacturers and railways 
will reach agreements, or standards, at the earliest possible 
moment. It is, then, the object of this paper to lay before 
you a list of twenty-one designs of solid steel wheels which 
long experience and careful study would seem to indicate are 
adequate standards in connection with more than ninety per 
cent of the requirements of the railways of the United States 
today, and which would soon cover the other ten per cent if 
railroads would give attention to some points in connection 
with co-ordinate equipment, — and to further lay before you 
certain reasons why study of the subject has convinced me that 
a total of eleven of these designs are all that are desirable or 
required. I ask the fullest possible consideration of the de- 
signs which form a part of this paper — I ask railway officials 
to carefully compare them with their present drawings, with the 
idea of noting differences (if any) — and I believe that a full 
and free discussion, therefore, cannot fail to be of great 
mutual advantage. 

Styles 1 to 8, inclusive, are types of wheels for engine trucks. 

"0(5 «*£.d /«o<? cohtouk 

Fig- No. 1 

K]g. No. 2 Pig.. No. 4 

Engine Truck Wheel Types. 

Fig. No. 7 

ing Materials, the M. C. B. wheel committee very promptly, 
and wisely, determined to accept an invitation which was ex- 
tended, to have representation on the A. S. T. M. committee. 
This latter committee is certainly well qualified and privileged 
to handle this important item intelligently — being composed of 
representatives of the manufacturers and of the railways which 
have had the longest and most extensive experience with solid 
steel wheels. It is not to be expected, in an important matter of 
this kind, that results obtained will, in detail, meet the ideas, 
wishes, or even requirements perhaps, of all. There are too 
many conflicting interests to .be reconciled — too many points on 
which there may be honest differences of opinion — and, on some 
points, too, little data available, to render results as actually 
ideal — yet it is a decided step in the right direction, and will 

♦From a paper before the Western Railway Club, Chicago, 
Feb. 20, 1912, 

and styles 9 to 21, inclusive, are types for freight cars, tenders, 
and passenger train cars — the salient point of difference be- 
tween these two general classes being that wheels for engine 
trucks require inside hub faces of large diameter in order to pro- 
vide adequate bearing surface as against journal boxes. 

The total of eleven designs which I think are all that are de- 
sirable and required, are — 


Fig. 1 — 28^2 ins. diameter. 

Fig. 2 — 30 ins. diameter. 

Fig. 4 — 33 ins. diameter. 

Fig. 7 — 36 ins. diameter. 


Fig. 9 — 28 ins. diameter. 
Fig. 10 — 30 ins. diameter. 
Fig. 13 — 33 ins. diameter. 
Fig. 15 — 33 ins. diameter. 

[March. 1912.] 



Fig. 17 — 36 ins. diameter. 

Fig. 19 — 36 ins. diameter. 

Fig. 21 — 38 ins. diameter. 

One of the reasons which enters in to increase the number of 
designs of wheels for engine trucks above the four above noted 
is that of diameter of inside face of hub. It has long been con- 
sidered and determined by prominent railroads, who have placed 
many thousands of solid steel wheels in engine truck service, 
that this dimension should properly be 12 5-16 ins. — but there 
have recently been several large companies which have called 
for engine truck wheels with inside hub faces of either 13 ins. 
or 14 ins., and in fact one large system has issued a sheet set- 
ting forth that this dimension shall be either 11 ins., 12 ins., 13 
ins., 13J^ ins. or 14 ins., under certain conditions. I venture 
to say that ninety-five per cent of the solid steel wheels which 
are in engine truck service in the United States today have 
12 5-16 in. diameter of inside hub face — this dimension is stand- 
ard with the roads which have had the longest and most ex- 
tensive experience with solid steel wheels of this type — I am 
told that it has proven to be a proper and satisfactory di- 
mension — and I therefore wish that all railroads would agree 
either upon this diameter of 12 5-16 ins., or at least some one 
diameter, as being the standard dimension. The cost of manu- 

Also, and more particularly, hub diameter is increased from 
9% ins. to 11 ins., in order to provide due hub wall thickness. 

This brings to mind a point which I wish to make one of 
the principal features of my paper, — i. e., as to what is the 
proper hub wall thickness for solid steel wheels. 

A hub diameter of 9% ins. has long been recognized as all 
that is required in mounting solid steel wheels upon 4%x8-in., 
5x9-in., or 5H*10-in. axles, — i. e., up to and including 7 in. diam- 
eter wheel-seats — for even in connection with S^xlO-in. axle, 
and allowing for the tolerances for eccentricity provided for 
in specifications, a 9^-in. hub diameter means a minimum hub 
wall thickness of 1% ins. on a 7-in. diameter wheel-seat. Dur- 
ing the past few months, and under 'the leadership of one of 
our large systems, which, however, is basing its statements 
and acts upon experience with comparatively few solid steel 
wheels, there has been quite a move on the part of some rail- 
roads (none of those which have had long and extensive experi- 
ence in the matter, however,) to use wheels with 11-in. hub 
diameter on 5%xl0-in. axles, and even on 5x9-in. axles, on 
the ground that 1J4 ins. was not sufficient for a minimum hub 
wall thickness and tended to "loose wheels." From a manu- 
facturer's standpoint I have no reason to take exception to this 
move. A heavier wheel means a higher price, and so long as a 

Fig..No. 9 Pig. No." 13 

Wheel Types for Tenders, and 

facturing solid steel wheels, and therefore the price to the rail- 
roads, is largely a question of the number of wheels produced 
per type, and this being the case it seems most important — 
particularly as regards engine truck wheels, of which the total 
number required is not sufficiently large to enable manufac- 
turers, even under the best of conditions, to reduce cost of 
production to the same level as that of the other classes of 
which larger quantities are used — that specific attention and study 
should be given to this dimension of inside hub face diameter, 
so that a standard can be adopted for the best interests of all 

The 33-in. wheel per Fig. 15 differs from the 33-in. wheel 
per Fig. 13, and the 36 in. wheel per Fig. 19 differs from the 36 
in. wheel per Fig. 17, only to the extent required by the adop- 
tion of an additional M. C. B. standard axle, — i. e., the 6xll-in. 
Hub length is necessarily increased from 7 ins. to 1 l / 2 ins., — de- 
pression of front face of hub from 15-16 in. to 13-16 in., — and 
projection of inside face of hub from 2 7-16 ins. to 3 3-16 ins. 

Fie. No. 17 

Pig.. No. 21 

Freight and Passenger Cars. 

railroad wishes to pay for excess metal I do not know that it is 
within a manufacturer's province to object. But as one of the 
engineers who has had to do with the solid steel wheel sub-* 
ject from its infancy, and who is more or less responsible for 
the determination and advocacy of dimensions, I wish to assume 
just as definite and positive an attitude on this point as words 
will permit me to express. 

I find that one large system, having over 200,000 solid steel 
wheels in service, has had less than a dozen "loose wheels" in 
the past six or seven years — despite the fact that 1'4-hi. min- 
imum hub wall thickness has been adopted practice, and de- 
spite the fact that in the early days of the solid steel wheel 
industry, when manufacture was not as accurate in some ways 
as at present, many wheels went into service with 1^-in. hub 
wall thickness. And of still greater interest, perhaps, is the 
fact that close investigation of each one of these few cases 
of "loose wheels" developed the fact that the trouble was due. 
solely and entirely, to improper boring and mounting, in some 



[March, 1912.J 

detail, and had no reference whatsoever to the wall thickness of 
the hub of the wheel. From another large system, with up- 
wards of -90,000 solid steel wheels in service, I learn that in 
six or seven years only three or four cases of "loose wheels" 
have developed, despite hub wall thickness of V/^-m. minimum, 
and that investigation of these few cases showed them to be 
due to improper boring and mounting, also. 

Such being the experience of those whose long and ex- 
tensive use of solid steel wheels certainly qualifies them to 
know whereof they speak, and the knowledge of those whose 
grasp of the wheel subject entitles them to assert, I must 
say that I look upon it as a piece of undue assumption when 
a railroad with a limited experience, both in time and in 
quantity, sets out to be aggressive along a line with which 
it is unfamiliar — and I want to say, as forcefully as I can, 
that hub wall thickness of 1% ins. is all that is required in 
connection with properly designed and manufactured solid 
steel wheels when mounted on axles with wheel-seats up to 
and including 7 ins. diameter, and to state that those who 
are troubled by "loose wheels" under such conditions must 
look to their own shop practices, to their boring-mills, their 
axle-lathes, and their wheel-presses for the reason, for the 
wheel is not responsible for the trouble which some may 
find in this particular. 

Though included in the list, I would hope that 33-in. wheel 
per Fig. 14 and 36-in. wheel per Fig. 18 could be eliminated 
from consideration as standard designs. There are some 
roads who, in wishing for something larger than 5^ x 10-in. 
axle, have for reasons of their own doubtless, neglected to 
adopt the M. C. B. standard 6xll-in., and have gone to the 
use of sort of an "in-between," — 6xl0-in., — which renders it 
necessary to add these two extra designs of wheels, per Figs. 
14 and 18. As I am discussing wheels I do not like to en- 
croach upon another subject, but it seems to me that as 
much axle trouble is caused by over-heating as by lack of 
section, and that conditions are not much improved, there- 
fore, by increasing section without proportionate increase in 
bearing. In other words, is there any great advantage in a 
6xl0-in. axle over a 5^xl0-in. axle, — would not logic dictate, 
as a step in advance of the 5^xl0-in. where necessary, the 
adoption of the 6xll-in. axle, instead of a mere "in-between?" 
I refer to this as merely another one of those features which 
has its effect upon the cost of manufacture, and therefore 
the price to the railroads, of solid steel wheels — and, in con- 
sequence, as one which is deserving of consideration from 
an economic standpoint. 

Another point which I desire shall be one of the principal 
features of my paper is brought up by the suggestion that, 
though shown as standard designs in the list submitted, I 
would like to eliminate 30^-in. engine truck wheel per Fig. 
3, 33>4-in. engine truck wheel per Fig. 6, 33^2-in. wheel per 
Fig. 16, and 36^2-in. wheel per Fig. 20,— and my reason for 
wishing and hoping to see these designs eliminated is solely 
and entirely because they mean the use of solid steel wheels 
with 3-in. rim thickness. 

This subject of rim thickness is one which has received 
much study and attention at my hands for several years and 
all experience tends to prove that 2J^-in. rim thickness in 
connection with solid steel wheels makes for efficiency and 
economy, and that the use of 3-in. rim thickness is to be 

There are two ways of looking at this matter — both of 
which, however, lead to the same result. Tn the first place — 
one must consider the rim of a solid steel wheel as being of 
two general parts, so to speak — (1) the allowable wearing- 
body, being that depth which can be properly used in ser- 
vice, and (2) the minimum allowable rim thickness, which 
necessitates removal from service. For example — in a rim 
thickness of 2 l / 2 ins. it may be said that there is V/2 ins. of 
allowable wearing-body, with 1 in. thickness remaining which 

calls for removal from service under M. C. B. rules. Going 
a step further, it must be borne in mind that this V/i ins. of 
allowable wearing-body cannot be entirely used in road ser- 
vice. From time to time while the wheel is in service cer- 
tain deformations of contour will occur, after varying mile- 
ages (and with correspondingly varying depths of metal worn 
from tread), which necessitate removal of the wheel from 
service, for re-machining to restore due contour (meaning a 
depth of metal removed from tread, again, in this operation). 
All conditions are so variable that it is impossible to say 
definitely what depth of tread is worn off before the first 
re-machining, then what depth of metal is removed in that 
re-machining, and so on, during the several periods, you may- 
say, constituting the total depth of allowable wearing-body — 
but long experience, with general averages on numerous and 
various railroads, and under varying conditions, enable me to- 
say that the allowable wearing-body in a rim 2]/ 2 ins. thick 
will split-up far more economically than the wearing-body 
in a 3-in. rim,— or, to put it another way, that, as a general 
average proposition, a railroad will secure more actual six- 
teenths of an inch of wearing-body, and fewer sixteenths of 
an inch of waste metal, in the allowable wearing-body of a 
2j4-in. rim than in a 3-in. rim. And though this broad state- 
ment of fact may seem to over-shoot the mark, and to evoke 
remonstrance from those who have not given the point spe- 
cific attention, all I ask is the opportunity for co-operative 
study with any railroad official of conditions on his own 
road, and I will be able to clearly demonstrate the correct- 
ness of my statement. But, in the second place, to properly 
meet conditions a solid steel wheel should possess, through- 
out the depth of its allowable wearing-body, an attrition- 
resistance equal to that of the rail, and, to obtain this, certain 
limits must be recognized in rim thickness from a manufac- 
turing standpoint. Not alone must a high degree of attrition- 
resistance be obtained initially, but it should be maintained, 
as uniformly as possible, throughout the allowable wearing- 
body, and this quality is largely secured by the work, and 
the depth of penetration of the work, which is put upon the 
rim. I contend that there is no process of manufacture of 
solid steel wheels known to-day which will produce as good 
and serviceable a wheel with 3-in. rim thickness as with 2^- 
in. rim thickness, and I am, furthermore, making a statement 
based on the records of a good many thousands of wheels 
which have been worn out in service when I emphasize this 
by making the statement in another way, i. e., the mileage-life 
of a solid steel wheel with 2y 2 -in. rim thickness is greater 
than one with 3-in. rim thickness, all other things being equal. 
To look at this point in another light. I. have always been, 
and I am to-day, a strong and consistent opponent of the use 
of the term "shelling" in connection with solid steel wheels. 
There has been too much of a tendency to call all defects 
"shelling," owing to either convenience or lack of familiarity 
with the subject, whereas due and proper analysis would have 
classed the defect under one of three or four other and more 
specific headings, which would have enabled the manufacturer 
to handle the matter far more intelligently and in a manner 
decidedly more for the benefit of the railroad. "Shelling" may 
be the easiest thing to think of, or to say, but it is absolutely 
non-specific under normal conditions in connection with solid 
steel wheels, and, in ninety-nine cases in a hundred, means 
nothing at all. It was explained to me, years ago, by an old 
and prominent cast-iron wheel manufacturer, how the term 
"shelling" originated, and as I remember it, his explanation 
was this: The chilled portion in the rim of a cast-iron wheel 
extends at a right angle to' the chill block, and only to a cer- 
tain depth — this depth being dependent upon the quality of 
the iron, etc. — the effect being that there is a slight depth of 
metal with strong resistance, backed with ordinary gray iron 
of far less resistance, bordering, comparatively speaking, upon 
sponginess. That when this strong surface metal had been 

[March, 1912.] 



worn so thin as to be unable to support the service load 
which was upon it, it would, having but a comparative spongi- 
i.ess or cushion beneath, mash up and fall away in a manner 
which left the appearance of the outside of an oyster shell, 
and hence the term "shelling." With this explanation in 
mind I have always been opposed, as stated, to the use of 
the term "shelling" as applied to solid steel wheels, for I have 
believed, and my belief has been based on specific study, that 
no such condition should exist in properly designed and made 
solid steel wheels. But I must now go on record as saying 
that if some railroad officials persist in using wheels with 3-in. 
rim thickness, or over, and can succeed in inducing manu- 
facturers to supply such types, then I must, though most re- 
gretfully, add the term of "shelling" to the liabilities of solid 
steel wheels, for close observation of many wheels of this 
type, not confined to any one manufacturer's product, which 
I have investigated, convinces me that in a properly made 
solid steel wheel with 2y 2 -'m. rim thickness there is good 
opportunity for knowing what you are getting, whereas with 
3-in. rim thickness you cannot be sure of anything, except 
that there will be a considerable percentage of dissatisfaction 
and trouble in the results you obtain. Let those who doubt 
the correctness of my position in this matter take heed of the 
fact that the railroads who have had the longest and most 
extensive experience with solid steel wheels have nearly all 
given up the use of solid steel wheels with 3-in. rim thickness 
and adopted 2^-in. rim thickness as standard. Let them 
note the fact that the more a man learns about the solid steel 
wheel subject the more convinced he becomes that 2^-in. 
rim thickness gives the best and most economical results, as 
is pretty well evidenced by the abolishment of the use of 
3-in. rims on .his road and the substitution therefor of 2^-in. 
rims by a member of the M. C. B. wheel committee, since he 
has come to have a more thorough knowledge of the subject, 
and let any official refer to the records of his own company 
and see if the facts of the case do not thoroughly verify my 

My line of argument must not be construed, however, to 
mean that a 2-in. rim thickness would be more efficient and 
economical than a 2^-in. rim thickness. I do not mean that, 
and I do not believe that. The 2-in. rim thickness does not 
lend itself to economical division of allowable wearing-body 
to meet periods 6f road service, and metal lost in re-machin- 
ing — neither does it afford the manufacturer full oppor- 
tunity for his best work. In this question of rim thick- 
ness one is not forced to consider extremes and reluctantly 
adopt a compromise average, in acknowledging that 2^4-in. 
rim thickness is desirable in connection with solid steel 
wheels — one need only indulge in a bit of self-congratulation 
that all manufacturing conditions and service requirements 
unite in identifying 2^-in. rim thickness as both efficient 
and economical. 

One more point, which I desire to make a special feature 
of my paper, is a word of caution regarding the production 
of wheels without machine work upon them. 

For years I have been an advocate of the idea of produc- 
ing wheels so true to dimension that machine work was 
reduced to a minimum, and I doubt if there is any other 
one man who has introduced as many wheels of this type 
into service as I have. I am still a firm believer in the 
theory, but only to the extent to which it can be carried in 
due justice to the quality of the material produced. Ma- 
chine work increases cost of production — machine work may 
oftentimes remove metal of particular service value — yet if 
the effort to produce material on which machine work is 
unnecessary opens the door to a product which lacks uni- 
formity, lacks many of the other virtues which it should 
possess, and borders on the dangerous — then I feel that 
extreme caution should be used in order that a "penny wise, 
pound foolish" policy can be avoided. It may be all right 

enough to produce some of the commodities of life on the 
basis of tonnage, or general average — probably it is — but in 
dealing with wheels let us not forget that we are dealing: 
with units, each and every one of which should possess integ- 
rity,- as otherwise much time will be spent in settling claims- 
for low mileage, in providing for adjustments -covering de- 
fective material, and, worse yet, in explaining how wrecks 

Uniformity in manufacture is perhaps the feature most to 
be desired in connection with solid steel wheels. But uni- 
formity of quality should be held as paramount to uniformity 
of mere dimensions — and when the tendency is to sacrifice 
uniformity of quality in the effort to obtain uniformity of 
dimensions, then I believe that the time has come to "stop,, 
look and listen." 

The production of proper solid steel wheels does not en- 
tail the mere forming" of a bulk of steel into the shape of a 
wheel. It carries with it far greater requirements and re- 
sponsibilities. Proper production means not alone mere 
shaping, but, and particularly, the working into shape along 
such lines as tend to preserve and develop the virtues of 
the material for the service in which the finished product is 
to be used, and the doing of this in such a way as assures 
uniformity of quality as between wheels which are subse- 
quently mated in service. Irregularity of dimensions can be 
easily overcome by a few pennies worth of machine work, 
but lack of uniformity in quality is incurable, so to speak, 
and is sure to assume more or less serious, if not actually 
dangerous, forms, when the wheels go into service. I speak 
most feelingly on this point, for it is one with which I have 
been closely identified for years — it is one which I have 
seen, over and over again, is of grave importance — and be- 
cause it is one which should be closely watched and studied 
by railroad officials. 

I again ask, in conclusion, your consideration and criti- 
cism of these 21 designs of solid steel wheels which I sug- 
gest as standards for the steam railroads of the United 
States, and I particularly ask both your earnest considera- 
tion and thoughtful criticism of the arguments I have ad; 
vanced for a desire and suggestion that the list be reduced 
to a total of eleven designs. 

Manufacturers of solid steel wheels are particularly ac- 
commodating when engaged in close competition for a rail- 
road's order, and it is for that reason that wheels of all! 
sorts and sizes can be obtained. But clear-headed railroad: 
officials certainly realize that the production of small quanti- 
ties of an endless variety of designs means a higher cost 
than when a minimum number of designs permits of pro- 
portionately larger quantities, and that cost is always re- 
flected in price. They certainly realize that in the heat of 
close competition a sales department will frequently offer, 
because the works says under urging that they can produce, 
"odd" designs which may or may not have been thoroughly 
demonstrated as unifying the possibilities of proper manu- 
facture and the requirements of service, and they surely ap- 
preciate how standardization of wheel designs is an end to 
which we all should strive. 

The Canadian Pacific recently announced that it will spend 
$600,000 this summer in constructing one unit of the pro- 
jected terminal plant at Couitlam. The entire terminal is 
laid out in a system of units, which will be added as traffic 
increases. The first unit to be constructed consists of a 
round-house, 25 miles of terminal track, and general repair 
shops. Eventually there will be five units and 95 miles of 
terminal track . 

The Missouri, Kansas & Texas, it is reported, will begin work 
on terminal improvements at East Waco, Tex., which will in- 
clude the construction of shops, roundhouse, turntable and a 
water-softening plant. 



[March, 1912.] 

By J. A. Shaw, Elect. Eng., Can. Pac. Ry. 

Welding is one of the most important, and, at the same 
time, one of the most difficult operations in the manufacture 
and use of metals. When the operation is performed by 
hand it is always expensive and frequently inconvenient, and 
reliable welds are rarely obtained, unless a man of con- 
siderable skill is employed. 

Little progress has been made during the past 1,000 years 
in the art of welding by hand, notwithstanding the fact that 
reliable results are more and more needed as the manu- 
facture of metals and alloys becomes improved, and higher 
working stresses are demanded. 

A perfect weld might be denned as one in which the 
metal at or near the weld remains equal in strength or ductil- 
ity to those parts of the metal which have not been heated. 
In the ordinary process of welding two pieces of iron, the 
smith heats the ends in a fire until, so far as he is able to 
judge, the temperature has become somewhat higher than 
the correct welding temperature. The ends are then placed 
together, treated with a flux (such as borax), which melts 
and quickly covers the heated surface, thus preventing the 
further access of air, and at the same time, reducing the 
oxide scale already formed to a liquid state, the smith then 
hammers the two ends together, his aim being to force out 
from the surfaces in contact all the burnt iron and all the 
flux, and also to produce a smooth, round surface. The 
strength of the weld depends almost entirely on the skill 
which has been exercised in bringing the metal to just the 
right temperature, and in hammering or squeezing out all 
the burnt metal and the flux. 

The welding of brass, copper, etc., is impracticable by 
the usual methods; copper would need to be raised to a 
very high temperature, as compared with iron, and is then 
highly oxidizable and liable to form a scale difficult to treat 
by any flux; it also passes quickly from the solid to the 
molten state and is brittle near the welding temperature; 
while with brass it is difficult to avoid the volatilization of 
the zinc before the copper element has been raised to the 
necessary temperature, and, further, this alloy also becomes 
exceedingly brittle near the welding temperature. 

Hitherto such metals and alloys have been united by braz- 
ing or soldering, operations which require considerable skill 
and are expensive in the matter of solder, fluxes, heating 
appliances and labor charges. These metals can, however, 
readily be welded electrically, and under certain conditions, 
there is no difficulty in making a good weld between two 
entirely different metals or alloys. 

The use of electricity for welding, though introduced some 
years ago, has not been widely applied until lately, perhaps 
due to the comparatively large quantities of energy re- 
quired. However, as electrical welding is capable of pro- 
ducing astonishing results, it is now revolutionizing many 
manufacturing operations; and although there may have been 
some disappointing experiences with the process, due chiefly 
to the injudicious selection of methods and machines for 
the particular work in hand, it is a fact that perfectly reliable 
and most satisfactory results can now be obtained, not only 
in electrically welding iron and mild steel, but also copper, 
brass, and many other metals and alloys. Highly skilled 
labor is no longer necessary, the rate of production is great- 
ly increased, the net result being that more reliable work 
can be turned out at a fraction of the previous cost. The 
system adopted and the machines employed must, however, 
be suitable for the particular class of work required to be 

There are several distinct processes of electric welding 

*From a paper read before the Canadian Railway Club. 

in general use, known by the names of the original investi- 
gators, or at least, those who had most to do with showing 
their practical utility, viz: Zerener, La Grange Hoho, Thom- 
son, and Bernados. 

In the Zerener method an arc is set up between two pencils 
of carbon, and the arc caused to be blown in the required 
direction to impinge on the metal to be welded by an elec- 
tric magnet. This may be compared to the blowpipe. In 
this process either direct or alternating current can be 

The second process, named after a French scientist, is 
commonly known as the water-pail forge. In this a wood 
tank is filled with a suitable solution. This method is limit- 
ed to the use of a direct current. The positive pole of such 
a source of power must be connected by means of a suit- 
able electrode (metal plate) to the solution. The metal to 
be worked is connected to the negative pole terminal, then 
dipped into the fluid until the proper temperature is obtained. 
Metal is then removed and mechanically welded Dy the use 
of hammer and forge. 

In the Thomson process, the two pieces of metal to be 
welded are brought into close contact, and connected into 
the path or circuit of an alternating current source of power. 
As the resistance of the circuit at the point of contact is 
higher than elsewhere in the circuit, heat is immediately 
generated, and in a very short interval of seconds a weld- 
ing temperature is reached, the current being then shut off 
and the two parts forced together under pressure. 

In the fourth method a direct current source of power is 
used to set up an arc between a block or pencil of carbon 
connected to the negative pole of the generator circuit, and 
the steel casting or piece of metal to be welded joined to the 
positive pole. 

In the practical application of electricity for commercial 
welding service, the employment of the Thomson and the 
Bernados methods are the ones most widely used. 

Through the instrumentality of Elihu Thomson, of Lynn. 
Mass., the process which bears his name, Mr. Weinfeld, of 
Warren, O., and others, machines having been so developed 
to automatically carry out the welding process in a manner 
undreamed of formerly, and by the service of the most un- 
skilled form of labor. Thoroughly sound welds can be 
made in copper with ease, and it is an important fact 
that brass can be welded without destroying the structure 
given to it by rolling or drawing, and the welds will stand 
all the rolling and drawing process necessary to work the 
material down to the smaller sizes. Figure 1 shows the sys- 
tem adopted in the construction of a typical welder of the 
Thomson type. A is an alternating current dynamo which 
can be connected up by means of switches H and D to the 
primary coil of a transformer. The secondary coil of this 
transformer consists of a massive single winding S. S. ter- 
minating externally in two massive clamps C.C., which grip 
the two rods to be welded. When the switches are closed 
the generator supplies a current of moderate strength, as- 
sume 10 amperes, at a pressure of say 100 volts to the prim- 
ary coil P of the transformer. This current is transformed 
by electro-magnetic induction into the circuit of low voltage 
(assume 1 volt), but very great quantify (assume 1,000 am- 
peres) in the secondary coil S, and this heavy current so 
produced flows across the junction of the two rods, their 
ends B.B. being held together under pressure. The electrical 
resistance in the secondary circuit being practically all locat- 
ed at the two end surfaces, thus kept in contact, all the heat 
is developed at these surfaces, that is to say, just where the 
weld is required to be made, and the resulting increase in 
temperature, by further increasing the electrical resistance 
at this point, adds the desired effect. A device is provided 
for regulating the pressure between the ends of the rods, 
since this pressure must be made to suit the size of the rods. 

[March, 1912.] 



and the plasticity of the metal at its correct welding tem- 
perature. After a few seconds the metal begins to flow and 
the rods become firmly united and the current is cut off at 
the switch D. It will be noticed that the heat is generated 
at the joint and conhned there, the energy, therefore, being 
employed most economically. 

An idea of the electrical energy required for operation 
of such welding machines is given below. 

Based on using fairly clean stock, the current and time 
required in welding different gauges of sheet and rod steel is 
as follows : 

Gauges ot 

Thickness in 

Approx K.W. 

HP at 

Time in 

K.W. Hr-s. for 

Sheet Steel 





1000 Welds 






3y 2 











1 v 

iy A 











































Approx. K.W 

Iron or 

Hrs. per 

Steel Rod. 

Area Hors* 

; Power. 



. 1,000 Welds. 














































































The time given is for the application of the current only. 
Multiplying the K.W. Hrs. by the number of cents paid 
per K.W.Hr. for power gives the current costs per 1,000 

Some of the advantages of welds made in this manner 
may be briefly enumerated as follows: 

1. The structure of the metal at the joint is the same 
as elsewhere. 

2. Absolute control over the heat. 





Localization of the heat at the weld. 

Welding can be watched throughout. 

No smoke, heat or dust. 

Accuracy of work possible. 


No blistering or scaling, heat travels outward. 

Impurities thrown out, avoiding flames. 

No flux required. 
One of the most important developments within the last 
few years has been the progress made in the use of cast 
steel. It cannot be said, however, that, for general pur- 
poses, steel castings have been as reliable as iron castings. 
No matter how much care is taken in the preparation of 
moulds, and in the general foundry practise, olow holes or 
other defects have resulted in a comparatively high percent- 
age of scrap with steel. By the use of the Bernados process 
of electric welding a means is now available for the repair- 
ing of defective steel castings. The usual equipment used 
for the purpose consists of an outfit as shown in figure No. 

Sfoe/ Ternvna/ ' f/afe*. 

CbrJffZ. C/ecfracte 
(off mo tote 

Pig. 1. 

Wafer Barrre/ Sfee/ Ccrsf//?J 

Fig. 2 — Diagram of Connections. 

2. This consists of a direct current source of supply, a rheo- 
stat, a carbon electrode and fire clay or carbon blocks for 
moulding purposes. An enclosure has to be provided to 
carry out operations, for the glare of the arc is very intense 
and would seriously interfere with any other work in the 
immediate vicinity. The operator requires to have all parts 
of his body well covered, as a very few moments exposure 
to the rays will produce an irritating effect like sunburn 
upon the skin, resulting in uncomfortable consequences. For 
the head a canvas hood is generally used, being fitted with 
a small window of colored glass, through which the weld- 
ing operation may be watched without risk of injury to 
the eyes. The hands should be protected by heavy leather 
gloves provided with gauntlets to cover the wrists. Cur- 
rent from a 100-volt dynamo is the most suitable. A satis- 
factory rheostat is obtained by using two barrels of water, 
in which are suspended plates moveable by means of ropes 
carried by overhead pulleys. In the general repair of steel 
castings an iron rod of about ^ in. diameter is used for 
filling, although smaller pellets from scrap boiler plates or 
steel castings may also be used. In making a weld the 
positive terminal of the circuit is clamped directly to the 
casting to be welded. The positive terminal is thus con- 
nected instead of the negative terminal, so as to direct the 
flow of current from the casting to the carbon electrode, 
and in this way prevent carbon from entering the weld. As 
soon as an arc is sprung the carbon is withdrawn to a dis- 
tance of 2 in. or more (too short an arc will tend to pro- 
duce a hard weld), and the arc allowed to play upon the 
casting until the metal begins to boil. The end of one of 
the iron rods is placed directly in the boiling metal where it 
melts and mixes. As the rod melts away it is fed into the 
weld until the latter is completed. The surface of the weld 
may be hammered as it cools. 

Should the part of the casting to be welded present a dirty 
appearance or contain slag, it should first be cleaned by 
means of a chisel or by the arc. In the latter case, this is 
accomplished by tilting the casting so as to allow the slag 
or dirt to drop off as fast as it melts when the arc is applied. 



[March, 1912.] 

After cleaning in this manner the casting is then tilted back 
and the welding proceeded with. 

If possible, the weld should be made with one continuous 
application of the arc without allowing the casting to cool 
off. The reason for this is that oxide of iron (scale) will 
form with each cooling, and, if not removed, will assist in 
producing a very hard weld, that is, one not easily ma- 
chined. Where, however, it is not possible to make the weld 
with one application of the arc, the scale should be brushed 
off by means of a stiff wire brush. Hammering the weld 
after cooling will also very materially assist in this cleaning. 

When, instead of a cavity to be tilled, it is necessary to 
build up a lug or to weld a piece to the casting, fire-clay 
or carbon blocks may be used for the purpose of confining 
the molten metal within certain desired limits, or of having 
it assume a definite shape. The carbon blocks are generally 
worn-out dynamo and motor brushes, and "hile they can 
sometimes be used without further dressing, being built up 
around the space to be filled by the metal, chey frequently 

so doing. The welds first made will generally be harder 
to machine than the other portions of the casting, but w-here 
no machining is required, this will not prove detrimental; 
increasing familiarity with the process will, however, reduce 
the number of such hard welds to a minimum. 

The ability to employ the almost unlimited knowledge of 
electricity quickly to raise the temperature of a joint to be 
welded, delivering the heat exactly where needed, and limit- 
ing it largely to this spot; the advisability of reaching a tem- 
perature which cannot be obtained without difficulty, if at 
all, by ordinary process; the ability to graduate the amount 
of heat developed with so much control; all these cannot 
fail to open a wide field for the use of the art in every 
department of industry in which metals are employed. 


A portable sand blast installation is frequently desirable 
for use in different places and a unique electrically driven; 
sand blast outfit is shown in the accompanying illustration. 

German Portable Sand Blast. 

require cutting lo shape with a knife. When lire-clay is 
used it is formed to shape by the hand. 

When the work is properly done, welds made by this 
method will give an average tensile strength equal to 70 
or more per cent of the original stock. 

Besides the welding of steel castings the Bernados pro- 
cess may be advantageously employed in the removal of 
surplus metal, including sink heads, in the boring of large 
holes in castings or plates, in the welding of flanges, elbows 
and couplings to pipes, and in a variety of other ways. It 
will be found, for example, that surplus metal and sink heads 
can in many cases be removed from castings in much less 
than the time required when a cold saw is used, the arc not 
only doing the work quicker, but there being practically no 
time lost in setting the casting in position; the same reasons 
apply to the boring of holes by the arc instead of by a 

In conclusion, it may be stated that the Bernados process 
will give thoroughly satisfactory results commercially, it is 
one which can easily be learned by any workman of average 
ability, and only a few weeks' practise will be necessary in 

It was designed and constructed at Ottensen near Hamburg,. 
Germany, by the Alfred Gutmann Actiengesellschaft. This 
apparatus is well suited for use in shop yards where either 
direct or alternating current is available. The compressor 
is mounted on a truck and is driven by a small electric motor 
installed on the same base with the necessary starting box 
and controlling switches. 

It will be noted that the sand blast apparatus as well as 
the air tanks are portable and may be located near the work 
to be done. The sand blast equipment can be removed from 
the car and placed on the floor in any working position 
desired, it being connected to the air tank by a high pres- 
sure flexible pipe or armored hose. 

Van Slant & Houghton, Hooker & Lent Bldg., San Fran- 
cisco, have started work on the A. T. & S. F. roundhouse at 
Riverbank. This is a reinforced concrete structure built ac- 
cording to patented "Unit-Bilt" methods of the Unit Con- 
struction Co., St. Louis, for whom Van Sant-Houghton Co. 
are Pacific Coast representatives. 

[March. 1912.] 



CALGARY SHOPS, C. P. R. tracks, with a material track between every other one, and 
The Canadian Pacific Ry. has retained Westinghouse, one side will be partitioned off into a shop for the forge 
Church, Kerr & Co. as engineers and constructors for its new and woodworking tools. Near this building will be the plan- 
western shops, which are to be built near the present shops ing 1 mill, a building 300 by 80 feet with a track through the 

at Calgary, Alberta, Canada. The work includes the design 
and construction of shops comprising locomotive erecting 
shop, machine shop, blacksmith shop, boiler shop, tender 
shop, foundry, planing mill, power house, pattern shop, 
coach repair and paint shop, freight car repair shop, store- 

center. The dry kiln is loc-ated nearby. The coach repair 
and paint shop is 362x146 feet, with 15 tracks at 24-foot 
centers, and will 'be served with a 75-foot transfer table. 
Near one end of the locomotive shop will be the office 
building and storehouse, 250x60 feet. The office end will 

room and office building", oil house and numerous smaller be three stories high, the remainder two stories. A 10-ton 

buildings and structures such as mess building, dry kiln, crane will cover the span between the storehouse and the 

scrap docks and material bins. The general layout is locomotive shop. Near one end of the storehouse will be 

shown in the illustration. the oil house, 42x102 feet in size. The power house will be 

The main shop building will be 712 feet by 306 feet in 84x104 feet and will be equipped with overhead bunkers 

size and will contain the erecting, machine, blacksmith and and a dumping pit for transferring coal to them. 

boiler shop.. The building will be heated by the indirect 
fan system. The erecting shop will be of the transverse 
lift-over type and will contain 35 bays of 22 feet each. The 
machine shop for heavy machine tools will be located par- 
allel to and adjoining the erecting shop on one side and 
space will be provided alongside of this shop for another 
machine shop to contain lighter tools! The blacksmith shop 

The work of the contractors will include the design and 
installation of the service equipment in the various build- 
ings, including traveling and jib cranes, wiring systems for 
shop and yard lighting and power, air and steam piping 
systems for power and heating purposes, water supply for 
drinking and fire protection, plumbing and toilet facilities, 
drainage system, transfer tables and pits, coal and ash- 

will be located parallel to and adjoining the erecting shop, handling equipment, necessary switchboard and transformer 
but on the opposite side to the machine shop, and will afford sub-stations. J. G. Sullivan, chief engineer Canadian Pacific 

CM 7 T 3?'xl69'S" 
tlouseb Gdte 


To Medicine iiaf- 



■m t^nd^f Electric 
— „ % >. line 

General Layout of Calgary Shops. 

ample space for heavy forging work, steam hammers, etc. 
Adjoining the end of the blacksmith shop and parallel to the 
erecting shop will be the boiler shop, next to the high bay 
of which space is provided for flue shop, boiler shop tools 
and a flue rattler. In general the construction will be con- 
crete, steel, brick or hollow tile, depending c n conditions as 
yet undetermined. 

The foundry will be 80 by .204 feet and will have two 
bays, the higher of which will be served by an electric crane. 
This crane will also be used to transfer jib cranes, which 
can be attached to any of the building columns. The cupolas 
and charging floors will be at the center of the side bay and 
core making and snap moulding will also be done in the 
side bay. The tender and wheel shop is to be an L-shaped 
building 80x340 feet and will be supplied with an electric 
crane. The building for the repair of freight cars will be 
300 by 231 feet in size, with a saw-tooth roof, and will be 
adjacent to the lumber yard. There will be eight repair 

Railway Co., Western Lines, is in charge of the work. The 
cost will be about $2,500,000, and it is expected that the shop 
wijl be completed by the end of the year. 

"There is nothing new under the sun" is one of the old say- 
ings which we hear very frequently. However, nothing is so 
old but what there is always an opportunity for somebody to 
look at it from a new viewpoint. Innumerable men had seen 
steam rising from pots and kettles ; one man saw in the steam, 
energy. Since the beginning of the world, people had seen 
lightning in the heavens ; one man saw in it, power. In the 
early days of railroading, hand brakes and the compression of 
air were both familiar to many, but Westinghouse saw the op- 
portunity to combine the two into the air brake. Did you ever 
stop to think that every device and every machine about you 
is the product of some man's brain? How many things, how- 
ever small, can you see that were developed in your brain? The 
only thing new under the sun is a man's mind. 



[March, 1912.] 

Automobile Cars for C. M. & St. P. Ry. 

The Milwaukee shops of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. 
Paul Ry. are at present busy on an order of 470 automobile 
and carriage cars for use on both the St. Paul and the Puget 
Sound. These cars have a capacity of 4.6T5 cubic feet, or 
80,000 pounds, are 50 feet in length inside, 9 feet wide and 
the height from floor to carline at the center is 10 feet 6^4 
inches. The extreme length of the car over siding is 50 feet 
10 13/16 inches, the height from rail to top of running board 

the entire order. Grip nuts are used on a part of this order. 
A notable feature is the arrangement of the side doors 
which are of different sizes and are respectively 4 feet 8% 
inches and 6 feet iy 2 inches in width. The doors on either 
side of the car are staggered so that the two large doors 
are opposite each other. A hinge lock on the upper sill 
is used to hold the smaller door closed when shipments 
will go through the large door. Z bar tracks are provided 




One of Large Order of Automobile Cars Built at Milwaukee Shops. 

is 14 feet 10 inches, and the width of car over roof is 10 feet 
J4 inch. They are equipped with Miner friction draft gear 
and M. C. B. pocket coupler. The Bettendorf structural steel 
underframes having double center sills composed of two 
"I" beams, are specified on the entire order. The side sills 
are of "Z" bars. The "H" beam body bolster is continuous 
from side to side of the car. The needle beams are also 
continuous from side to side of the car. The center sill 
ends are of annealed cast steel having draft lugs cast in- 
tegral. The Bettendorf cast steel boltless truck is used on 

and the clear opening between "both doors is 10 feet. The 
arrangement of these doors, together with the framing, is 
clearly shown in the photographic reproduction and the ele- 
vation drawing. Details of door post and guides are also 
shown in another sketch. One end of the car is equipped 
with double swinging doors which are held in place by 1^4 
inch by 6 inch bull bar and have a clear opening of 8 feet 
6 inches. Both sides and end doors are supplied with Unoit 
door locks. Posts and diagonal braces are 3 inches by 5 
inches, and are of white oak, as are also the end sills, end 

Plan and Elevation, with Details, of Bettendorf Underframe Used on Automobile Cars, C. M. & St. P. Ry. 

[March, 1912.] 



and corner posts. Thirteen-sixteenths inch sheathing is used 
on both the outside and inside. One and three-fourths inch 
material is used in the flooring. 

The cars are arranged for double decking, details of which 
are shown in the figure shown herewith. The height, from 
the floor, of the post for double decking is 4 feet and by in- 
serting blocking 23/ A inches by 5 l A inches by 6 inches, or 
less, the cross beams can be brought to the required height 
At the side doors, two 3 inch x 5^ inch posts are to be put 
in by the shipper when the car is to be used with double 


It has been remarked that society in these days is rapidly 
becoming divided into two classes — the inspectors and the 
inspected. Engineers especially realize that there is a great 
amount of truth in this saying, as few orders are placed 
nowadays for engineering plant or materials which do not 
stipulate for inspection. This tends to become stricter every 

Sect/on Showing 
Double Deck 
in Position. 




















«\ j 

■ T 




-i_° — 


End View Automobile Car, C. M. & St. P. Ry. 

year, owing to various reasons, the chief being that manu- 
facturers, in selling their goods are now generally bound 
down both in price and time of delivery, the former being 
so low and the latter so short that mistakes are more liable 
to occur than was the case in the old days, when the manu- 
facturer could ask and obtain his own price and could take: 
his own time. In those days the buyer often had to take- 
what the manufacturer gave him, and was glad to get it 
at almost any price. But now the buyer knows quite well 
in most cases what he wants, what price he ought to give, 
and exactly what he ought to get for that price, and his 
main object is to see that he gets it. It follows therefore, 
that buyers have come to the conclusion that their interests 

Details of Double Decking Arrangement. 

Interior of Automobile Car, showing Carlines. 



I March, 1912.] 

Side Elevation Automobi 

will be best served by employing inspectors empowered to 
visit the works of the contractors at all reasonable times, 
without notice, and to follow the course of the order 
through the works, testing the materials and the finished 
work, and checking quantities, weights, etc. 

The knowledge that the inspector may visit them at any 
time has a good effect upon contractors in keeping them up 
to the mark, both in quality and time. This effect is an 
all-round one and to other than inspected work, as manu- 
facturers know very well that when they are constantly 
having inspectors in the works it is not desirable to have 
too much second-rate work lying about. Inspectors do not 
judge a works entirely by the quality they get themselves, and 
their opinion carries considerable weight. The very fact, there- 
fore, that a number of buyers send inspectors to any one works 
makes that works a more reliable place for other buyers, who 
do not employ inspectors, as the frequent presence of inspectors 
has a good effect on the general quality of the work turned out 
of any manufactory. 

There is, of course, no attempt on the part of firms of good 
standing deliberately to defraud their customers. But at the 
same time manufacturers cannot afford to do more than keep 
to the bare specification, and specifications are often interpreted 
differently by buyers and sellers. Then, again, the heads of a 
firm cannot always attend to every detail, and foremen and 
workmen will often scrimp work, either because they are on 
piecework, or merely to save themselves trouble. In the matter 
of loose rivets in steel-work, blowholes in cast-iron pipes, and 
such-like, small but important defects, the inspector cannot lay 
the blame on the manager or foreman unless the flaws are nu- 
merous. But it is his business to find these flaws out, and if he 
discovers a number and sees them put right in the early stages 
of an order, he will find that the workmen will take more care 
afterwards. Again, mistakes are frequently made in dimen- 
sions, and many firms have no systems of checking their finished 
products, even when the matter is left in their hands. 

IO'S'/a" ' 

Between Door Posts 


le Car, C. M. & St. P. Ry. 

A good inspector, dealing with large quantities of materials, 
will save his employers many times his salary in the course of 
a year." But, to gain the full benefits of inspection, a good man 
must be engaged. An inspector cannot be an expert in every- 
thing, but he must have a very clear idea of the difference be- 
tween good and bad work, and must be able to read drawings 
easily. Then an inspector must be firm and able to hold his 
own, but at the same time tactful, and his honesty must be above 

An inspector with the above qualifications, and who is also 
the equal socially of the managers of the works he visits, can 
do a great deal for the firm which employs him. At the com- 
mencement of a contract he goes through the specification and 
drawings and clears up any doubtful points, both with his own 
firm and the contractors. He also informs the contractor what 
kind of work he expects to get and what processes are to be 
employed on the various details; for instance, it is often left 
to the inspector to say whether holes are to be drilled or 
punched ; whether plates are to be sheared or planed, rods and 
bolts solid or welded, etc. When the work commences the in- 
spector will test the materials and see that no unavoidable delay 
takes place at rolling mills, and will then follow the work 
through the contractor's shops and see that the various processes 
are carried out as specified, or as he wishes, and that the finish- 
ed work comes together correctly, is of the proper dimensions, 
and, if necessary, is properly marked for re-erection. Besides 
these duties the inspector is often required to verify weights, 
and to attend to packing and shipping marks, and occasionally 
to see the goods actually put on board. 

If he is a tactful man and knows his business, he can get the 
contractor's manager and foremen to agree to his suggestions 
and requirements with very little trouble, and to push his work 
on as quickly as possible, and in the case of any alteration he 
acts as a buffer between the buyers and the contractors. An in- 
spector of this kind is worth a good salary, and if employers 
have not sufficient work to keep a highly-paid man of their own 

l§'*/'*4' Angle 

Section of Door Showing. 
Owde and Protecting Strip 

l%"xt"x'A" Angle y 

Section Through 
Door Post 

Section TA„ 

5/de P/ate and Door 

Details of Door. C. M. & St. P. Cars. 

[March, 1912.] 



busy, it is better for them to employ an outside independent in- 
spector than to keep a poorly-paid man, or to send out draughts- 
men or others on inspection work, as it takes a regular inspector 
several years to find out the little tricks by which foremen and 
workmen sometimes try to deceive him. 

There are, however, a number of independent inspecting en- 
gineers who will offer to take inspection work at extremely low 
and insufficient rates. They can only do this -by employing very 
young and badly-paid men to do their work for them, or else 
by giving half the time to it that they should. It may be 
taken as an axiom that in the majority of cases cheap inspec- 
tion is worse than no inspection at all, as it relieves the con- 
tractor from liability without giving the buyer a sufficient guar- 
antee that the work is properly carried out. There is, of course, 
•certain work which can be attended to by an inexperienced 
inspector just as well as by an experienced one, but, as a gen- 
eral rule, when work which has been cheaply inspected turns 
out satisfactorily, it would have been just as satisfactory if it 
had not been inspected at all. 

This brings us to the question of the abuse of inspection, 
about which manufacturers have a great deal to say, although 
it affects the buyers more than they are perhaps aware. An 
inspector may be very conscientious, but either through want 
of tact or experience, or both, he may be the cause of endless 
trouble between buyer and seller. Such a man walks into a 
works as though it belonged to him, calls the manager and 
foreman over the coals for the slightest cause, treats them 
openly as though he believes they are deliberately trying to 
cheat him, persists in sticking to the exact letter of the specifi- 
cation, and rejects quantities of material for little faults which 
do not matter in the least. The result of all this is that he is 
disliked wherever he goes, his work is delayed, and people who 
would not do it otherwise try to get the better of him in order 
to get him into trouble. Besides this, contractors who have had 
experience of an inspector of this kind makes allowance for him 
in their next quotation and ask higher prices. 

Unnecessarily strict and' minute inspection is not, however, 
always due to the inspector, as his employers may tie him down 
to the specification, and practically refuse to allow him to use 
his judgment at all. Certain consulting engineers are very strict 
in this way, and are so well known that extra prices are always 
charged to cover their inspection. 

Another . abuse of the inspection system is to send an in- 
spector to see very small quantities of material ; we have known 
many cases in which inspectors have traveled long distances 
to inspect, perhaps, 1 cwt. of ordinary quality steel, the cost of 
the inspection coming to two, three, or four times the cost of 
the material. Considerable delay is often caused, also, by hav- 
ing these small orders inspected, as the inspector may have to 
wait days before he can visit the works, owing to pressure of 
more important work, and favorable opportunities of forward- 
ing the material along with other goods are thus missed. More- 
over, if the material has to be tested, the inspector may have to 
pay two visits to the mills, one to select and stamp the test- 
pieces and another to see them broken, as the mills cannot al- 
ways prepare the test-bars the same day. 

To sum up the whole question : inspection is useful and worth 
while under certain conditions, but not under all conditions. It 
pays well to inspect, provided the inspector is a firm and tactful 
man with a good general knowledge of engineering and inspec- 
tion, and with an honest and honorable character, and provided 
also that he has plenty of work on big orders and is given a 
fairly free hand and allowed to use his judgment in the inter- 
pretation of a specification. In other words, the inspector must 
be a good one and must have plenty to do, and the more costly 
the work that he inspects the more worth while the inspection. 

Inspection, as a general rule, does not pay when the reverse 
of these conditions is the case: when the inspector is tactless, 
of weak character, without experience, or badly paid. It does 
not pay to be verv strict on small variations from the drawing 
or specification which dn not affect the quality of the work. 

nor to send an inspector to pass every small order, unless for 
special material. It is also a question whether it pays to inspect 
cheap materials, such as bricks, tiles, earthenware pipes, paving, 
etc. These things are bought in large quantities, and the in- 
spector usually sees them stacked in the maker's yard. It is 
impossible for him to examine more than a small proportion 
unless he sees the whole order loaded up, which might oblige 
him to be at the works for several days, and would add con- 
siderably to the cost of the articles. He cannot very well mark 
each item unless he sees them loaded up, in which case there 
is no need to mark, and the result is he passes them in bulk, 
which leaves the manufacturer free to load up all the defective 
items not seen by the inspector. In the case of materials of 
this nature it is certainly the best way to buy on sample, without 
inspection, and return defective goods. 

\\ hether a firm should employ their own inspector or not de- 
pends on whether or not they can keep him busy all the time. 
If they only require to have goods inspected occasionally, it is 
better to employ a regular outside inspector than to send out 
one of their own staff, unless he is fully qualified for the par- 
ticular work. A firm has a better hold in some ways on its 
own inspector, but as the outside inspector's living also de- 
pends on the satisfactory nature of his work, he is not likely 
to neglect it, and a well-established outside man has a wider 
experience of inspection than a man who only works for one 
firm, and experience counts for a great deal in inspection. The 
more works a man visits, and the greater variety of materials 
he inspects, the quicker he will be to detect bad work, to sug- 
gest improvements, and to get orders through satisfactorily.— 


Some accounts have been published regarding the Diesel 
locomotive which has been constructed at Sulzer's works at 
Winterthur, Germany. This locomotive is the outcome of 
many years of collaboration between Dr. Diesel and the 
Swiss firm. The present intention is to run the locomo- 
tive on the Prussian Railways if its operation is found to 
be satisfactory, but too much importance must not be at- 
tached to this point, since a consideration of the difficul- 
ties to be overcome will at once make apparent the un- 
likelihood of the first engine constructed being entirely 
suitable for main line traffic without modifications. 

Much attention has been devoted to the question of an 
improvement in economy by the employment of a turbo- 
electric system, on which principle a locomotive was con- 
structed by the North British Locomotive Company. Pro- 
posals have also been made to use a similar method, but to 
provide a Diesel engine to drive the dynamo instead of a 
steam turbine. -Probably something will be done in this 
direction shortly, since such an arrangement would obviate 
the difficulties encountered by a direct Diesel engine drive 
in the matter of starting, variation of speed, and overload 
capacity for steep gradients together with the question of 
reversing which is, however, not so serious as might be 

The motor which Messrs. Sulzer have constructed is of 
the four cylinder type working on the single acting two- 
cycle principle and capable of developing normally about 
1,000 b. h. p., though it is anticipated that this will be con- 
siderably exceeded. The engine drives a loose shaft to 
which the two driving wheels are coupled, the locomotive 
having two two-axle bogies. In order to produce a high 
starting torque and to develop greater power when ascend- 
ing inclines an arrangement has been devised by which an 
auxiliary supply of fuel and air is provided for the cylinders 
and it is hoped that by this method some of the difficulties 
previously mentioned will be overcome. The weight of the 
locomotive on the rails in running order is between 80 and 
90 tons, and the length over the buffers is about 55 ft. 



[March, 1912.] 


By R. Godfrey Aston, of Rincon Antonio, Oax.., Mexico. 
The object of this paper is to give an account of liquid- 
fuel burning in the locomotives of the Tehuantepec National 
Railway, showing some of its advantages over coal, and giving 
a general description of facilities for handling and storing 
this fuel-oil, the methods of burning it, and a few results gained, 
which are taken from the monthly performance of locomotives. 
The author does not intend to deal fully with costs, etc., as it 
is too large a subject for so short a paper, but will confine 
himself to a more practical point of view. 

The Tehuantepec Railway is a trans-continental line, of 
standard gauge, 189 miles long, running across the Mexican 
Isthmus of Tehuantepec from the port of Puerto Mexico (Coat- 
zacoalcos) on the Atlantic, to the port of Salina Cruz on the 
Pacific, with grades varying from level to 2.15 per cent, and 
abounding in curves up to 11 deg. 28 sec. radius, and where the 
speed of trains is limited to 15 miles per hour. 

Storage Facilities. — All fuel-oil for the company is received 
at the terminal of Puerto, Mexico, where the main storage 
tanks are situated; these comprise three cylindrical steel tanks, 
each composed of six tiers of steel plates riveted together and a 
light steel roof, with three manholes, and a ventilator in the 
middle, through which gases arising from the oil can escape. 
Two of these tanks are 95 feet in diameter and 37 ft. 6 in. deep, 
each with a capacity of 46,996 barrels of 42 U. S. gallons. The 
third tank is 92 ft. in diameter and 29 ft. 9 in. deep, and has 
a capacity of 35,138 U. S. barrels. 

These tanks are all enclosed in separate earthen embank- 
ments and are connected together by an 8 in. pipe-line, which 
enters the tanks 1 ft. 6 in. from the bottom, this space being re- 
quired for water settling out of the oil, and which can be drawn 
off through a 3 in. valve at the bottom of the tank. The pipe- 
line runs down to the wharf, where it is fitted with an 8-in. 
check-valve, and it is from there that vessels delivering cargoes 
of oil can pump straight into any tank, the two largest tanks 
being about 1% miles from the wharf. At convenient places 
in the pipe-line near to the round-house are stand-columns 
for filling engine-tanks, tank-cars, etc., and near the round- 
house is also a supply-tank of 28,000 U. S. gallons capacity, 
erected upon a structural steel frame, also used for giving oil 
to engines. 

The terminal of Salina Cruz is laid out in the same manner, 
except that there are only two storage-tanks, 95 ft. diameter 
and 37 ft. 6 in. deep, of 46,996 barrels capacity. The capacity 
of all these storage-tanks has been calculated out in U. S. barrels 
of 42 gallons for every 6 in. of depth, allowance being made for 
all internal stays and supports. The fuel oil is shipped from 
Puerto Mexico to the other fuel-stations in specially constructed 
double-truck steel-frame tank-cars of 6600 U. S. gallons capacity, 
the gallons per inch of depth of these cars being known, so that 
the exact amount contained in each car can be credited to the 
station to which it is shipped. 

Fuel-Oil. — The fuel-oil used by this company is purchased 
from the Texas Company of Port Arthur, Texas, at about 97^ 
gold cents per barrel of 42 U. S. gallons, delivered at Puerto Mex- 
ico, and pumped into the railway company's tanks by the deliver- 
ing vessel. This fuel-oil is generally delivered in tank steamers, 
sometimes towing barges, which come right up alongside the 
railway company's wharf; the coupling between the vessel and 
the company's land-pipe line is made with a flexible rubber or 
steel hose, which is supplied by the vessel. 

This fuel-oil is quite thin and flows readily through pipes of 
any diameter; it is sometimes nearly black in color, and some- 
times a dark brown with a green fluorescence. The railway 
company stipulates in its contracts with the Texas Company that 
the flash-point (closed) shall not be under lio deg. Fahr., as 
a lower flash-point than this is liable to be dangerous, on account 

*Paper read before the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 
December 15, 1911. Illustration reproduced from "Engineering" 
of London. 

of the volatile gases and fumes which arise from the oil at 
comparatively low temperatures, and the author has seen the 
oil catch fire from a torch which was some 10 ft. or 12 ft. away 
from it. Some oils may be used in the crude state as fuel, while 
others have to be passed through the refinery; after the lighter 
oils have been taken off, the by-product or residuum is used 
in a satisfactory manner as fuel, and as such has been, and is, 
used in Mexico. Fuel-oil contains no power of spontaneous com- 
bustion, and, unlike coal, does not deteriorate if stored in 
tanks or reservoirs. 

The specific gravity of this oil varies from 0.790 to about 0.942, 
and its weight per U. S. gallon from 6.4 lb. to 7.75 lb. The British 
thermal units vary from 17,000 to 20,000, the average being from 
19,500 to 19,800, and between this and the best steam coal there 
is a very great difference. The analysis of two samples of the 
oil as used by this company for fuel is as follows : — 
Specific gravity at 60 deg. Fahr.. 0.931 0.881 

Baume gravity at 60 deg. Fahr.. 20.5 deg. 29 deg. 

Flash-point (closed) 130 deg. F. 135 deg. F. 

Flash-point (open) 160 deg. F. 160 deg. F. 

Fire-test 220 deg. Fahr. 224 deg. Fahr. 

Setting point 3 deg. Fahr. 20 deg. Fahr. 

Viscosity at 100 deg. F 200 seconds 78 seconds 

(Redwood) (Redwood) 

Sulphur 0.77 per cent. 0.26 per cent. 

Calorific value 10,688 calories 11,000 calories 

Color Dark brown Dark brown 

Water and dirt 1 per cent. 0.25 per cent. 

The standard temperature for the measurement of fuel-oil 
is 60 deg. Fahr., and expansion is allowed for at the rate of 1 
per cent, for every 20 deg. Fahr. increase in temperature above 
60 deg. Fahr., and contraction at the same rate for decrease 
in temperature below 60 deg. Fahr. 

Locomotives. — The locomotives in use on this road are of the 
Baldwin consolidation type, the main dimensions of which are : — 

Cylinders 20 in. by 26 in. 

Wheels (drivers) 53 in. diameter on tread 

Fire-box Length inside, 108 in. ; width 

inside, 33?^ in. 

Flues 239 of 2 in. outside diameter 

Grate area 24.94 sq. ft. 

Heating surface Fire-box, 147 sq. ft.; flues, 1700 

sq. ft. Total, 1847 sq. ft. 

Boiler pressure 170 \b'. per sq. in. , 

The oil-tank is fitted into the coal-space of the tender, and 
its contents canculated for every Yi in. of depth. Most oil- 
tanks have a capacity of 2,000 gallons, and the oil is fed from 
the tank to the burner or atomiser through suitable connec- 
tions and flexible brass ball-joints. 

Fire-Box Arrangement. — The company's practice, after trying 
various types of burners and atomisers, is to use what is called 
a "front-end burner" (Fig. 1 and 2) ; that it, the burner-mouth 
points toward the back of the fire-box or fire-box door-plate; 
the burner is placed, in a 9-ft. fire-box, 4 ft. 2 in. from the flue- 
sheet, the flame playing against a brick wall built up to the level 
of the fire-box door opening. Between this brick wall and the 
fire-box back-platcis a 4-in. air-space extending the whole width 
of the fire-box and right up to the top of the brick wall. Brick 
walls are built up on each side of the fire-box from the height 
of the brick wall at the 1 ack, gradually sloping downwards ; the 
floor of the grate or ash-pan is laid all over with fire-brick. 
No brick arch or baffle-plate is used. 

As mentioned in the preceding paragraph, the burner is placed 
4 ft. 2 in. from the flue-sheet, and midway between the sides 
of the fire-box, so that both in front and behind the burner or 
atomiser there is a flat bricked-over area of fire-grate ; and as 
the burner is placed parallel to the lower grate, there is a 4-in. 
space between the front and back grates, this 4-in. space being 
left open to admit air, extending from one side of the fire-box 
to the other. 

Brickwork. — This should be of the very best material and 
workmanship, as it is subject to a much greater heat than from 

[March, 1912.] 



a coal fire; if this is not done, the walls will not stand, and en- 
gine failures will occur; moreover, the failure of only one brick 
will perhaps necessitate new brickwork throughout, thus need- 
lessly running up expenses. There is no reason why the brick- 
work should not stand from four to six. months, and perhaps 
longer, if due care be taken from the start. 

A good brick should contain about 80 to 85 per cent, of silica 
and from 20 to 15 per cent, of alumina, and should be as free 
as possible from alkalies, which cause fluxing. A good brick 
becomes surface-glazed though remaining rough and porous; 
it should be perfectly dry when built up in a fire-box, otherwise 
the heat will cause it to crack; if possible, the fire-bricks should 
be fired at a temperature as high as that to which they will 
be exposed when in use. 

Burner or Atomiser. — There are many and various kinds of 
hydro-carbon burners, and after a trial of various types, in- 
cluding the Baldwin and "Best" burners, this company is using 
with considerable success a burner which is made in their own 
shops, and which is really an inverted "Best" burner (Figs. 3 to 
6). It is a simple device, which allows the oil to fall from an 
orifice 3 in. wide by i 9 5 in. deep over the top of a flat steam-jet 
3 in. wide and £z in. deep, the steam picking up the oil and 
sending it into the fire-box in the form of a spray ; the under- 
neath jet of steam delivers the spray of oil at an angle so that 
it strikes the brick wall in the middle, instead of shooting out 
from the burner parallel with the bottom of the ash-pan. This 
burner may be called an outside atomiser, and although it is 
in general use, it has its drawbacks ; but - it has been found to 
be more efficient than any other they have used. 


Fig. 2. 

tween each engine road or stall. From there a connection can 
be made to a locomotive through a three-way cock T-piece 
in the steam-pipe leading from the steam-stand on top of 
the- fire-box to the burner; by use of this steam the burner 
can be started and kept going until the boiler has generated 
enough steam to keep the burner going itself. A piece of 
oily waste is lighted and thrown into the fire-box just in 
front of the burner from which the spray ignites. Connec- 
tions can be made to any other engine all ready in steam 
should the stationary boiler not be available for any reason. 
Firing and Cleaning Flues on Road. — With an oil-burning 
engine there is always a fire of equal intensity and one 
which never gets dirty, so that good steaming is practically 
ensured. It is a popular idea that it is a very easy matter 
to fire an oil-burning engine, but this is not the case, as 
both skill and care are required, so that the author thinks 
it best to lay down a few of the most important rules: — ■ 

1. See that the oil-tank is full, and if heaters are used, 
that they are in operation, and that the temperature of the 
oil is as it should be. 

2. See that the sand-box on the foot-plate is full, and that 
the scoop is in its place. 

3. Before starting the fire see if the temperature of the 
fire-box is below igniting point, which is a dull red, and 
if so, open dampers (if used), start the blower, and open 
the atomiser-valve fairly hard; then put a piece of saturated 
oily waste on the bottom of the grate after setting it alight, 
close the dampers (if used) and fire-box door, and turn on 



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Ins. 12 £ 

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fi- Steam-Pipe 

General Arrangement and Details of Oil Burning Firebox. 

The most essential points about a burner or atomiser are : — 

1. Its atomising capacity. All fuel-oil is heavy, and will 
urn in the form of a vapour spray only when mixed with 

air. The object should be to fill the fire-box with a soft and 
voluminous flame, and not to impinge it in any one place. 

2. Its facility for keeping clean and free from clogging. 

3. Its adjustability in giving the right direction to the flame 
or spray, and regulating the proper proportion of oil and the 
agent, either steam or air, used for atomising. 

A burner which will vaporise or atomise the oil at the point 
of expansion of the agent used for that purpose, and which is 
easily handled, and which will atomise the greatest amount of 
fuel with the least possible energy, is the highest and most 
efficient that can be designed. On this railway steam is used as 
the atomising agent, because, after various experiments, it was 
found to be superior to air. The steam to a very great extent 
heats the oil as it flows into the burner before delivery in the 
form of a vapour spray. The flame from the burner should not 
be too long, or it will pass into the flues and become extin- 
guished. Gases which are only partly consumed will re-light in 
the smoke-box. 

Lighting up an Oil-Burning Engine. — -In each roundhouse of 
this company is a stationary boiler, always in steam, used for 
the washout and other pumps, as well as for lighting up dead 
engines. From this boiler is laid a 2-in. steam-line to points be- 

the oil very light. When the oil has ignited, reduce the 
blower and atomiser to a light feed, also the oil until the 
chimney is quite clear of smoke. 

4. See that the fire is burning brightly, and that there 
is no oil on the bottom of the pan, also that the brickwork 
is in good condition, and that no bricks or any other ob- 
structions are on the bottom of the grate or pan so as to 
obstruct the flame or jet on its way from the burner to the 
brick wall. 

5. As regards cleaning flues on road, it is best to sand 
frequently if the engine is being worked hard — say every 
9 or 12y 2 miles; but if the engine is being worked light, 
every 31 or 37 miles will be sufficient. 

6. Having attained a fair rate of speed, fill the scoop 
with about a quart of sand, close dampers (if used), and 
put reverse-lever near full stroke, then open regulator wide, 
insert the end of the scoop in the round hole in the fire- 
box door, and allow the sand to be drawn out of the scoop 
through the fire-box and fines and out of the chimney; sand- 
ing is best done when the engine is working hard up a 

7. Black smoke shows incomplete combustion, and should 
never be allowed to be emitted from the chimney, as it only 
fills up the flues with carbon, besides being; a non-conductor 


of heat, and it i> also a great waste of fuel, If a bluish-col- ing statistics, for each month from January, 1907, to August 

oured smoke or fumes are seen coming from the chimney, 1911: — 

it is a sign that the burner is cut down too tine. (1) Cost of fuel-oil per barrel of 42 gallons (Mexican 

3. When putting out the tire the oil-valve should always currency); 

be closed first, then the atomiser-valve (in their case steam), (2) Cost per mile for fuel (Mexican currency); 

then the blower. The oil-valve is always the last to be (3) Miles run per barrel of oil; 

turned on and the first to be turned off. It must be understood that since about the middle of 

9. Xever go near an open tank with a lighted lamp or 1909 all engines are loaded down to their capacity, single 

torch, as at any time an explosion may occur, especially if trains averaging 750 to 800 tons behind the draw-bar. As 

the oil used has a low flash-point. the road-bed is by no means level, helper engines are used 

Round-House or Shed Work. — An oil-burning engine has over certain sections where the grades are long and heavy, 

a great many advantages over a coal-burner, but this is so that this will explain the decrease in miles run per 

specially noticed in the round-house or shed when squaring barrel of oil between 1908, 1909, 1910, 1911, as the tonnage 

up an engine after a day's run: there are no fires to be raked P er engine has been increased to the maximum. 

out, no flues or smoke-box to be cleaned (the smoke-box ° M . F > , ^'~ Monthly Averages. 

...... . Cost of Oil per Cost for Fuel in Distance Run 

door of an oil-burning engine need be opened only once Barrel in Cents (Mexican) per Barrel 

every three or four months for cleaning purposes) ; there is $$ nS - Dollars S ic£m) ' pe ^ ile - in 5 M Aj 8 es " 

no coal to be sacked, weighed, or otherwise handled, and J908 2.957 43.7 6.855 

.... , f ^i -in 1909 2 - 502 4 0-6 6.209 

oil-burning engines do not carry hre-rakes, prickers, flue- 1910 2.356 40.3 ■ 5.843 

brushes, shovels, or picks, so that all these things, besides {^months) 1 '"° 35 ' 8 5 ' 520 

other minor details, represent a great saving in engine equip- (Note — The value of the Mexican dollar is about 49 cents.) 

nient. The cost of fuel-oil per barrel of 42 U. S. gallons (231 cub. 

Among other advantages are the rapidity with which steam in -> as char S ed out every month »* mad e "P of the following 

can be raised, and the facility with which the boiler can be ltems > and also de Pends «P on whether there is any shortage 

forced when greater calls are made: the author has in a spe- or ove rage when the inventory is taken at midnight on the 

cial case of necessity raised steam in a dead engine to a last day ot each month ; this accounts for the variation in 

pressure of 130 lb. per sq. in. in 50 minutes from cold water, P nce s. 

without arty serious effects on the boiler, whereas in a coal- L Price of oil P er barrel f - °- b - in shi P s ' lanks at de " 

burner from 2 to zy 2 hours is needed to raise steam if no liverin £ P° rt (Puerto Mexico). 

jet from a live engine is used 2 - Commission to purchasing agents in United States. 

Another very great advantage is in switching, or shunt- Consular invoices, 

ing. or standing pilot, when engines frequently have to stand 4 - Inspection fees for inspecting cargo in ships' tanks at 

in steam for hours at a time. The burner can then be cut shipping port, 

down or extinguished, thus effecting a great saving in fuel, ■ stamps. 

as an engine will always retain a sufficient amount of steam Item s 2, 3, and 4 only refer to oil purchased out of Mexico, 
to start the burner or atomiser again; and any danger of the Based on tests which have been made, the company 
fire-box or crown-sheet being injured through the water get- reckons 3^ barrels, or 147 U. S. gallons, of oil as being 
ting too low is entirely obviated. The heat lost while stand- equal to 1 ton of coal or 1,000 kg., or 2,204 lb. or 3^ bar- 
ing is the same whether coal-fired or oil-fired. rels of oil equal to one unit of fuel. 

Effects of Oil-Burning on Fire-Box, Flues, Etc. -0\\-bmn- The author is unabIe at this time to §' ive ^ reliable data 

ing is no more injurious to a fire-box or flues, etc.. if ordin- of fuel consumption on a tonnage basis, as no records are 

arv care be used, than coal-burning; in fact, from the au- ke Pt of the company's freight hauled over the road, al- 

thor's experience, it is not so hard on a fire-box as coal- thou & h h is considerable; but the average loaded passenger 

burning, for it is quite noticeable in the fire-boxes of coal- and frei ^ ht cars hauled 1 mile P er umt of fuel from J anuar y 

burning engines that stay-heads, plate-edges, flue-ends, and 1 to December 31, 1910, was 210.7, and from January 1 to June 

crown bolt-heads show signs of wear, corrosion, or burning, 3 °> 1911 > 208 - 8 - The average loading weight of freight-cars 

but in their oldest oil-burning engine not any of these signs ' s approximately 30 tons, 

are noticeable, everything being clean and in good condition. In August this year (1911) the company received the first 

This company uses steel boxes with wrought-iron tubes ca rgo of a native or Mexican fuel-oil, under a contract with 

and copper ferrules. A set of tubes will last, and remain the Campania Mexicana de Petroleo, El Agmla, S. A., at a 

perfectly tight, from V/ 2 to 3^ years, when they may have P™e of 1.75 dols. (Mexican) per barrel of 42 U. S. gallons 

to be taken out to be re-ended: some of the engines are delivered into railway company's tanks at Peurto Mexico. 

working to-day with tubes over four years old, many of This oil, which is used in its crude state as fuel, is jet black 

which are as tight as they were on the day they were put in. in color, thick, and has a very heavy asphalt base, and al- 

Some of the wrought-iron tubes are being replaced by mild though the company has not used it sufficiently long to be 

steel, because, after the holes in the tube-sheet get worn. able to compare it with the Texas oil, it may be of interest 

tubes of steel stand the expanding better: but at present to state a few of the difficulties met with when first they 

those that are in service have not been in use long enough began to use it. 

for one to form an opinion of them as compared with As this oil is thicker than Texas oil. heaters have to be 

wrought iron. "sed in the engine-tanks, but it has been found that if this 

... , nil U heated uo to about 150 deg. Fahr. (which can be done 

Some people are of the opinion that more than 2 per cent. °" ,h lie ateci up to aoouti ucg v 

,...,,.,. .iri i \ *u with Texas o ). great difficulty is experienced in getting the 

ot sulphur in fuel-oil i> injurious to the lire-box, but as the x CA£l , . , . iU •, „,_, , a „, f t u:„n„ af ti 1P 

'.,,..„ .. t , i i „ burner spray to bght, and the oil settled very thickly at the 

amount of sulphur in the Texas oil the company has been lh.hici v °-y b . 4.i„.„„„t, t u P n : nt > a tn 

. , , .,, „ « , i bottom of the tank; it would not run through the pipes to 

using is below 0.75 per cent, no ill-effects have been noticed; l)OHOm lllc , ' . . , f «...*: w .i,, k„ mivinor 9 

, , • , , , • , ., - t. the burner, and could only be burnt effectively by mixing a 
but as there are coals which show as high as 3.5 per cent. II1L Dun,cl " . .* , , . M „ vlVan 
. . , , u v ,. , fresh supply of oi with it. In order to burn this Mexican 
of sulphur, the author docs not see why sulphur should be ,r( - MI m»PI»J • «.„ i„„ rtn i v :„ ot warmed 
.. .. . , native o successfully, it requires to be onl> just warmed, 
more injurious in oil than in coal. "'" . . , • r i ,, ^ ™w lil- P c nK 
Engine Performance.- Although the engine tonnage has When using this, a large piece of carbon or coke-Ike sub- 
practically doubled .nee 1908. the author gives the follow- stance is formed in the „re-box. and grows up from the hot- 


torn of the pan or grate directly under the burner-mouth. RAILWAY SHOPS IN PITTSBURGH. 

This may vary from 6 in. by 4 in. by 4 in. to 12 in. by 10 in. The value of the product in the annual output of the car 

"by 8 in. in size, growing up in such a manner as almost to and the general construction and repair shops of the steam 

smother the burner-mouth. The analysis of this substance railroads in the metropolitan district of Pittsburgh was $16,- 

i = f n i| m ,,„. 804,878, according to the industrial census just compiled by 

Per cent ^. I^ ana Durand of the United States Census Bureau and 

j ?5 announced by the Pittsburgh Industrial Development Com- 

„ . , r, an mission. This is the first census that has been taken of the 

Sulphur <.oy 

r 90 g6 manufacturing district within a radius of 15 miles of the 

•i center of the city. The metropolitan area includes many 

. populous communities outside of the municipal boundaries 

It shows, to a certain extent, that there is incomplete of pittsburgh . The capital i nve sted in the car and general 

combustion, which can be remedied by admitting more air; construction and car repair shopsfor 1909> the i atest year for 

"but this cannot very well be done without affecting the whkh statistics are available in the federal cermis bureau> 

steaming qualities of the engines. However, by raising the wag $8684)822; while the number of salaried employes and 

burner slightly, these lumps of carbon have decreased in wage eamers wag 1Q ^ A wJth an annual payroU of $7384)813- 

size, and it is hoped eventually to adjust things in such a The CQst of material was $9464,034 and the va i ue of pro ducts 

manner as to prevent their forming at all. *-.„ 8 q 4 g78 

The analysis of two cargoes of this Mexican crude fuel- 


Specific gravity at 60 deg. Fahr. . . . N °9U Tnl lt is understood that at a meeting called by the American 

Baume gravity at 60 deg. Fahr 18.4 deg. 18.8 deg. Association of Railroad Superintendents, and held in St. Louis 

Flash-point (closed) 78 deg. Fahr. 102 deg. Fahr. ^ , ., ■ 

Flash-point (open) 104 deg. Fahr. 120 deg. Fahr. on March 1st, to consider the matter, the representatives 

Fire test.. ......... 165 deg. Fahr. 180' deg. Fahr. f th various sections throughout the country were 

Viscosity at 100 deg. Fahr 1080 seconds 920 seconds _ a J 

(Redwood) (Redwood) strongly in favor of commencing the carding practice at the 

Sulphur 3.44 per cent 3.35 per cent ,- , • ,, , , « ,, , r ... , . , 

Calorific value 10,971 calories 10,610 calories earliest possible date. A goodly number of cities have already 

•Color Black Black arranged to apply M. C. B. defect cards covering all card- 
Water Nil 0.5 per cent 

Asphalt ............. ....... ..'.'...'.'. 37 per cent able defects, effective April 1, 1912, and any delay beyond 

Carbon (coke) 12 per cent that date at any interchange point will, so it is understood, 

T , . . , , , , , . , be due to the fact that the mechanical representatives of the 

It may be explained that the 37 per cent asphalt is ob- ., , , . , . . , „- • ,_■, ■, •« j 

, , .. .,,. _. . . , , ., railroads entering such points have not sufficiently drilled 

tained by distilling off the distillates from the crude until . . , . ,, ,, ~ t, , 1Tr , , 

. . , . , . , . . , , interchange inspectors in the M. C. B. rules. Whatever of 

only 37 per cent residue is left, which consists of asphalt. ... .. ,. , ^ , . . , . ,. 

„. , , . opposition to the carding plan that may have existed in times 

The 12 per cent coke is obtained by distilling this 37 per .. , . , .. ~- , 

, •■,,-, , s , ., past on the part of transportation officers appears to have 

cent down to 12 per cent residue (on the crude): so that if , ,. , ■ ,. . L , , ,, . . A ,. ,. 

, , , , , , been entirely eliminated, and the American Association or 

they get 37 per cent asphalt, they do not get the 12 per cent t>-ijc- • i j i_ rcj.j i. 

, , ., , , , , , - Railroad Superintendents has offered to do whatever it can 

coke; and if they get the 12 per cent coke, they do not get ,, ,, , . , , . ,, „ r D 

. , to enable the mechanical departments to make the M. L. B. 

the 37 per cent asphalt. . .. . . . , , . -- . 

_, , , ..... , , rules operative at all points of interchange throughout the 

The author regrets that at this time he is unable to go 

• • i • , • 1 , , , ,. , . country, 

deeper into this subject, but he hopes that what little in- 

formation he has been able to give with regard to oil-fuel RELATION OF RAILWAYS TO HIGH COST OF LIV- 

burning in the Tehuantepec locomotives will be of interest TNP * 

to others working in the same direction. 

By Roy F. Britton. 

AMERICAN RAILWAY TOOL FOREMEN'S ASSOCIA- The railways and the high cost of living are both timely 

TION. and interesting subjects for thought and discussion. In one 

The American Railway Tool Foremen's Association is now sens e they are related for all who are familiar with the sit- 
in its third year and is at a stage where it needs active nation know that the railways' cost of living has consid- 
co-operation and support. Those eligible for membership erably increased during the past few years. Recently a large 
are foremen in charge of tool rooms in steam and electric number of reliable statistics and other information relating 
railway shops. to American railroads have been compiled and issued by the 

Following is the list of topics and committees of the Ameri- express authority and sanction of the companies, and this 

■can Railway Tool Foremen's Association for the 1912 con- has served to give publicity to many conditions which had 

vention: previously been misrepresented by designing political dema- 

1. Standardization of Steel for Small Tools— Henry Otto, tfog'ues, some self-serving so-called "traffic experts" of ship- 
chairman; W. J. A. M. Roberts, C. A. Cook, J. Martin pers' associations, irresponsible magazine writers and others 
and A. Sterner. who sought to popularize themselves by joining in the 

2. Milling Cutters, Their Formation, Tempering, Etc.— clamor against the railroads. Fortunately we appear to be 
A. R. Davis, chairman; Gust Gstoettner, W. A. Fairbairn, J. A. approaching the dawn of a new era of the "railroad prob- 
Shaw, F. W. Lugger and A. W. Meitz. lem." There seems to be a growing realization on the part 

3. Care of Shop Tools — J. W. Pike, chairman; H. I. Derby, of the people that their interests are more closely identified 
O. H. Dallman, Thos. Grant, E. R. Purchase and G. L. Linck. with the prosperity of the carriers than they had supposed. 

4. Checking Systems — J. T. Fuhrman, chairman; J. B. Not only are over 0,000.000 persons directly dependent on 
Hasty, Wm. Greilich, H. E. Blackburn, Gilbert Mitchell and the railroads; but the welfare and security of many more 
F. Peterson. millions are indirectly dependent upon them. For instance. 

5. Treating Steel in Electric Furnaces — G. W. Jack, chair- in 1910, thirty-five life insurance companies with over twen- 
man; B. Hendrickson, J. C. Breckenfeld and C. A. Shaffer. ty-eight million policy holders owned over one billion dollars 

The next convention is to be held in Chicago the second — 

Tuesday of July, 1912. *From a paper read before the St. Louis Railway Club. 



[March, 1912.] 

worth of railroad bonds — about one-ninth of the total funded 
debt of the railroads— and this represented nearly 40 per 
cent of the current assets of those insurance companies; 
the savings banks in six eastern states, with over six mil- 
lion depositors, partly secure their deposits with over six 
hundred million dollars worth of railroad securities, which 
represent 22 per cent of the deposits. The public may, there- 
fore, well look into the facts, and it is gratifying that an 
earnest effort is now being made to disseminate the truth. 
You gentlemen being interested in railroading in one way 
or another, no doubt, are familiar with these statistics and, 
therefore, much that I shall say will seem platitudinous and 
much a repetition of time-worn matter, but it is interesting to 
focus these facts and figures of railroad conditions to the 
question of the high cost of living and closely scrutinize the 
result to determine whether or not the railroads have in any 
way influenced this cost. 

My discussion is, for the most part, confined to the past 
ten years, and at the outset we should determine to what 
extent the prices of commodities which, generally speak- 
ing, make up the necessities of life, have increased during 
that time. This is fully analyzed in the reports of the United 
States Bureau of Labor. The average prices from 1890 to 
1899, inclusive, are used as a basis for the computations, and 
it is shown that the retail prices of thirty articles of food 
in 1910 had increased from 3 per cent on rice to 80 per cent 
on salt pork and bacon, the prices of other commodities 
ranging between these two extremes. The average increase 
in wholesale prices of food was 33.8 per cent, on cloths and 
clothing 26.9 per cent, fuel and lighting 30.3 per cent, and 
building material 53 per cent. 

Commerce enters into every phase of our existence; trans- 
portation is one of the most important factors of our daily 
life. Substantially everything we eat, everything we wear 
and everything we use in our households and in our busi- 
ness has at some time or in some form been an article of 
commerce. The railroads are by far the most important 
means of transportation; they carry the raw material to the 
factories and the manufactured product to the retailer; they 
carry seed, fertilizers, agricultural implements to the farm- 
ers, and the products of the soil to the market. They are 
the great distributing agencies of the surplus products of 
the land and of the output of our industries. They have 
made possible trade, as we understand it in these modern 
times. Transportation contributes all of the increased value 
given to the commodity by its carriage to market. Trans- 
portation is performed often many times on the manufac- 
tured article and the product of agriculture. 

As an abstract proposition, therefore, it would seem that 
freight rates must have a direct influence on the cost to 
the consumer of all articles of commerce. But a careful an- 
alysis will develop the fact that in the cost of producing 
manufactured articles or in the selling price of any article 
of common consumption the transportation charge is really 
a negligible factor, except in a few rare instances where 
the source of supply is an unusual distance from the place 
of consumption. If we could eliminate from consideration 
commercial conditions, the forces of competition — both of 
carriers and of markets — and government regulation, it might 
be fairly said that freight rates could have a direct controlling 
effect on market prices. But these elements never are or 
never can be lost sight of when rates are made. 

Before the days of government regulation it was com- 
plained that the railroads charged "all the traffic would 
bear." When the state and federal governments set about 
to make rates for the railroads this principle was at lirst 
openly repudiated. A futile attempt was made to substitute 
mileage rates and to apply that unascertainable quality— 
"cost of service.'' The mileage scale is unsatisfactory, es- 
pecially when applied to long hauls, because it builds up 

small trading 1 territories and circumscribes the operations of 
large distributing centers. It is obviously impossible to dif- 
ferentiate the cost of hauling a carload of sand from the 
cost of hauling a carload of merchandise the same distance. 
It is well known by all familiar with railroad rates that the 
cost of service, even if it could be determined on particu- 
lar movement, can have little to do with making a rate on 
a partcular commodity. The value of the commodity, com- 
mercial conditions at the point of production and the point 
of consumption, relative markets and many other indus- 
trial conditions are frequently necessary controlling factors, 
while distance in fairness to the shippers themselves must 
be considered as a minor factor. In making a classifica- 
tion one of the first considerations is the value of the ar- 
ticle to be carried. The rate is based upon the value as 
reflected by the prevailing selling' price, rather than the price 
being predicated on the rate. So the old principle has come 
back under a new and dignified name, "Value of the ser- 
vice," and is now generally recognized and applied especially 
by the Interstate Commerce Commission and the Federal 
courts. In passing it might be of interest to note that as 
the wholesale price of nearly every article of commerce has 
increased over 30 per cent in the past ten years, the power 
of each article to purchase transportation service has rela- 
tively increased, but the railroads have been denied the 
right to advance their rates on this account. 

The fair and equitable application of freight rates is well 
illustrated by the fact that many articles of general use 
are sold at the same price all over the country. For in- 
stance, oranges, which are produced exclusively in remote 
parts of the continent, are sold at substantially the same 
price everywhere, even though the transportation service 
varies to different markets. The same brand of shoes, ci- 
gars, soap, proprietary medicines and many other articles 
of common daily use are sold at the same retail price all 
over the United States. The principal biscuit company sells 
its product at a delivered price, the company absorbing the 
freight charges. One of the largest manufacturers of fertil- 
izers sells its products to the farmers all over the South- 
west at the same delivered price, although the ingredients are 
obtained from widely varying sources of supply. If trans- 
portation charges had any appreciable effect on determin- 
ing the selling price, we would never see or hear of such 
common advertisements as "Jones pays the freight." 

When we reduce transportation charges to the rate per 
article, the absurdity of the proposition that the rates af- 
fect the retail price is apparent; for instance, a 50-pound 
sack of flour from the mill to the consumer pays a freight 
rate not exceeding eight or nine cents, and products of the 
beef, or the hog, are carried from the western packing- 
houses throughout this territory at rates from one-Fifth of 
to not exceeding one cent per pound. A 700-pound beef 
carcass, which, if retailed at an average of fifteen cents per 
pound, would bring $105, has paid the railroads between 
$3.50 to $4 for transportation from the far West to New 
York. The transportation charge on the material enter- 
ing into a pair of shoes made in a St. Louis factory aver- 
ages one and one-fourth cents, and the charge required to 
place that pair of shoes in the hands of a consumer in any 
part of the United States averages from two to three cents. 
The material entering into an' ordinary bedstead such as 
retails in St. Louis for $8 will have paid the railroads about 
forty cents. An ax made in the Pittsburgh district, that 
retails in St. Louis for $4, will have paid the railroads one 
and one-fourth cents. A padlock which retails at fifty cents 
here pays freight charges amounting to little more than 
one-half a cent; at Denver it will have paid two cents, and 
out there that padlock retails at seventy-five cents. A stove 
Lhat weighs 200 pounds and retails in St. Louis at $18 will pay 
forty-four cents to Kansas City or Omaha, and retail there 

[March. 1912.] 



for $24. On a man's suit of clothes the freight charges 
amount to from two to eight cents, on calicos and ginghams, 
from one-fiftieth to one fifth of a cent a yard. The freight 
charges paid on the entire apparel of a man or woman in 
thi^s section of the country ranges from six to eighteen 
cents. On woolen goods from any of the New England 
mills, cloth which will sell from $1.50 upwards in any of 
the western markets pays the railroad not more than five 
cents from the sheep's back in Colorado to Massachusetts 
anii back again to the Mississippi River. These are examples 
of the relation between freight rates and retail prices. 

The figures are taken from Mr. McPherson's work on Rail- 
road Freight Rates and are based on the tariffs in effect in 
1907. and it may be said that the increases in rates since 
that time have been a factor in the recent advance in re- 
tail prices. The average general increase is usually not 
more than 10 per cent, but suppose it were 50 per cent, or, 
if the modern human mind is capable of such a wild flight 
of fancy, suppose the railroads were permitted to increase 
their existing rates 100 per cent over those of 1907, the re- 
tail price of the commodities which I have just enumerated 
would not necessarily be changed thereby. 

In his report for the year 1910, James Wilson, Secretary 
of Agriculture, gives the results of an investigation made 
by his department into the proportion received by the farm- 
er of the price paid by the consumer for various agricul- 
tural products. He found that the farmer was not responsi- 
ble for the advanced prices. On the transportation feature 
of the situation he says: "With approximate accuracy it 
has been determined that when the farmer receives 50 per 
cent of the consumer's price, the freight charge on butter is 
about 0.5 of 1 per cent of the consumer's price; eggs, 0.6 to 
1 per cent; apples, 6.8 per cent; beans, 2.4 per cent; po- 
tatoes, 7.4 per cent; grain of all sorts,- 3.8 per cent: hay, 
7.9 per cent; cattle and hogs, 1.2 per cent; live poultry, 2.2 
per cent; wool, 0.3 of 1 per cent. The railroad, generally 
speaking, adds a percentage of increase to the farmer's 
prices that is not large." From this it will be seen that the 
transportation charges represent such a small proportion of 
the consumer's cost that the rates would have to be enor- 
mously increased to exercise a controlling influence on this 
cost. The Secretary of Agriculture, in his report, exon- 
erates the farmers and the railroads of responsibility for the 
high cost of living in these words: 

"After consideration of the elements of the matter, it is 
plain that the farmer is not getting an exorbitant price for 
his products, and that the cost of distribution from the time 
of delivery at destination by the railroad to delivery to the 
consumer is the feature of the problem of high prices which 
must present itself to the consumer for treatment." 

While I believe that rates have no effect on the cost of 
living, I do not contend that the railroads themselves are 
without influence in that respect. The American railways 
today have in their employ 1,754,400 men, whose total com- 
pensation in 1910 was $1,172,181,000. This represents an 
increase of 683,231 men, or 63.78 per cent, and $562,152,408, 
or 92.15 per cent, in the last decade. The large compara- 
tive increase in compensation over the increase in number 
of men is significant. The item of labor has been gradu- 
ally consuming a larger portion of the earnings, for in 1901, 
the ratio of compensation of labor to operating expenses was 
59.27 per cent, and 63.41 per cent in 1910, or an increase of 
4.14 per cent. The ratio of operating expenses to gross 
earnings during this period advanced less than 2 per cent. 
It would seem, therefore, that the railroads' labor bill is 
largely responsible for the increasing cost of operation, but 
the cost to the companies is not what we are concerned with 
in this discussion. 

Turning to a study of the amounts paid to those classes 
which make up the larger proportion of railroad employes, 

we find that the average daily compensation increased during 
the last decade as follows: 

1901 1910 Percent 

Station agents $1.77 $2.13 20.34 

Enginemen 3.78 4.59 21.42 

Firemen 2.16 2.74 26.86 

Conductors 3.17 3.93 23.97 

Other trainmen 2.00 2.72 36.00 

Machinists 2.32 3.07 32.33 

Carpenters 2.06 2.51 21.84 

Other shopmen 1.75 2.18 24.57 

Section foremen 1.71 1.99 16.37 

Other trackmen 1.23 1.47 19.51 

Telegraph operators and dispatch- 
ers '. 1.98 2.33 17.68 

All other employes and laborers.. 1.69 2.01 18.93 

It should be remembered also that during this period the 
hours of labor for some classes were shortened. From 
these figures it appears that a considerable proportion of the 
increase of over $500,000,000 in the railroads' expenditures 
for labor was taken up by additional pay to the individual 
per day. Most of the advances in the rates of pay obtained 
by organized labor were sought largely because of in- 
creases in the cost of living, and the railroads constitute 
probably the only industry that has been compelled to meet 
every advance in the cost of living without meeting addi- 
tional expenditure by increases in the price of the only thing 
they have to sell — transportation. The increase in the aver- 
age daily compensation has probably exceeded the average 
increase in the cost of living during the last decade so that 
1,754,400 men have had their ability to buy enhanced be- 
yond the advance in the price of many staple articles of 
subsistence. But the railroads' influence in this respect is 
not confined to their own employes; the cost of materials, 
supplies and equipment has materially advanced during this 
period. The expenditures for rails, ties, equipment and hun- 
dreds of articles constantly used in the operation of rail- 
roads is enormous. I have no figures on the subject, but 
it is safe to assume that those who are supplying these 
needs have also been obliged to pay more for their labor 
now than they did ten years ago. The number of people 
who are thus indirectly dependent on the railroads and the 
extent to which' they have been benefited by the increased 
selling prices of the articles which they are producing and 
which the railroads are buying is almost impossible to es- 

But confining ourselves to railroad employes only, and as- 
suming that the average family consists of four members, 
we find that at least 7,000,000 people, or over 8 per cent of 
the entire population of the United States, are directly de- 
pendent on the railroads for their livelihood. And to the 
extent that the railroads have prospered the individual, they 
have 'undoubtedly been a potent influence on the so-called 
high cost of living. 


(Continued from page 81, February issue) 

We provide exceptions to this. If a man wishes to make 
his communication personal to a superintendent or assistant 
superintendent he can use the name and make it personal. 
A cat may look at a king. We don't take awa)' the right 
of that man, but we prescribe a method. If a conductor 
should have a train order that he feels is an unsafe order he 
will go to the superintendent's office and ask if the super- 
intendent wants him to run on that order. Perhaps the 
simplest and best methods that we have in railway opera- 
tions are those of train dispatching, and we have tried to 
adapt those, carry them a little higher up to the administra- 



[March, 1912. ] 

tion of our office, to have simple, clean-cut methods in place 
of the more roundabout methods which have sprung up with 
the rapid growth of the railways. 

Again, an objection to one man signing another man's 
name is this. When the superintendent goes out on the 
road his chief clerk begins signing his name to communica- 
tions to men of lower rank than the superintendent, like 
the train master, the master mechanic, the division engineer, 
men getting larger salaries than this chief clerk and pre- 
sumably of wider experience. Sooner or later those com- 
munications that go out take on the nature of instructions 
or restrictions. They begin with polite inquiries for infor- 
mation, but before they get through they enunciate policy 
or give directions. In other words, we have obstructed the 
flow of our stream. Something that should be passing 
from the $300 superintendent perhaps has to go through 
the $125 or $150 chief clerk to reach the $175 or $200 division 
officer, all of which must cost the company a little money in 
the unnecessary friction of getting through the smaller 

Right there we strike the most amiable feeling of human 

nature of all. Every man flatters himself, "My chief clerk 

doesn't do that." Well, we say to him: "That is very 

nice indeed, it is very fortunate to find that condition, but 

would you mind telling me about your boss' chief clerk?" 

The usual answer is, "Well, really my dear sir, you would 

not get me into any trouble by quoting me and I know you 

won't embarrass me, but it is strange the old man does let 

his chief clerk handle some things that are very embarrassing 

to me." "Well, why don't you go to the old man and tell 

him about this?" "Why, simply because he would tell me 

that I had better run my own office and he would look 

after his, that he felt himself qualified to look after his 

own chief clerk." It is too bad about the old man, but you see 

my own case is a little bit different. You know I used to 

work with my chief clerk's father, and he knows me just 

like a book. Oh, he never gets over the line. He knows I 

would not stand for it. Jacked him up two or three times 

about that." Gentlemen, I have taken the pains to observe 

and have found that when this man who complained of his 

boss' chief clerk was promoted to his boss' position the 

same thing went on. He might correct a particular phase 

that had caused him personal annoyance, but the system is 

there, showing conclusively to my mitad that it is not the 

fault of any individual or set of individuals but is due to the 

failures of a system, because it is not honest to begin with. 

It pays to be honest. 

Worst of all, gentlemen, is the effect upon the chief clerk 
himself. The chief clerk is out of line. He is becoming a 
piece of a man to act for somebody else, and the more 
valuable he is the more good men run round him. He 
stays there year after year till by and by he is too old to 
promote, and he breaks in all the new bosses. I ask you 
if that is fair and equitable. Can we get maximum efficiency 
when we so disregard the right of such faithful individuals? 
And faithful they are! So we substitute for the chief clerk 
the chief of staff. In announcing our new list of assistant 
superintendents we announce the man who was the assistant 
before as Xo. 1 on the list, and he takes charge of the 
office. It is the chief of staff instead of the chief clerk. 
The chief clerk, if it is a large division or a large office, 
remains as chief clerk, presiding over the other clerks, di- 
recting their work as a general foreman in a factory, if 
you please, in charge of all the employees engaged in that 
activity. Wherever we can, and as soon as we can, we try 
to take care of the chief clerk in an official position. We 
make him an assistant superintendent as soon as we can. 

It is one of the crudities of the application which I have 
mentioned that it is very much easier to put that man in 

the office and not break in an outside man, and we find a*, 
tendency to do that which has been criticised, and very 
justly so, by a number of visiting railroad men, that that 
man is in the office, but where we get the best results is 
where the system is applied consistently. We have one 
division in Texas that suddenly jumped up in its record of 
fuel efficiency from low on the list to the head of our whole 
system. The old chief clerk had been put outside as a- 
transportation assistant. The old train master, or he was 
assistant superintendent of* the division, had been put in 
charge of the office. The old chief clerk was not only force- 
ful but tactful, and remember, gentlemen, diplomacy is 
consideration for one's self, tact is consideration for the 
other fellow. He was so tactful that he got the engineers 
and firemen to handle their engines better, and the old 
engineers on the division said that they were astonished 
that that young man could come out of the office and show 
them something about running an engine. There was a 
consistent application of the new system. We have another 
division where the old chief clerk is an assistant superin- 
tendent acting as division storekeeper, and as his principal 
work lay at the big store, which was the most important 
engine terminal on our division, during our recent strike of 
shop men he not only looked after that store, but he took 
charge of all the activitives of the company at that point. 

As said in the President's quotation from the able article 
of Mr. Arthur Hale, the test of a system is in an emergency. 
Perhaps the recent strike has done more than anything else 
to cinch the new system upon the Harriman Lines, because 
when the strike came an assistant superintendent was sent 
to each important point, and he had full authority to act. 
We had old division road masters and old division engineers 
organizing gangs of car repairers. I grant you that you can 
say, "Well, our division engineers will do it, too," and "our 
division road master." They do on some roads in some 
emergencies, but we claim there is less lost motion, that 
he does not have to go there and apologize for taking action, 
when that little loss of time may be costing the company 
money. He stops here and does the best he knows how 
until we can get a man there who is more skilled in the 
technique of that particular work; but, meantime, are not 
the company's interests better protected? We have found 
that they are. 

So that we are trying to build up and help the chief clerk, 
not to down him as chief clerk, but we do want to down the 
chief clerk system. 

A great many people ask why we address the assistant 
superintendent rather than the superintendent, that is, from 
the subordinate. The conductor or the engineer or the 
foreman out on the road addresses assistant superintendent. 
The answer is that if he addresses it superintendent there 
would be an implied obligation on the part of the superin- 
tendent to answer. We deny the right of a subordinate 
normally to dictate who shall handle his communication. The 
lower the man in the scale the less familiar he is with such 
things. If he had addressed a letter to the superintendent 
and got it back signed by some assistant superintendent he 
would feel that perhaps he had been slighted. There is no 
thought of slighting him, but when his answer comes back 
it will be signed by an assistant superintendent or the super- 
intendent himself. Let us follow that through. 

A letter come in from a conductor addressed assistant 
superintendent. Under the system it goes to the desk of 
the senior assistant, the chief of staff if you please, the 
man in charge of the office. He allots it to the particular 
man who handles those activities, the old train master if that 
man is in town, but he may say, "That is pretty important. 
There may be an appeal. We had better have the old man 
act on it." Or he may call in the train master and talk it 

[March, 1912.] 



over with him, or he may, if the latter is out of town, act 
himself, or he may prepare a letter for the superintendent 
to sign. He takes that in to the superintendent, and the 
superintendent signs his own name to it or perhaps dictates 
his own letter, and the conductor is answered. Mind you, 
that does not have to go for record through this particular 
office, because the division is a unit. If the superintendent 
acts it makes it that much stronger; but he is too busy a 
man to be acting all the time. His signature now stands 
out, because instead of being signed by eight or ten people 
round the office they know it comes from the old man 
himself. Suppose that in the letter he asks the conductor 
for further information. The conductor comes back and 
addresses the reply assistant superintendent. For all he 
knows the superintendent has gone off on a vacation and 
left instruction as to how it shall be handled. We try, 
there, to be honest. 

Coming from superior authority or co-ordinate authority, 
as for example the superintendent of the next division, com- 
munications are addressed superintendent impersonally, be- 
cause there is an implied obligation for the superintendent 
to act. It is his duty, if he is there, to reply to superior 
authority. If he is not there we permit the chief of staff 
to act, and sign, "assistant superintendent, for and in the 
absence of the superintendent." That "for and in the absence 
of" is in the nature of an apology. He apologizes for his 
seeming assumption of authority, and apologizes for the 
apparent neglect of his superior to act. The superior is 
absent. It is largely a question of good .manners now. 
Under the old order of things if superior authority had gotten 
a letter signed by this senior assistant superintendent they 
would say, "Why, here, that is a pretty presumptuous man 
over there. He seems to have discharged the superinten- 
dent and thinks he is superintendent." Now, gentlemen, 
we say- that, is too ridiculous to discuss. When a man has 
reached a grade as high as that we can trust him to have 
sufficient good taste, and we have not had our confidence 
violated in the good taste of our officers. 

The correspondence is reduced usually by about 30 per 
cent, sometimes 50 per cent, in the division superintendent's 
office by these simpler methods, which of itself is worth 
something. It is not the paper that we are after, it is not 
the expense of another stenographer grinding out letters 
that we are after, but we are trying to get rid of this un- 
nescessary correspondence because it clogs the wheels and 
because it does more harm than good, and worst of all, 
because it dwarfs initiative by trying too often to think for 
the man below. 

Concrete cases always appeal more than the abstract. I 
preach the doctrine that the specialist is needed in the stage 
of installation and construction, but that for every day 
operation and maintenance the specialist should do his work 
so well that the layman can carry it through. When we 
got ready for the re-organization of one of the first divisions 
some three years ago, with the master mechanic moved, 
after having a committee on floor space to allot the space, 
with clerks pooled, and the filing room arranged, they were 
ready to start on a certain day. Some one happened to 
remark to me, "You will be here two or three weeks helping 
us, I suppose." I said, "No, indeed, if this depends upon 
me you don't want it. The specialist is needed only in the 
stage of construction and installation. I am a specialist in 
organization, and I am going away to-morrow night." I 
confess that I would have been very glad to stay, but I felt 
that if I did stay by just so much I would belittle the super- 
intendent. Everybody would have been running to me for 
decisions. I would have been purely a question of taste as 
to whether the superintendent wanted it one way and I an- 
other, but that superintendent had to carry the load all the 
time, and he carried it mighty well. 

In about a month I came back to see how they were get- 
ting along. They were meeting at that time every Monday 
morning. Men are prone to mistake coincidences for causes. 
A great many people thought that was part of the system. 
The system has nothing to say about that. They could 
meet every day or every week or every month; but the 
superintendent was very wisely having them meet at that- 
time once a week. I think they now meet once a month.. 
I made it convenient to attend a Monday morning meeting. 
The superintendent called upon various gentlemen for their 
experiences of the past week. The old division engineer said: 
"I have had occasion to ride the way freights this week in_ 
the performance of my maintenance duties, and have found. 
that our conductors delay teams in these country villages;, 
while they are switching they block these crossings, which 
I have required them to open. Being an assistant superin- 
tendent, they obey my instructions. It so happened that at 
that very time there was a bill before the state legislature 
increasing the penalities for holding country crossings. If 
we got out and attended to these things ourselves, gentle- 
men, we would sometimes head off some of the legislation — 

not all of it, but some of it. 

Then it got down to the old master mechanic. He said, 

"I have got a kick coming. Here I was out five days on 
the road-last week, and I got in here Saturday morning and 
there were a few papers on my desk about technical matters. 
Do you say I am still responsible for the power and equip- 
ment on this division?" "Yes, just as much as you ever 
were." How am I going to know what is going on? I don't 
see what has been done." "Well, has there been any kick? 
Has anybody found any fault with your work?" "No, but 
they might." "Well," I said, "it seems to me we are rail- 
roading now rather than running a bureau of correspond- 
ence. The fact that you could be on the road five days last 
week was a pretty good thing for the company. We expect 
your expense accounts will increase under this system. But 
you came back home and found so little to do that you can 
get out on the road again. Remember, we have a very ela- 
borate filing room in there, with three clerks in charge of 
it." When we pooled all these clerks we found we had so 
many we gave the file room preferred attention. "Now, if 
you are interested in ancient history, and last week is ancient 
history and should afford very valuable lessons, why, take 
a day off and go into the filing room or send for these pa- 
pers, study them to your heart's content. But we have 
made them ancient history. 

Well, that particular master mechanic, who was a very- 
strong man, was a little slow in coming across, but a few 
weeks afterwards the director of maintenance and opera- 
tion came out over the road. At that time the general of- 
fices were not re-organized. The general officers were there 
to meet him for an inspection trip, and this mechanical 
assistant superintendent happened to be there and was pre- 
sented as the master mechanic of the division, Mr. Krutt- 
schnitt said, "Excuse me, you mean the mechanical assistant 
superintendent. " He said, "Yes." Thereupon Mr. Krutt- 
schnitt in his very nice way proceeded to ask the old master 
mechanic a number of transportation questions, as to what 
movement they were having, and what the morning weather 
report showed, and the crop situation, all transportation 
questions. Well the master mechanic from that time on has 
taken much more interest in transportation. Do you mean 
to say, gentlemen, that he is neglecting his power and equip- 
ment because he is doing these things? We think not. 

Then the superintendent got down to the old traveling 
engineer and said, "What have you been doing?" He said, 
"You told me to go out on the west end and see what was 
delaying the through freight. Now I have been out riding 
the through freights on the west end, and I find the trouble- 



[March, 1912.] 

is with our train dispatchers." It is always somebody 
somewhere else. "The trouble is with our train dispatchers, 
they don't keep the way freights out of the way of the 
through freights. We had frequent delays on the main track 
while the local switched in front of us." He said, "You 
did? Now, you had equal rights. Why didn't you go up 
there and tell them to back in and let you by?" The old 
traveling engineer said, "I suppose under this organization 
I could do that." He said, "Why, certainly, you are an as- 
si-tant superintendent." While I was sitting there listening 
my mind stopped, but the superintendent beat me at my own 
game. He said. "When you got back that night did you go 
to the dispatcher's office and arrange for it not to happen the 
next day?" "No, I thought I would come in and tell you 
about it." There, gentlemen, is too frequent a habit, lay it 
on to the fellow oveT there, pass it up to somebody else. 
The superintendent said, "Now, gentlemen, this applies to 
you all. Don't forget to tell me these things. I must be 
wise to keep our superiors posted, because I am responsible 
What I would prefer to hear from all of you gentlemen is 
that something was out of line and you had fixed it up." 
After attending that meeting, gentlemen, I had no doubt as 
to the success of our new system of organization. 

To give you one more concrete case of a particular divi- 
sion. The master mechanic was nearly two miles away at 
the shops, and he told me that he usually spent Saturday 
and Sunday writing fifty or a hundred letters. It is a very 
heavy division. The master mechanic did not get moved 
over, there was a little delay. Finally one afternoon the 
superintendent called him up and said, "I want you to 
move this afternoon." He said, "I cannot. I have got to 
get out my pay rolls." He said, "You come over here. We 
have some clerks we will lend you and help you with your 
pay rolls. We are all one office now. There will be some 
drays at your office at two o'clock for you to move over 
here." So he moved, and this man lined up so well that he 
is now a mechanical assistant general manager instead of a 
mechanical assistant superintendent. 

The assistant superintendent of the division was an old 
locomotive engineer who had worked up to be traveling 
engineer, train master, and then assistant superintendent. 
They said, "He has not had much office experience, and we 
are afraid he will fall down." "Well," I said, that is up to 
you all. I don't meddle in personnel. But I hate to see 
this good old faithful man run round, and that is .what it 
means. If you run round him, do it with your eyes open." 
Then they decided to put him in the office, He said to me, 
"This makes me sweat blood, but 1 think I will get away 
with it." That was two years ago in August. Recently he 
told me, that now he had been promoted to be division su- 
perintendent, he would not be without that experience, be- 
cause he was able to take right hold as a superintendent. 
Tic knew all the ins and outs. 

Three times one Saturday when, after they had been run- 
ning about a month, I found it convenient to go back and 
spend a day with them, I caught the old master mechanic 
in the office talking things over with the senior assistant, 
which is just what we want. Along in the middle of the 
afternoon the senior assistant threw over to me a letter that 
this mechanical assistant had just brought in, and said, "Do 
you think that Jim here needed to write that letter?" I 
said. "It looks good to me . What are you kicking about?" 
Hi wanted him to move an outfit car. "Don't you want 
these cars to move?" "Well," he said, "you know you told 
us that one record in the office is enough. Now, I handled 
a letter from his this morning to his foreman, telling him 
to move this car. T would have moved il anyway, but if he 
was afraid I would forget 'it don't you think it would have 
been enough if he had made a notation on the carbon of 

that letter to remind me to move it?" "Well," I said, "you 
are dead right. You are beating me at my own game. That 
is what we want." The mechanical assistant caught the spirit 
of the occasion, and he said, "Well, you caught that one, but 
there were three this morning you did not get. Next time 
I won't write them." 

I neglected to explain one feature, gentlemen, that in-com- 
ing and out-going correspondence is supposed to go over the 
desk of this senior assistant for his information. There has 
been considerable apprehension among railroad men as to 
that feature. They have felt that we have frozen out the 
other division officers, that their identity was lost. That is 
not the case. If the old division engineer or the old division 
road master is in town and wishes to give some instructions, 
we will say to his track supervisors — we call them road 
masters with us — he writes his letter just as he always did, 
signs it with his own name. Before it goes out of the office 
it should go over the desk of this senior assistant for his 
information and review. Ordinarily he just writes it and it 
goes out. You might say this is very perfunctory; it often 
is, but it is astonishing how much you can recall of any- 
thing that you have once seen. Somebody has said that 
after we are twenty-five years old all education consists in 
knowing where to look for things. This fellow knows where 
to look for it, anyway. 

Now, this may happen. He has full authority to hold 
that up, because he is the senior. He may call in this man 
and say, "Here, those instructions are all right, but the 
superintendent has in mind issuing some instructions that 
will cover all employees. Now, there is no use of your put- 
ting out instructions this week and the mechanical assistant 
putting out some others in a day or two. I will hold this 
up! The superintendent will put out some instructions that 
will cover it all." Or here is what we want him to say. 
"Remember what Abraham Lincoln said: 'When very angry 
write your "letter, but don't mail it till to-morrow/ I will 
hold up this letter till to-morrow, and if you still want it 
mailed we will mail it." It takes a little of the sting out. 

Then, too, we find it extremely persuasive. The very fact 
that this letter is going to be reviewed makes the man 
less anxious to write. Under the old order of things the 
tendency — mind you, gentlemen, I am speaking only of ten- 
dencies — is for the old division engineer or road master to 
go down the road, and rather than take the trouble when his 
foreman tells him something to make a note of that or to 
charge his mind with it he will say, "All right, write me a 
letter about it," and the foreman will write a letter and get 
it in the mail. Under the new order of things, knowing 
that somebody else is going to see the letter, the official 
says, "You need not bother to write me about that, I will be 
down and talk it over with you," which is just what we 
and have less letter writing about them. We want the 
human louch. And that is working out just exactly as we 
want. We want to talk these things over on the ground 

Suppose, though, that this division officer is out on the 
road, and it becomes necessary to give some instructions to 
the subordinates out on the division. Perhaps the instruc- 
tions have come from the general manager himself. There 
is not any question of technical opinion involved, the time 
has come to do something. Important as that maintenance 
assistant is, we don't wait for him to come back on such a 
matter, neither do we go through the farce of signing his 
name to something he has never seen, under the mistaken 
theory that that will build up. In that case the instructions 
are prepared, probably by his old chief clerk, who is now 
an assistant chief clerk in the office, and they are signed 
by this senior assistant himself, the man down below being 
instructed, as in train dispatching, to run by the order which 
supersedes the previous order. 

[March, 1912.] 



There, too, we say to them in the beginning, "Gentlemen, 
you are not a lot of school boys, you are experienced and 
tried officials. We have given you principles here, and a 
general working scheme, but we trust to your judgment to 
carry it out. If you are in town, Mr. Mechanical Assistant 
and you want a letter to go on a particular train, and the 
senior assistant has gone up town to bail a friend out of the 
police court, why, don't wait for him to come back, send 
this letter on that train and tell him about it when he comes 
back, call his attention to the matter. In other words, we 
are not laying down a lot of foolish rules to hamper you, we 
are giving you principles to work by." And that part of 
it works out very satisfactorily. It has worked so well on 
the divisions that we have extended it to the higher offices, 
that of general manager, and where we have districts to 
general superintendents' districts. There are two of our 
properties now where the system is completely carried out, 
one of the larger ones and one of the smaller. 

At Portland, Ore., we have eight assistant general man- 
agers. Normally three of those assistant general managers 
are on duty at headquarters. The senior, No. 1, who was 
formerly the general superintendent, is the chief of staff in 
charge of the office, and he directs things generally, and we 
do not attempt to have him see every letter. Then there is 
another man, who happens in that case to be the old chief 
clerk, who is the junior assistant general manager and assists 
generally with a whole lot of the routine correspondence. 
Then the old superintendent of car service handles the 
equipment. If any one of those gentlemen is called out of 
town, as the chief of staff may be called to a rate hearing, 
the other two do the work for that particular day or days. 
That does not present any great difficulty. But remember 
we have five other assistant general managers we could 
call on. 

There comes in another feature of the system that has 
not been generally understood. The. system provides for 
rotation in this chair of senior assistant. The unwritten 
law is that whoever occupies that desk is the senior of all 
the others for the time being, which we find in churches and 
lodges and various organizations. There is an application 
of the idea of temporary rank. That man is senior to all 
the others for the time being. On some divisions there has 
been more rotation than on others. We hear objections to 
rotation, but on running them down we find they are on 
divisions where they have not rotated. There may have 
been a spasmodic attempt for a few days, or something of 
that sort, but not a real rotation. I found at Tucson, Ariz., 
week before last, an excellent example of rotation. That is 
one of the smaller jurisdictions, with three assistant general 
managers. The junior of the three is the old engineer of 
maintenance of way. On a recent inspection trip he was 
thrown off a motor car and had his leg broken. Now that 
he is on crutches he is running the office, and running it 
very well indeed; the other men are out on the road. Some 
of the organizations are deliberately rotating the men for the 
experience that they may obtain. I happened in at one 
point in Texas where the third man on the list, the old mas- 
ter mechanic, was on the lid as we call it, and he said, "It 
is the hardest job I ever tackled. I never knew before that 
there was so much about a railroad." He was handling the 
correspondence about the telegraph line, the bridges, and 
everything of that sort. Now, as an experienced man and 
a sensible man of long service don't you suppose when he 
went out on the road again that he took a little more inter- 
est in those things then he did before? If we did not lose 
anything all that we got from him was that much velvet. 

Some people have felt that it was not worth while to go 
to all this trouble, that we did not get increased supervision 
on the outside. We have yet to find a case where any ac- 

tivity has suffered by reason of a broadened authority. That 
is, the maintenance assistant does not tell us that the track 
is run down, because he is performing the transportation 
duties. We tell him in the beginning, "It is up to you for 
the maintenance," but as in the case of the maintenance as- 
sistant when the crossing was blocked he could not inspect 
very much track until they started again. He could open 
that crossing and look over his side tracks while the train 
crew was switching. There comes in the adaptability of the 
man. We feel that the moral effect of an officer on the spot 
whose authority cannot be questioned is well worth all the 
trouble that we have taken. 

And here is the point that I would endeavor to impress 
upon you most of all, that is, this has been done with the 
talent at hand. We said, "We cannot afford to demoralize 
the service by letting out any of these faithful old officers 
simply because they cannot do some of the fancy stunts. 
We will tell them to go to it and be satisfied with what they 
do." And right here is the principle involved, gentlemen. 
When a man knows just what is expected of him, when his 
hands are untied and when he is given authority, he after 
all is the best judge of his performance. When he has done 
the very best he knows how, and you have reason to believe 
that he is doing the best he knows how in accordance with 
the light that you have given him, then you must be satis- 
fied with the^result. You cannot get the results by writing 
him a letter afterwards and telling him all the numerous 
things that he might have done, and that we are trying to 
cut out. 

Discussion By Prof. W. J. Cunningham, Harvard University. 

I had read a great deal about the unit system, and in de- 
ciding upon a specific subject for study I chose it as its in- 
troduction on the Harriman Lines seemed to mark an im- 
portant epoch in the development of railroad administration. 
Railroad progress has proceeded more along technical and 
operating lines than in the regulation of administrative af- 
fairs, that is, in taking account of the human element. The 
maximum limit for large locomotives, large capacity cars, 
increased speed, heavy tonnage, etc., has pretty nearly been 
reached but in the field for increased efficiency in the human 
element there is a great field for development. Therefore, 
it seemed to me that the plan which Major Hine has ela- 
borated would certainly justify a summer's study, and I am 
very glad indeed that the topic was chosen. I spent about 
two months on the Harriman Lines, and traveled over all 
of the lines except those of the Southern Pacific-Atlantic 
System and its lines in Mexico. I found a great deal of en- 
thusiasm over the results which have followed the introduc- 
tion of the unit system. As I view it the important facts 
which differentiate the unit system from the ordinary di- 
visional plan of organization are, first, a consolidation of 
offices and making a common office for all the division sub- 
ordinates; second, the principle of having the senior assistant 
(chief of staff) at headquarters at all times, — an experienced 
man, a man with outside knowledge "on the lid," as they 
term it, at all times, — and, third, the principle of co-ordina- 
tion of rank and authority, that is, the elimination of dis- 
tinctive titles making each division officer an assistant super- 
intendent, co-ordinate in authority and with the same title. 

On the first principle, of consolidation of offices, there was 
a unanimity of opinion as to its marked success. In every 
office that I visited, and I saw most of the division offices, 
they were all heartily in favor of the consolidation of the 
files, and pooling of the forces. The results were quite satis- 
factory. The principle of substituting conference for corres- 
pondence works out well. In some of the offices where 1 
spent considerable time, and where the files were opened for 
my inspection, a look was enough to demonstrate the prac- 
tical advantages. A file that under our ordinary form 



[March, 19i2.] 

of organization would have been voluminous with much 
duplication, would, with the elimination of inter-office cor- 
respondence, be about one half the usual size. I think the 
Major is quite modest in stating that the reduction in cor- 
respondence runs from 30 possibly to 50 per cent.; it seemed 
to me that 50 per cent would be a closer estimate, because 
the reduction in the correspondence between the offices was 
very distinct. In one office in particular, where I spent con- 
siderable time, the practice of having frequent conferences 
was followed. The division superintendent's private office 
was flanked on each side by the private offices of his division 
subordinates, and the majority of matters which came up for 
determination were handled right "off the bat," without a 
scratch of correspondence. The division superintendent 
would call in the former master mechanic and the division 
engineer, and the decision would be made whether the work 
should be done or not, whether the change should be author- 
ized or not, or in case of having to refer it to higher author- 
ity a letter would be written right there and then. In the 
office of one superintendent there are now something like 
seventy men, the consolidated forces of the former division 
master mechanic, the master car repairer, the division en- 
gineer, the train master, the chief train dispatcher, the 
division storekeeper, the signal supervisor, the road master, 
and I believe the superintendent of bridges and buildings. I 
may have omitted some, but it made a very formidable 
looking array of clerks, yet everything was so systematized 
and worked so smoothly that to see was to believe. 

On the second principle, of having a senior assistant at 
headquarters at all times, there was also a decided unanimity 
of opinion as to the desirability and as to the advantageous 
results. It practically means, as I understood it, an extra 
expense in a great many divisions, because the senior assis- 
tant, or the man who took his place outside, is an extra 
official, but there was no doubting the justification of the 
extra expense on the score of increased supervision and the 
substitution for what Major Hine calls "rule by chief clerk," 
by having the correspondence handled by a man with a broad- 
er experience. I have thought that the Major was a little hard 
on the chief clerk. The chief clerk, I believe, deserves more 
consideration than he is usually accorded. We should not 
shoot the fiddler, because he is doing the best he can. But 
the Major I think has to-night paid a deserved tribute to 
the chief clerk, and blames the evils he mentions on the 
system rather than on the man. The fact that in many cases 
the former chief clerk is now the senior assistant superin- 
tendent under the unit system shows that he really is the 
man for the place and that he has justified his existence. 

On the third principle, that of co-ordination of rank, title 
and authority, there is not a the present time— or at least 
was not last summer — the same unanimity of opinion or the 
same sympathetic support which I found with respect to the 
wisdom and expediency of the first and second principles. 
This is probably due to the fact that the opportunities of 
the system are not fully appreciated nor understood. Pos- 
sibly, too, there is a sort of an undercurrent of feeling that 
the system is "on trial,"— that it may not be permanent. I 
understand now that these negative influences are being cor- 
rected, — that the organization is hewing closer to the line, 
and that there is no question in the minds of the manage- 
ment as to the permanancy of the system. 

As I view it, the full fruits of the new system cannot be 
attained with the present generation of assistant superin- 
tendents. A new generation must be trained to bring out 
its possibilities. Present results are regarded as satisfac- 
tory, but not as satisfactory as the originator of the system 
and the higher authorities have a right to expect. There is 
a little feeling of resentment in the technical departments 
against the loss of distinctive title. From their attitude it 
is plain that they fake more professional pride in being a 
master mechanic or a division engineer than in their new 

indistinctive role of assistant superintendent. Possibly 
Major Hine will be willing to touch upon this point in clos- 

To a person whose knowledge of the system is ^confined 
to reading about it, there always occurs the thought that 
this overlapping of authority must bring clashing and ill 
feeling. It is reasonable to assume that such would be the 
case but I saw none of it and heard of no trouble on that 1 
account. Possibly this happy condition is due to the timidity 
of the officials to exercise their broadened functions and 
their fear of the consequences if they should venture out- 
side their own assignments and the fields in which they have 
become experts. They are still specialists in their own par- 
ticular assignments and departmental lines are clearly in 
evidence although officially broken down. 

It seemed to me, as I viewed the situation last summer, 
that if one feature more than any other needed the constant 
attention of Major Hine and the executive officers it was the 
tendency to continue to do business outside, of the offices 
just about the same as was done under the former system. 
In other words, it seemed to me that the subordinate offi- 
cials were not measuring up to the new opportunities and 
responsibilities. There was little inclination to borrow grief 
by "butting in" on the assignment of the other fellow. The 
men were not courting trouble by extending their activities 
to lines of work with which their previous training had not 
made them familiar. 

But after all, the fundamental principle of the system is 
to afford a broader training to the division subordinate offi- 
cials and to increase the number of men of the proper calibre 
for superintendent. The system certainly affords that op- 
portunity. If, as it seemed to me last summer, its oppor- 
tunities are not embraced as they should be, the criticism 
is not on the system but on its operation. An apparent weak- 
ness, it seemed to me lay in the failure to couple responsi- 
bility with authority. An assistant superintendent normally 
assigned to certain major duties seems to feel that his au- 
thority to act does not carry with it an obligation to act 
in another department. Therefore there is not the same 
stimulus to reap the. full theoretical advantage of the co- 
ordination principle. But conditions may have changed 
somewhat in six months and Major Hine states that there is 
a greater willingness on the part of the division officials 
to broaden out. 

Harvey Derne succeeds G. W. Litz as general manager 
of the Big Sandy & Cumberland, with office at O'Keeffe, 
W. Va. 

F. A. Neal.e has been appointed general foreman of the 
Central R. R. of New Jersey, to succeed E. A. Detro, with 
office at Jersey City, N. J. 

H. B. Earling, formerly general superintendent of Chi- 
cago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, has been made assistant gen- 
eral manager, with office at Chicago. W. S. Cooper, P. C. 
Eldredge and J. H. Foster now have the title of general 

A. E. Rawson has been elected president and treasurer of 
the Chicago River & Indiana to succeed Frank Donnelly. 
His office is at the First National Rank Bldg., Chicago. 

V ('. Ridgway succeeds the late F. O. Melcher as vice- 
president in charge of the operating department of the 
Rock Island, with office at Chicago. W. S. Tinsman has 
been appointed assistant to the president at Chicago, and 
he is succeeded as- general manager of the first district by 
W. M. Whitenton. Mr. Whitenton's office is at Chicago. 
C. W. Jones has been promoted to general manager of the 
third district, with office at Ft. Worth. Texas. F. J. Easley 

[March, 1912.] 



succeeds Mr. Jones as general superintendent of the first 
district, with headquarters at Davenport, Iowa. 

The Colorado Springs & Cripple Creek District Ry. has been 
leased and is now operated by the Florence & Cripple Creek 
R. R. 

A. J. Hodge has been appointed master car builder of the 
Fourche River Valley & Indian Territory Ry. to succeed J. A. 
Chapman. His office is at Bigelow, Ark. 

H. W. Wheatley has been appointed road foreman 01 engines 
of the Grand Trunk with office at Montreal, Que. He succeeds 
F. Payette. 

J. C. Benson succeeds J. L. Miller as master mechanic of the 
Great Northern at Grand Forks, N. D. A. L. Wenstrom has 
been appointed foreman painter at St. Cloud, Minn. T. F. 
Markley succeeds P. Cebula as car foreman at Fargo, N. D. 

C. D. Minard has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Iowa & Illinois with office at Clinton, la. He succeeds J. F. 

A. Ross has been appointed superintendent of the New Jersey 
and Lehigh division of the Lehigh Valley with office at Easton, 
Pa. D. Oxenford succeeds J. H. Mason as road foreman of 
engines at Jersey City, Pa. 

J. A. Banks has been appointed purchasing agent of the Macon 
& Birmingham, vice J. H. Palmer. His headquarters are at 
Macon, Ga. Mr. Palmer becomes superintendent of the St. 
Johns River Terminal at Jacksonville, Fla. 

L. F. Couch is now master mechanic of the Memphis, Dallas 
& Gulf with office at Nashville, Ark. 

Chas. Gilbert succeeds E. C. Overstreet as purchasing agent 
of the Missouri & North Arkansas with office in the Security 
Bldg., St. Louis, Mo. 

Arthur Herrick has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Mississippi, Hill City & Western with office at Hill City, Minn., 
to rucceed B. B. H. Johnson. 

S. S. Arentz, formerly chief engineer of the Nevada Copper 
Belt has had his title changed to general superintendent. His 
office is now at Ludwig, Nev. 

The office of R. H. Howard, general manager of the New 
Orleans Great Northern, has been changed from Bogalusa, La. 
to Jackson, Miss. 

C. E. A. Carr has been appointed general manager of the 
New Orleans, Southern & Grand Isle with office at New Orleans, 

M. S. Hawkins, secretary of the Norfolk Southern, will suc- 
ceed to the duties of assistant to the president, vice, H. C. 
Hudgins, retired. His office is at Norfolk, Va. 

T. S. Davey has been appointed master mechanic of the New 
York, Susquehanna & Western with office at Stroudsburg, Pa. 

Edw. Rice has been appointed master mechanic of the North- 
western Pennsylvania with office at Meadville, Pa., vice, Wm. 

W. S. Jones succeeds R. J. Quimby as master mechanic of the, 
Payette Valley with office at Payette, Idaho. 

R. B. Fowler has been appointed superintendent of the St. 
Louis, Brownsville & Mexico with headquarters at Kingsville, 

W. C. Meyers has been appointed assistant master mechanic 
of the Southern Pacific at Atlanta, Cal. 

Frank H. Davis succeeds the late Edwin Hawley as vice pres- 
ident of the Toledo, St. Louis & Western at New York. 

H. B. Earling. 

J. T. Carroll. 

J. T. Carroll has been appointed assistant general superin- 
tendent of motive power of the Baltimore & Ohio with office 
at Baltimore. E. J. Searles succeeds Mr. Carroll as super- 
intendent of motive power at Pittsburgh. T. C. O'Brien has 
been appointed motive power inspector to succeed J. F. Franey, 
with office at Pittsburgh. C. E. Lester has been appointed 
assistant master mechanic at Glenwood, Pittsburgh. O. K. Mc- 
Quen succeeds E. F. McCafferty as general foreman locomotive 
department at Weston, W. Va. H. L. Miller has been appointed 
general foreman car department at Keyser, W. Va. and F. M. 
Garber has been appointed to fill a like position at Garrett, Tnd. 

R. P. Moore has been appointed purchasing agent of the 
Duluth & Iron Range with office at Duluth, Minn. He succeels 
Fred H. White, who becomes purchasing agent of the Duluth 
Missabe & Northern at Duluth. 

Milton S. Barger has been appointed treasurer of the New 
York Central Lines, west of Buffalo, to fill the vacancy caused 
by the rece:.t death of Charles F. Cox, His office is at New York. 

E. J. Wheeler succeeds Wm. Hansen as general car inspec- 
tor of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, Lines West, with 
headquarters at Lincoln, Neb. 

W. J. Crandall has been appointed a master mechanic of 
the New York Central & Hudson River with office at Roches- 
ter, N. Y. 

W. P. Carroll has been appointed a master mechanic of 
the New York Central & Hudson River, with office at West 
Albany, N. Y. 

S. J. Delaney has been appointed an assistant master 
mechanic of the New York Central & Hudson River, with 
office at West Albany, N. Y. 

M. H. Strauss has been appointed a master mechanic of 
the New York Central & Hudson River with office at New 
Durham, N. J. 



[March, 1912.] 

WSfog^fe Mstfiufaciarens 


The Bessemer & Lake Erie has ordered 100 all-steel box 
cars of the Summers Steel Car Co., of Pittsburgh. They 
are to be of 100,000 pounds capacity, equipped with rolled 
steel Shoen wheels and the journals are 5^x10 ins. The 
Summers balanced side bearing trucks are to have arch bar 
truck side frames, cast steel side bearing rockers with forged 
steel hanger bars and Z-bar cradle construction, as shown 
in Fig. 3. The dimensions of these cars are as follows: 

Length inside in clear 40 ft. 

Width inside in clear 8 ft. 10^ ins. 

Height, top of floor to underside roof 8 ft. 10 ins. 

Height, top of rail to floor (light) 3 ft. 6$4 ins. 

Wheel base of truck 5 ft. 6 ins. 

Weight, complete 43,000 lbs. 


A flexible permanent connection for steam and air is being 
put on the market by the Jos. Goetz Mfg. Co., of Toledo, O. 
These conduits are used as steam heat connections between 
passenger cars in place of rubber hose. They are of all metal 
construction and guaranteed against leakage. It will be noted 
in the illustration that there is a chain attached to the coup- 
ling head. This chain prevents the head from falling low 
enough to be knocked off when in an uncoupled position, and 

■III 1 



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II It 


II 11 


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II '1 



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1 : 1$ 8 I 1 1 



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Summers Balanced Side Bearing Truck on Locomotive Tender. 

Goetz Flexible Steam Conduit. 

[March, 1912.] 



Barnes Standard Sliding Head All Geared Drill. 

it also acts as an automatic release, there being: 2J^ inches 
of slack in it when in normal position. When cars are 
parted and the heads not uncoupled by hand, the chain un- 
couples them automatically, drawing the heads out of each 
other. These conduits can be used in connection with rubber 
steam hose where the same style of head is used. 

They are pressure packed and will seat themselves to such 
an extent that they will not leak at one-half pound pressure. 
They will take any motion subjected to them without leak- 
age, and they are said to be much easier to couple and un- 
couple than rubber steam hose. 


The Barnes Drill Co., Rockford, 111., has recently placed 
on the market one of the most unique, powerful and gener- 
ally useful drills available for railway shop use. The illustra- 
tions show two views of the machine. In one of these 
views the drill is shown with special equipment for boring, 
sizing and reaming exhauster bodies for the Atwood Vacu 
um Cleaner Co., Rockford, 111. The boring heads are 
equipped with pilot bars in order that the same machine 
may be used in this case for boring bearings. The sliding 
head, which is raised and lowered quickly by means of a 
rack and pinion, fits in very nicely with this equipment, 
for it makes it possible to easily place and replace the tools. 

This all-geared drill is a developed machine tool, essen- 
tially original in design and of unusual strength and power, 
representing the result of many years' experience in drill 
building. It will properly handle the modern high speed 

twist drill and has many operative features which assure 
maximum output at minimum cost, as an element of wasted 
time is eliminated. It has geared speed changes and geared 
power feeds. All changes of feeds and speeds, including 
the back gears, are made instantly while the machine is run- 

The operator, standing in front of the drill, is within reach 
of all change levers. No time is lost on account of slipping 
cone belts, or in walking around the machine to shift feed 
and speed belts, or in stopping to lace them. 

The 26-inch sliding head all geared drill is a machine of 
remarkable strength and power. There are eight geared 
speeds and eight geared feeds, all under instant control from 
front of the machine. Feeds are shown in plain figures 
and range as follows: .005-in., .008-in., .012-in., .018-in., .024- 
in., .041-in., .056-in. and .086-in. 

The spindle is exceptionally large (1 15/16-in.) and double 
splined. The sleeve has 14-in. travel and drift hole is below 
the sleeve. The crown and pinion gears are cut four-pitch 
and are of extra large diameter, making them very strong 
and powerful. Head and spindle are counterbalanced, the 
weight being suspended by roller bearing sheave wheel. 
The othe r sheaves are accessible to oil. The head is gibbed 
to the column face, insuring perfect alignment, and is held 
at any point within the long travel by two quick acting 
clamp screws. 

This machine is guaranteed to. drive a 2-in. high speed 
twist drill at .041-in. feed per revolution of spindle or at 
the rate of & X A ins. per minute in cast iron, without the back 
gears. It drives a 1-in. high speed twist drill at the rate 
of 13 J^ ins. per minute in cast iron, provided the twist drill 
will stand up. 

Barnes Sliding Head Drill Equipped with Boring Attachment. 


[March, 1912.] 


The Joyce-Cridland Co., Dayton, Ohio, is marketing a 
line of geared screw jacks which merits unusual interest. 
It is admitted that the screw jack is perhaps the least 
efficient of all mechanical movements. It is popular because, 
when well designed, it forms a safe support for the load 











Joyce-Cridland Jack. 

lifted by its lever. As the efficiency of the screw increases 
in proportion to the increase of the pitch of the thread, 
some designers have, in some of the common types of jacks 
made attempts to take advantage of this fact by using very 
coarse threads. When this is done the tendency is toward 
an angle at which the friction between the surfaces on the 
thread of the nut and the screw is not sufficient to prevent 
the screw from sliding down in the nut, and lowering the 

The "J- C." jack was designed with the purpose of giving 
the highest possible speed consistent with safety. The 
angle of the thread has been made just enough less than 
that at which the load would slide down the inclined plane 
to insure the screw remaining stationary in the nut. The 
teeth on the bevel gear are of the stubb type and of bracket 
form. This form reduces the end thrust on the bearing. 

The jack is so designed that the working parts can be 
removed through the top of the jack without taking the 
sleeve off the standard. The nut is locked in place, which 
prevents its being pulled out when the jack is carried or 

A flange, with which the nut is provided, extends beyond 
the standard, and the sleeve at its lower end slides snugly 
on the standard. Thus, when the upper edge of the shoulder, 
which is formed by the smaller bore at the lower end of 
the sleeve, has come to this protecting flange of the nut, 
there is a. positive stop. 

By special design there has been provided a system of 
lubrication which does away with all wear and tear of the 
thread and other working parts, unnecessarily caused by too 

much friction. At the lower end of the sleeve is a packing 
ring, forming a liquid tight joint between the sleeve and 
the standard. This permits the jack to be filled with oil 
in which the screw, gearing, rollers and roller plates work. 
Besides this, a hole, drilled lengthwise of the nut, forms a 
passage communicating with each thread and the oil reser- 
voir, so that as the screw runs up or down, the oil runs 
through. this passage and between the threads as they pass 

Nickel Chrome Steel is used in making the standard, hous- 
ing, cap and bevel gear. For the screw, which must be 
efficient, and the bevel pinion, ratchet wheel, top bushing 
for the screw, and bushing for pinion bearing 40 per cent 
carbon steel has been selected. The hardest and toughest 
aluminum bronze is used in the nut. The roller bearings and 
roller plates are made from a special alloy steel, which has 
been selected after endurance tests. 


The Westinghouse combination dynamotor-compressor 
shown in the illustration is a device for use on 1,200 and 1,- 
500-volt direct-current motor cars and locomotives; it per- 
forms the functions of both dynamotor and compressor, fur- 
nishing half voltage for the operation of the control and 
lighting circuits, and in addition drives the air compressor 
when necessary. The dynamotor is connected between trol- 
ley and ground, and operates continuously. When the air 
reservoir pressure falls below a certain predetermined value, 
the compressor is automatically connected to the dynamotor 
by a clutch. When the compressor raises the air pressure 
to a predetermined maximum value, the clutch is automat- 
ically disconnected and the compressor stops. 

The usual arrangement for 1,200 and 1,500-volt equipments 
consists of: (A) a high or low voltage motor for operating 
the compressor, and (B) a continuously running dynamotor 
for supplying current at half voltage (600 to 750 volts) for 
lights and control, and for the low voltage compressor mo- 
tor, if such is used. The Westinghouse dynamotor-com- 
pressor performs the duties for which the two machines 
were formerly required and as a result, there is a saving of 
about 900 pounds in the weight of the equipment, and there 
are fewer parts and only one machine to maintain. 

In sections where the trolley voltage is 600 or 750 the 
dynamotor connections are changed by throwing a canopy 
switch, so that the dynamotor becomes a compressor motor 
operating on one winding on half voltages and at normal 
speed thus driving the air compressor at normal speed. Full 
air pressure is therefore assured on all interurban and city 
sections. The straight 1,200-volt motor-driven compressors 
operate at only half speed when on the half voltage sections 

Dynamotor-Compressor Installed In Electric Locomotive. 

[March, 1912.] 



of a road, and are often incapable of delivering sufficient air 
to provide for the frequent city stops. 

The dynamotor has two separate armature windings on 
the same core, each connected to a commutator. When the 
-dynamotor is connected across 1,200 or 1,500 volts, the two 
windings are in series, so that each takes one-half of the 
trolley voltage. Each armature winding is in series with a 
field winding. A shunt field winding is connected across the 
leads of the low voltage armature to maintain the speed ap- 
proximately constant. 

The magnet frame is a single piece of steel casting. Large 
openings, closed with bearing housings, are provided at each 
end of the frame, through which pole pieces, field coils and 
armature can be removed. Tight fitting commutator hand 
hole covers are funrnished. These have machined seats and 
easily operated locking levers. Dynamotors and compressors 
are machined to templet and are interchangeable. Field 
coils are vacuum impregnated with a water-proof and heat- 
proof compound. Metal coil shields provide protection and 
spring coil supports prevent vibration and chafing. 

extensively by wrecking crews in all classes of work. This 
and Number 5 are specified by the government on its requisi- 
tions for the Panama Canal Commission. Number 8 is a 
light track jack, weighing only 24 pounds. It has a ground 
lift, and has proven itself useful in many instances where 
more than 10 or 12-ton capacity was unnecessary. 

Especial attention should be given Numbers 6 and 9, which 
are made to meet the demands for heavy work, as they have 
been tested to more than 35 tons. Number 6 is fitted with 
handles to facilitate carrying it about and Number 9 has 
a foot lift. Number 6 raises 13^ ins. and Number 9 15^4 ins., 
both by Yi in. notches.- 

All of these jacks are similar in principle, having a stand 
or body in which fit all the other parts, held, in place by 
side arms fastened with steel pins. They may be lowered 
one notch at a time, if desired, and are safe and reliable, 
being made of the best steel and malleable iron. 

Mcsher Patent Lifting Jacks. 


The Mosher patent lifting jack has been on the market 
for a number of years and in that time has made many 
friends. It is manufactured by the F. M. De Weese Co., 
Chillicothe, Ohio. The inventor, S. Earl Mosher, filled sev- 
eral positions in railroad work, thus gaining a knowledge 
of the needs of the men in various branches of the service. 
The jack he invented is the result of years of careful study 
spent in simplifying without losing in strength and efficiency, 
and in the perfected product we find sizes adapted to every 
branch of work, and in such form as to be easily handled 
and kept in condition by the common laborer. 

The car inspector's jack, Number 0, weighs 19 pounds, 
raises 6J4 ins., with J4 in. notches, and has a capacity of 8 
tons. It is used extensively by the government in the Mis- 
sissippi River Commission at New Orleans. Number 1 is a 
journal jack, weighing 25 pounds and having a capacity of 
12 tons. The notches are Y§ in. and its raise 6 ins. Num- 
bers 2, 3 and 4 arc track jacks, with foot lift, and vary 
in raise from 10 ins. to 15^ ins., and in size of notch from 
Yz in. to 1 in. Their capacities are 12 and 15 tons. Num- 
ber 5 has proved itself a most popular size, being used for 
heavy car and locomotive work, on bridges, and for wreck- 
ing. It raises 12^ ins., by J4 in. notches, weighs 96 pounds, 
and has stood working tests of more than 30 tons. It has 
a foot lift. Number 7 is another very popular style, which, 
though designed for a coach and' sleeping car jack, is used 


A handsome booklet, descriptive of "Ferro" gas engines, has 
been issued by the Ferro Machine & Foundry Co. of Cleveland. 
It is styled "A Practical Treatise on Marine .engines," contains 
many excellent illustrations and is an example of high art in 
catalog work. It contains much matter of value to those in- 
terested in the gas engine. 

* * * 

The Alexander Milburn Co., of Baltimore, Md. has issued a 
pamphlet descriptive of the Alexander steam acetylene 


* * * 

"Steam Tables for Condenser Work" is a hand-book recently 
published by the Wheeler Condenser & Engineering Co., of 
Carteret, N. J., which should be of practical service to those 

interested in engine turbine and condenser work. 

* * * 

The Union Fibre Co., of Winono, Minn., has issued an elabor- 
ate and comprehensive booklet on the subject insulation for 
railway equipment. It is divided into five chapters and con- 
tains much useful information concerning refrigerator cars, 
together with more particular information about Linofelt and 
Feltino insulation, its method of manufacture and application. 
It is a very readable booklet. 



[March, 1912.] 

tadustri&l /Notes 

John B. Given, formerly sales manager of C. H. Whall & 
Company, Boston, Mass., has opened an office at 253 Broad- 
way, New York, to handle railway specialties. Mr. Given is 
still connected with the Whall company in another capacity. 

The Independent Pneumatic Tool Company, Chicago, has 
secured larger floor space in the Farmers' Bank building, 

The Lea Equipment Company, New York, maker of cen- 
trifugal pumping equipment and the Lea-Simplex cold saws, 
has moved its general offices to the corner of Stenton and 
Wyoming avenues, Philadelphia, Pa., where its plant is 

L. H. Mesker, in the Cleveland, Ohio, office of Manning, 
Maxwell & Moore, Inc., New York, has been made manager 
of the St. Louis, Mo., office of that company, succeeding 
C. L. Lyle, resigned. Frank P. Smith, formerly in the sales 
department of Manning, Maxwell & Moore, has again en- 
tered that department of that company, with office in New 
York. C. R. McCullough, of the Packard Motor Car Com- 
pany, Detroit, Mich., has resigned to enter the sales depart- 
ment of Manning, Maxwell & Moore with office in Detroit. 

E. M. Richardson has been elected a director of the Chicago 
Pneumatic Tool Company, to succeed Oliver Wrenn. 

Taylor & Arnold, Montreal, Que., have been made Cana- 
dian representatives* for the American electric headlight 
equipment, made by the Remy Electric Company, Anderson, 

A. L. Whipple, has entered the sales department of the 
Ward Equipment Company, New York. 

William B. Hall, superintendent of equipment of the Mather 
Hbrse & Stock Car Co., Chicago, has been made vice-presi- 
dent and general manager of the Illinois Car & Manufactur- 
ing Co. and the Illinois Bolt Nut & Forging Co., both of 
Chicago, with office in the Great Northern building. 

Hubbard & Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., announce a change 
in the management of their Chicago office. O. W. Young- 
quist, of the H. Channon & Co., has been appointed manager 
of Hubbard & Co.'s Chicago office, with headquarters' in the 
Fisher Bldg. 

The Hildreth-Jones Co., Monadnock Block, Chicago, an- 
nounce the above Company title will be discontinued and the 
title of Morgan T. Jones & Co. substituted, Hildreth & Co., 
of New York, Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, associated. Mr. 
Jas. A. Lister formerly Chicago Manager of the Pittsburgh 
Testing Laboratory will have charge and manage the struc- 
tural steel and cement departments. 

The Jones Car Door Co., Chicago, has been incorporated 
in Maine, with $50,000 authorized capital stock. Charles L. 
Andrews of Augusta is clerk of the corporation. 

Mr. George A. Post Jr., has been apointed western sales 
manager of the Standard Coupler Co., with office in the 
People's Gas Building, Chicago, and succeeds Mr. Charles 
D. Jenks, who resigned to engage in other business. 

Francis H. Stillman, president of The Watson-Stillman 
Co., and a prominent figure in machine tool and engineering 
industries, died suddenly Sunday morning, February 18th, 
at his residence, 105 Rodney Street, Brooklyn. He was 62 
years old. 

The interest of Mr. E. A. Schumacher in the firms of Schu- 
macher & Boye and Schumacher, Boye & Emmes manufac- 
turers of engine lathes has been acquired by F. W. Boye, 
Jr. and W. T. Emmes who have incorporated as the Boye 
& Emmes Machine Tool Co., Cincinnati, O. 

Charles Haines Williams, Jr., has been elected third vice- 
president of the Chicago Railway Equipment Co. Mr. Wil- 
liams has been connected with the company since the latter 
part of 1897, beginning as mechanical inspector and serving 
in various capacities both in the engineering and sales de- 
partments. He has been identified with the manufacture of 
brake beams since going into the railway supply business and 
has been granted a number of patents and developed many 
well known improvements in beams. 

An important deal has been consummated between officials 
of the Pressed Steel Car Co. and the Illinois Car & Equip- 
ment Co., of South Chicago, 111., by which the Pittsburg 
company, through its subsidiary corporation, known as the 
Western Steel Car & Foundry Co., takes over the entire 
property of the Chicago concern, paying therefor $1,000,000. 
The Western plant of the Pittsburg company operates on or- 
ders for Western roads almost entirely. It turns out all 
kinds of steel freight cars. The steel passenger coach plant 
remains exclusively in Pittsburg. 

Executive Committee Meeting, Chief Interchange Car 
Inspectors' And Car Foremen's Association. 

The executive committee of the Chief Interchange Car 
Inspectors' and Car Foremen's Association met in the Great 
Northern Hotel, Chicago, February 10, 1912. The follow- 
ing were in attendance: H. Boutet, Carew Building, Cin- 
cinnati, O.; T. M. Baughan, C. G. W. R. R., Oelwein, la.; 
Chas. Bossert, Chicago, 111.; E. R. Campbell, Minn. Trans- 
fer Ry., St. Paul, Minn.; I. N. Clark, Chicago, 111.; R. J. 
Cook, C. & W. I. Ry., Chicago, 111.; E. J. Constant, 600 
Grand Central Station, Chicago, 111.; R. E. Forbes, 600 
Grand Central Station, Chicago, 111.; J. J. Gainey, C. N. O. 
& T. P. R. R., Ludlow, Ky.; H. H. Harvey, C. B. & Q. R. R, 
Chicago, 111.; E. W. Hartough, P. M. R. R., Chicago, 111.; 

E. E. Jett, Chicago 111.; L. J. Koeppen, C. & I. W. R. R., 
Chicago, 111.; A. Kipp, N. Y. O. & W. R. R., Middletown, 
X. Y. ; O. F. Koepp, Grand Central Station, Chicago, 111.; 

F. M. Lucore, Grand Central Station, Chicago, 111.; F. 
Mathews, 6127 Honore street, Chicago, 111.; A. F. Peterson, 
Chicago, 111.,; J. L. Stark, H. V. R. R., Columbus, Ohio; S. 
Skidmore, C. C. C. & St. L. R. R., Cincinnati, Ohio; F. C. 
Schultz, 600 Grand Central Station, Chicago, III.; A. E. 

Schultz, 2729 West 23rd street, Chicago. 111.; A. S. Stern- 
berg, Wabash R. R., Springfield, 111.; J. F. Sommers, B. & 

0. R. R., South Chicago, 111.; S. Shannan, 6732 Michigan 
avenue, Chicago, 111.; F. W. Trapnell, Kansas City, Mo.; 
M. M. Vincent, National Car Line, Chicago, 111.; L. R. 
Wink, C. & N. W. R. R., Chicago, 111.; E. H. Wertschorck. 

1. C. R. R., Chicago, 111.; C. J. Wymer. C. & E. I. R. R.. 
Danville, 111. 

The meeting was called for the purpose of formulating 
recommendations for the Arbitrating Committee with re- 
spect to the revision of the M. C. B. rules of interchange; 
and to decide the meeting place for the 1912 annual conven- 

The meeting convened with Chairman Boutet in the chair. 

It was decided to hold the annual convention at Chicago. 
August 20, 21, 22, 1912. 

Mr. Schultz suggested that Rule 2 be cut out. After dis- 
cussion it was decided to hold the vote in abeyance until it 
could be considered further. 

[March, 1912.] 



Mr. Trapnell suggested that the words "when necessary" 
be inserted in Rule 2 after the word "transfer." His sug- 
gestion was adopted unanimously. 

Chairman Boutet recommended a change in Rule 32 as 
follows: Change Section 2, Rule 32, to read: "Defect cards 
shall not be required for any damage so slight that it does 
not require repairs; for example, edge of roof, end facia, 
side facia, end and side moulding, end and side door caps, 
end and side sheathing, side and end doors, side posts, side 
braces, door and corner posts, side and end stakes, side 
and end plates, ends of flooring, all sills, draft timbers, cross 
ties, dead wood, sub-sills, body bolsters, and all siding if 
not damaged sufficiently to impair the strength of these 
parts." The suggestion was adopted. 

A motion was made by Mr. Kipp that the following miss- 
ing material be incorporated in Rule 33: Doors or their 
parts, refrigerator hatch covers, buffer castings. 

Secretary Skidmore read a recommendation as follows: 
Add to Section 2, Rule 43: "All sills, body bolsters, cross 
tie timbers, side stakes, end stakes, side and end sheeting, 
top and bottom angle irons not damaged sufficiently to im- 
pair strength or necessitate removing." The recommenda- 
tion was accepted unanimously. 

Mr. Trapnell recommended that, in Rule 42, covering 
combination of defects, damaged corner posts and end posts 
be omitted. This was accepted after debate by a close vote. 

Mr. Campbell made a motion that in Rule 48, owner's re- 
sponsibility should include refrigerator hatch covers. The 
motion was carried. 

Mr. Kipp, at the suggestion of Mr. Boutet, moved that 
brake shoes and keys listed in Rule 55 be not considered a 
cardable defect. This motion was seconded and carried. 

Mr. Cook suggested the elimination of Rule 56. Mr. Stern- 
berg made the motion, and it was carried. 

Secretary Skidmore read a recommendation as follows: 
In Rule 69, after the figures "78" take out "chipped flange if 
chip is on the throat side of flange." Change Rule 82 to 
read: "Chipped flanges if chip exceeds 1^ inches in length, 
J^-inch in width or extends J^-inch past the center." Mr. 
Campbell made a motion that these recommendations be 
accepted. The motion was carried. 

The secretary read a correction to Rule 58 as follows: 
"When cars are found to be equipped with other than M. 
C. B. standard 1^-inch air hose, owner is responsible. Any 
railway finding a car on its lines equipped with hose not 
M. C. B. standard may apply such standard hose and bill 
owner. For any hose applied, name of maker, date of man- 
ufacture and size must be shown on the M. C. B. repair 
card." This was accepted. 

Chairman Boutet recommended that Rule 98 should call 
for a report of price of cast steel wheels and steel tired 
wheels. This was put to vote and accepted. 

Mr. Schultz moved that reference to tank cars in Rule 2 
be eliminated. This was unanimously accepted. 

Mr. Schultz then read the following resolution, moving 
its adoption: 

"Whereas, the Master Car Builders' code of interchange 
represents a signed and binding contract entered into by the 
executive officers, for and on behalf of the railroads of this 
country; and 

"Whereas, the practice of applying M. C. B. defect cards 
at time of interchange in accordance with M. C. B. rules is 
entirely practicable; and 

"Whereas, word has been received that the American As- 
sociation of Railroad Superintendents has undertaken to re- 
store M. C. B. rules, working 1 in conjunction with the M. C. 
B. Association and the Association of Transportation and 
Car Accounting Officers; therefore, 

"Resolved, That the executive committee of the Chief 
Interchange Car Inspectors' and Car Foremen's Association 
most heartily endorses this move and pledges its utmost 

support to the end that the M. C. B. code shall be enforced 
at all interchange points; and be it further 

"Resolved, That a copy of this resolution be sent to each 
member of the Chief Interchange Car Inspectors' and Car 
Foremen's Association that their hearty co-operation with 
mechanical and transportation officers may be secured in 
bringing about this much needed reform, effective if pos- 
sible on April 1st, 1912, the date the practice is adopted in 
Chicago and other important interchange centers." 

The resolution was adopted. 

Recommended Changes in M. C. B. Rules. 
Rule 2. 

Eliminate all that portion in the fifth paragraph of Rule 2 
pertaining to leaking tank cars. Add another paragraph 
after the fifth paragraph to read as follows: "No transfer 
order is to be given for any car that the repairs can be 
made with the load in the car inside of twenty-four hours, 
as shown in M. C. B. Rule No. 107." 

Rule 32. 
Change Sec. 2 of Rule 32 so that the last paragraph will 
read as follows: "Defect cards shall not be required for 
any damage so slight that no repairs are necessary." For 
example, edge of roof, end facia, side facia, end and side 
moulding, end and side door cap, end and side sheeting, side 
and end doors, side posts, side braces, door and corner 
posts, side and end stakes, side and end planks, ends of 
flooring (coal, flat and stock cars) all sills, draft timbers, 
cross ties, deadwood, sub sills, body bolsters and all siding 
if not damaged sufficient to impair the strength of these 

Rule 33. 
Add to Rule 33, after the word "end doors" and parts. 
queen posts, truck springs, stakes pockets on coal cars, re- 
lease rods, top side bearings when not riveted to transoms, 
refrigerator hatch covers, door guides, door slide, castings, 
buffer castings. This to end the rule. 

Rule 42. 
Cut out combination Rule 42. 

Rule 43. 
After the word "corrosion" in Rule 43 eliminate the rest 
of the paragraph and insert the words "not damaged suffi- 
ciently to impair the strength or necessitate removing." 

Rule 56. 
Eliminate Rule 56. 

Rule 58. 
Eliminate Rule 58. 

Rule 64. 
Add to Rule 64 brake shoes and keys, pedestal castings, 
side bearings when not riveted. Add another paragraph to 
the rule as follows: Any slight damage to trucks that does 
not impair the strength of the parts damaged or require im- 
mediate repairs. 

Rule 69. 
In Rule 69, after the word "78" take out "chipped flange, 
if chip is on the throat side of flange." 

Rule 82. 

Change Rule 82, "Chipped flange; if chip exceeds V/ 2 
inches in length, one-half inch in width and extends T /$ of an 
inch past center." 

Rule 98. 

Add to Rule 98 showing the price of cast steel wheels 
and steel tired wheels. 

Rule 17. 

Another section of Rule 17 as follows: When cars are 
found to be equipped with other than M. C. B. standard 1>£ 
in. air hose, owners responsible. Any railway company find- 
ing a car upon its line equipped with hose not M. C. B. 
standard may apply M. C. B. standard hose and bill owners. 
For any air hose applied name and maker, date of manu- 
facture and size must be shown on M. C. B. repair-card. 



[March, 1912.] 

icenf T^&ilflsau Mechanical patents 


1,013, i 1 4 — William S. Hodges, of Philadelphia, Pa., assignor, by 

Mesne assignments, to the Baldwin Locomotive Works, 

The construction of this new spring end and clip for locomo- 
tive side frames will be apparent from the illustration. The clip 
has a rib c which fits into the groove a3 and this holds the parts 
in position. 

1,014,362 — John C. Barber, Chicago, 111., assignor to Standard Car 
Truck Co., Chicago, 111. 
In this form of the well known Barber truck the lateral mo- 
tion bearings and the radial motion side bearings are placed 
directly one above the other under the main side sill of the car. 
Also the roller side bearing is placed below the compression 
member of the truck frame. 


1,013,311 — Edward D. Pugh, Cleveland, O., assignor to the Damas- 
cus Brake Beam Co., Cleveland, O. 
This invention relates to a head or brake-shoe carrier for rail- 
way brakes, of that class in which provision is made for changing 
the angular position of the brake head relatively to the brake- 
beam, in order that the concave face of the brake-shoe may con- 
form to the periphery of the wheel at different heights at which 
the brake-beam may be hung. In brake-beams of this type, it is 
desirable to have the brake head so mounted upon the brake 
beam that it can be angularly shifted in pressing against the 
wheel, so as to determine the exact position which it should 
assume in use, and then fixed at the angular adjustment thus 



determined so that, when in use, the brake head will not shift 
angularly or vibrate. 

The object of the invention is attained by providing the end 
of the brake-beam and the socket of the brake head, which fits 
the sleeve, with inter-engaging teeth arranged in segmental se- 
ries upon the cylindrical surfaces of the sleeve and socket, and 
sufficient in number to provide for the range of angular adjust- 
ment, which is found in practice to be desirable. These teeth 
extend in the direction of the axis of the sleeve and socket, but 
the short distance necessary to resist the slight turning tendency 
of the brake head on the beam; a portion of the sleeve and socket 
being left, sufficient to permit the brake head being placed on 
the brake-beam and applied to the wheel to determine its angular 
position before it is pressed to its seat with the teeth in engage- 
ment to maintain the adjustment thus determined; suitable means 
being provided to hold the brake head on the brake-beam after 
the parts are angularly interlocked. The interlocking parts may 
be duplicated to avoid multiplication of the members for differ- 
ent ends of the brake-beam, and the securing device may be so 
disposed as to serve when the brake head is reversed. 


1,013,771 — George R. Henderson, Philadelphia, Pa., assignor, by 

Mesne assignments, to the Baldwin Locomotive 

Works, Philadelphia, Pa. 

This invention relates to certain improvements in compound 
locomotives, especially of the type in which the locomotive boiler 
extends over two frames, which are coupled together by an artic- 
ulated joint. In this type of locomotive the usual practice has 
been to use an ordinary tender and these locomotives are now 
of such size that the tender must be of an appropriate size and, 
consequently, must be heavier than those heretofore used. 

One object of the invention is to utilize a large portion, or all, 
of the weight of the tender for purposes of adhesion and traction, 
as well as the weight of the locomotive proper. This is attained 
by mounting the tender on a driven element corresponding in 
many parts to the two elements on which the locomotive boiler 
is mounted so that, in the present instance, there are three inde- 
pendent driving units to form a triple, compound locomotive. 
1,017,682 — Alexander J. McMullen, Milwaukee, Wis. 

A locomotive having a furnace provided with a feed opening 
and a detachable coal-tender has a stoker in communication with 
the furnace feed opening and a forwardly and downwardly in- 
clined bottom section for the tender, together with a forwardly 
and upwardly inclined bottom section in hinge connection with the 
first named bottom section. The upwardly inclined bottom sec- 
tion is provided with a door controlled feed opening, a coal crusher 
detachably secured to the tender under the inclined bottom sec- 
tion and in register with its feed opening, an endless coal feeding 
conveyer apron yieldably connecting the crusher and stoker, a 
motor carried by the locomotive, an endless belt drive gear con- 
nection between the motor and stoker, and a tumbler-rod in 
gear connection with the stoker and crusher, whereby the same 
is driven. 

&' r 

{April, 1912.1 



The World's GreatestRailway Mechanical Journal 
Published at the World's Greatest Railway Center 
Established 1878 


WILLIAM E. MAORAW, Pres.andTreas. 
CHAS. S. MYERS, Vice-Pres. LYNDON P. WILSON, Managing Editor 

C. C. ZIMMERMAN, Bos. Mgr. OWEN W. MIDDLETON, Assoc. Editor 

J. M.CROWE, Mgr. Central Dist. KENNETH L.VAN AUKEN, Assoc. Editor 

Office of Publication : Manhattan Building, Chicago 

Telephone, Harrison 4948 

Eastern Office: 50 Church Street, New York 
Telephone Cortlandt 5765 

Central Office: House Bldg., Pittsburg, Pa. 

A Monthly Railway Journal 

Devoted to the interests of railway motive power, car equipment, 

shops, machinery and supplies. 
Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are solicited. 
Subscription price, $2.00 a year; to foreign countries, $2.50, free of 

postage. Single copies, 20 cents. Advertising rates given on 

application to the office, by mail or in person. 
In remitting, make all checks payable to The Railway List Company. 
Papers should reach subscribers by the 16th of the month at the 

latest. Kindly notify us at once of any delay or failure to 

receive any issue and another copy will be very gladly sent. 

Entered as Second-Class Matter June 18, 1895, at the Post Office 
at Chicago, Illinois, Under Act of March 3, 1879. 


Chicago, April, 1912 

No. 4 


Editorial — 

Forged Steel Wheels 125 

Relation of Conditioi of Equipment to Accidents r 126 

Machine Tools and Passage-ways 127 

IT. S. Mail 127 

British Locomotives in 1911 129 

The Well-Equipped Master Mechanic's Office 132 

Smoke Abatement Tests at Chicago, A., T. & S. P. Ry 133 

Albina Shop Building, O-W R. & N 138 

Refrigerator Cars, Merchants Despatch 138 

Electrification of London, Brighton & So. Coast Ry 139 

Annual Convention, C. I. C. I. & C. F. Assn 142 

Pipe Rack 142 

Railroading Around the World 143 

English Superheaters 143 

First Aid on the Lackawanna 144 

Electrification of the B. A. & P. Ry 144 

Balanced Compound Freight Locomotive, Bavarian State Rys.. 145 

General Foremen's Assn 147 

Petrol-Electric Motor Car, Great Western Ry 148 

Baxter Gauge Cock 148 

Educational Bureau, C. of G. Ry 149 

Car Shops of the Hocking Valley Ry 150 

Ingenious Overspeed Limit Device 153 

Locomotive Boiler Troubles 154 

Packing Cutting Machine 156 

Highest Voltage Direct-Current Locomotive 157 

Pittsburgh Railways Steel Car Trains 158 

Atlantic City Special Train 158 

Rubber 158 

Personals 161 

Among the Manufacturers — 

New Literature 163 

New Compressor 163 

Wood Splitting Bulldozer 163 

Wear-ever Drill Socket 163 

Hot Water Boiler Washing System 164 

Tests of Train Heating System Pressure Regulator 165 

Industrial Notes 166 

Recent Railway Mechanical Patents 168 


On page 94 of the March issue we published an abstract 
from a paper on Forged Steel Wheels, read by C. G. Bacon, 
assistant to the president of the Forged Steel Wheel Co., 
before the Western Railway Club. In this paper Mr. Bacon 
was most emphatic in his recommendations for a standard 
rim thickness, for forged steel wheels, of 2Yz inches and for 
a hub wall thickness of 1%. inches at the smallest diameter. 
With respect to the question of hub wall thickness, lit- 
tle criticism of Mr. Bacon's stand was made, the question 
of rim thickness, however, called forth opinions at vari- 
ance with those expressed by the writer of the paper. With 
respect to this point Robert Radford spoke as follows: 
"Regarding the thickness of the rim, I am sorry 
that I cannot agree with Mr. Bacon that in the 
rolled steel wheel the 3-inch thick rim is not as 
efficient and economical as regards the service 
obtained as the 2^-inch. I readily admit that 
the rim can be made too thick and that three 
inches should be the maximum in order that 
the steel may be thoroughly worked. This is 
the advantage of the rolling process. If the 
3-inch rim is thoroughly worked and homogen- 
eous throughout, I cannot follow Mr. Bacon's 
remarks that you do not get the one-half inch 
additional wear from the 3-inch thick rim, as 
the limit of wear groove is the same distance 
from the inside diameter of the rim on either 
thickness. Of course, if the additional one- 
half inch thickness of the wheel is added to the 
inside diameter, I can appreciate the 3-inch thick 
rim will not wear as favorably per sixteenth 
inch of diameter, as the smaller the diameter 
the more rapid the wear, but if, on the other 
hand, as I have stated previously regarding the 
steel tired wheels, the additonal one-half inch is 
added to the outside diameter, the mileage per 
sixteenth inch of wear should show as favorably 
on the 3-inch as the 2^2-inch." 
This seemed the sentiment of the majority present and 
was covered in a slightly different manner by L. F. Wilson, 
editor of the Railway Master Mechanic, as follows : 

"With reference to his recommendations for a 
two and one-half inch rim thickness, I cannot 
believe that all in this room are satisfied with 
his explanation and reasons for such a limita- 
tion. His statement to the effect that the addi- 
tion of half an inch of rim thickness makes all 
the difference between a good and poor wheel, 
deserves a more complete diagnosis. 

"I am not in a position to say that the three- 
inch rimmed wheel is a better wheel. It would 
be presumption for me to do so, but I think that 
few motive power and car men would be willing 
to accept the loss in wheel mileage which goes 
with the thinner rim, until a better reason for 
so doing is forthcoming than that given by Mr. 
Bacon here tonight. 

"As a manufacturer's representative, Mr. Ba- 



[April, 1912.] 

con's statement that a railway cannot know what 
it is getting in a steel wheel with a three-inch 
rim, owing entirely to the extra half inch of 
thickness, must carry weight. But if we are to 
accept it, we are not going to be dubious about 
the two and one-half inches as well. It would 
seem that if this were the case, one cannot know 
what he is getting in the metal of the hub, which 
is of considerably greater thickness. Of course, 
I know that the demands of service on the rim 
and on the hub are quite different. 

"The railways want to get as much mileage 
out of the solid steel wheel, or out of any other 
wheel, as it is possible to obtain, and it would 
seem that a more satisfactory answer to this 
question is to be demanded. An inch and a half 
of material for wear and machining is not as 
good a proposition as is two inches usable in the 
same way." 
In both of these discussions the points made are condi- 
tional. If we are to take Mr. Bacon's word, given in his' 
closing statement, a rim of homogeneous metal three inches 
thick is impossible in modern manufacturing practice. After 
carefully considering the replies from a large number of 
mechanical officials, to our request for information as to 
their opinions, we publish the following letter from Mr. 
Brazier as indicative of the position of most of those inter- 

Editor Railway Master Mechanic: I have your 
favor of the 21st in which you ask my prefer- 
ence in the matter of rim thickness for solid 
steel wheels. We have quite a number of wheels 
in service with 2^-inch rims. Personally, I can 
see no harm in having rims three inches thick, 
and unless there is something in the construction 
of the wheel that would be a detriment, I am in 
favor of the three-inch rim thickness for solid 
steel wheels. F. W. Brazier, 

Supt. Rolling Stock, 
New York Central Lines. 
The wheel committee of the Master Car Builders' Associa- 
tion is now considering this subject. In view of recent 
events, its report next June will be awaited with interest. 



Certain so-called "yellow" newspapers in New York and 
Chicago have been conducting a campaign against the New 
York Central Lines which for malicious misrepresentation 
is without precedent. The difficulties with which all railways 
have been contending in operating under the adverse condi- 
tions of a severe winter have been made to appear peculiar 
to the New York Central. A paragraph is given in nearly 
every issue of these papers showing the schedule of arrival 
of the fast trains of the system, attempting to convey the 
impression to the public that New York Central trains have 
been the only ones which have been running behind time to 
an unusual extent. 

Among the institutions of modern civilization nothing is 
more dangerous than the dishonestly edited, ignorantly writ- 
ten articles of this nature published in newspapers of more 
or less wide circulation. Needless to say the journals in 
question are used and manipulated in cases of this kind as a 
means of getting back at the objects of wrath in instances 
of distinctly personal animosity on the part of the owner. 

A wreck on the New York Central furnishes news which, 
after having been garbled in the most approved fashion of 
modern yellow journalism, beautifully serves the purposes 
desired. While headlines referring to rusty rails, soft ties 
and lax inspection bring nothing more than contemptuous 
smiles from those who know enough of railway operation to 
see the inconsistencies, the desired result as far as the gen- 
eral public is concerned is satisfactory to the instigator of 
this contemptible campaign. 

These shafts are directed at a railway system which, for 
high standard of equipment and operation, has long more 
nearly approached the technical man's ideal than has that 
of any other. If there was any truth in the attacks the 
country would be in a bad way indeed with respect to its 
transportation lines. In so far as the cub reporters have 
gone in attempting to show that defective equipment has been 
used, nothing has been developed other than malicious false- 
hood and glaring inconsistency. This brings us, however, 
to consideration of the present situation with respect to rail- 
way equipment in general. 

The frequency with which railway accidents of serious na- 
ture are occurring cannot but alarm those who have been 
watching the reports. Collisions have been in the minority, 
by far the larger number of the accidents that have been 
due to derailments and can be directly attributed to fail- 
ures in equipment. The summer season will record a lesser 
number of accidents than have occurred in the months past. 
Cold weather is a factor tending to the disruption of rail- 
way traffic in many ways. We can, however, look forward 
to another series of serious accidents which will be terrifying 
to the public, with the beginning of cold weather in the fall 
of 1912. 

Regulatory legislation is directly to be blamed for this- 
condition. So expensive has it been to comply with the 
exactions of law made in the last four years by state and 
national legislative bodies, that the railways have been com- 
pelled to spend money, which otherwise could and would be 
used in the improvement of equipment, in carrying out the 
letter of these laws. Railway operation has been made so 
much more expensive within the last four years, that double 
the appropriations of four years ago would be necessary to 
maintain the equipment in average condition and at the same 
time comply with these laws. These larger appropriations 
have not been made; they have, indeed, been cut in most in- 
stances, and for good reasons. Absolute inability to make 
these appropriations, is the customary defense. Whether or 
not this defense will stand, is a question for the close student 
of high finance. The fact remains, they have not been made- 

Were the ordinary thinking man to be confronted with the 
inside facts as to conditions as they really are, he would be at 
once amazed and alarmed. 60-mile-an-hour trains cannot be 
operated safely with 30-mile-an-hour equipment. Loco- 

[April, 1912.] 



motives which should have received general heavy repairs a 
year ago will cause failures and accidents when continued in 
operation at the heads of fast trains. Tracks which should 
have been relaid and ballasted a year ago will not stand 
heavy fast traffic without danger of serious accident. We 
repeat that the condition of track and rolling stock the 
country over is such that were the millions, now being 
diverted to ineffective applications by regulatory legislation, 
appropriated at once for the proper channels, it would take 
several years to restore conditions to the normal. 

This then is a situation the people, of the United States 
must face at once. Service must be cut, schedules must be 
slowed down and economy must be practised in a different 
field. Whereas, heretofore retrenchment has meant re- 
duction in the repair and purchase bills on ordinary equip- 
ment; future retrenchment must mean reduction of cost of 
haulage per passenger mile. This can be done in several 
ways, each of which means the elimination of what may be 
termed luxuries in travel. Rates have been determined by 
legislation. The necessary expenditures for the mainte- 
nance and purchase of equipment are fast being proved to 
have been too small for the last four years. Still net earn- 
ings are in a great many instances minus quantities and al- 
ways too small to pay a proper conservative interest on in- 


In planning the location of machine tools in a shop, at- 
tention is given to the routing of materials, that is, that ma- 
chines be so placed that work may travel the least distance 
during its progress to the various machines. Occasionally 
business doctors are called in at a heavy expense to improve 
the efficiency of shops, and this often results in changing the 
locations of a number of machines. However well the 
machine tool layout may have been devised when the shop 
was new, its efficiency will necessarily be decreased after 
the course of a few years. The necessity for larger storage 
room for castings may decrease the size of a passage-way, or 
may blockade a door; a stairway may, on account of placing 
new machine near it, hinder materials from passing around 
it. Conditions are constantly changing and the average 
shop superintendent should be able to make beneficial 
changes, if he will take the time to note conditions, as well 
as do the efficiency men. If so much material passes down 
an aisle that there is congestion and occasionally a block- 
ade, something is wrong with the routing of material and 
the location of some of the machine tools. Possibly a new 
passage-way can be opened and some of the work can 
take a different course. It is difficult to keep passage-ways 
clear, especially the main one through the center of the 
shop, for on occasions it is almost impossible not to en- 
croach on this space, particularly if it is not marked. Some 
shops have marked aisles by painting a white strip on 
either side, thus outlining them, which is a very good thing 
if a rule against encroaching on them is strictly enforced. 

Roofed-over floor space is worth money; it should be 
drawing a reasonable interest on the investment. How often 
though, you will see a number of machines so placed that 

a pocket is formed where it is difficult to get material in or 
out and which becomes a place for dumping and storing 
rubbish. Here good floor space is wasted, bringing abso- 
lutely no return. Perhaps a counter-shaft has been placed 
on the floor and a horizontal belt is used to transmit power 
to the machine. Such a case is probably not frequent, es- 
pecially in these days of individual drive, but it illustrates 
how free movement may be hindered and good floor space 
rendered useless. The growing use of individual motor 
drive, however, is going to make it much easier to move a 
machine if it becomes necessary, because there will be no 
necessity to consider the line shaft. We do not advocate 
that extreme refinement where the energy and time spent 
in so doing overtops the practical benefits which may re- 
sult but we do say that if the men in charge of our shops 
would take a day or so, say every six months, to go through 
the plant with the sole view of looking about for places 
where space was being wasted, where aisles were congest- 
ed and where, apparently, there was poor relation of ma- 
chines, that the result would be perhaps as good as turn- 
ing in a flock of efficiency engineers and certainly much 

U. S. MAIL. 

The efforts of the present administration to make a show- 
ing of economy in the post office department have, as is only 
too well known to those who have any occasion to use the 
mails, resulted in chaotic conditions. To those whose busi- 
ness depends upon efficient mail service the present demoral- 
ization of the department is most serious. 

Some months ago an arrangement was made to carry the 
monthly magazines in freight service instead of on passenger 
and mail trains as heretofore. It was expected that this 
would result in better and cheaper first class mail service. 
Complaints from all parts of the country seem to indicate 
that the opposite has been the case. The reason for this 
situation has been said to rest upon the fact that on account 
of a lightening of the mails, certain special mail trains have 
been taken off, thus throwing letter mail into slower pas- 
senger service. 

Whatever the reasons, the fact is that the subscribers to 
the monthly papers are getting them, if at all, on a "go as 
you please" or haphazard schedule. It does not seem that 
this system of false economy can continue through another 
period of administration. The following, taken from the 
daily press, outlines the conditions in a very emphatic man- 

Overworked men in every department, stacks 
of mail in the cellars of the post offices that 
should have been dispatched days ago and de- 
liveries that are hours, sometimes days, behind 
schedule, are conditions said to be due to the 
desire of Postmaster General Hitchcock to make 
a reputation and a record for economy. 



[April, 1912.] 

The collection and delivery system in Chicago 
and elsewhere throughout the country, it is said 
by post office employes, is a by-word. Business 
interests are severely hampered and injured by 
conditions that easily could be improved. 

There is no longer any esprit de corps among 
the men. The misuse of the civil service system 
for the exaltation of favorites and politicians has 
killed all that. Postmaster General Hitchcock, 
too, has been the means of instituting a so-called 
demerit system by which men are marked like 
schoolboys for trivial mistakes. The man who 
gets the demerit has to pay fines to the govern- 
ment and when a man gets only thirty marks 
out of a hundred, or seventy demerits in a month, 
the postmaster is forced to recommend his re- 
moval. That system has been shamefully 

Post office employes are all disgusted with the 
economical policy of the postmaster general, and 
it will cost the administration thousands of 
votes through the country. If business men 
knew how lax matters are and how their inter- 
ests are affected and threatened, they would 
open the eyes of the government to the utter 
folly of the present system. 

A business man who recently had a complaint 
against the nondelivery of some important mail 
and who was intimately acquainted with some 
post office officials made a tour of the cellars un- 
derneath the Chicago post office and stumbled 
over thirty sacks of mail that had been lying in 
a corner more than two weeks. 

ACCIDENT STATISTICS, covering 57 per cent of Amer- 
ican railway employes for a period of three years, show 
that the number killed varies inversely with the wage earned. 
Employes are arranged in five groups, those in group A 
earning $125 a month or more, while those in group E earn 
$50 a month or less. Of group A 417 were killed, while in 
group E 1,886 were killed. It is interesting to note, however, 
that the total amount paid as compensation in each of the 
five classes is practically the same, being slightly higher for 
those receiving the highest wage. 

LOAN SHARK VICTIMS among the employes of the 
Illinois Central are to receive aid and advice from the edu- 
cational bureau. There has been a great deal of agitation in 
Chicago recently against loan sharks and their methods and 
it is probable that this move was due in a measure to this 
agitation. The plan is not perfected as yet, but in the gen- 
eral circular, employes who are in trouble are invited to 
present their cases to the educational bureau in order that 
it may know what employes need and what it can provide in 
the way of aid. The rules as regard garnisheeing have not 
been rescinded, but the bureau is to respect all confidences. 
The Rock Island has also offered to give legal aid to its 
employes who are in the clutches of loan sharks. This move 
on the part of the Illinois Central and Rock Island is very 
commendable. It is an instance of the. many ways in which 
railroads are insuring an efficient and loyal organization. 

* # * 

A CAR WEIGHING INQUIRY is the next thing that the 
railroads are to face, such an inquiry having been begun by 
the Interstate Commerce Commission during the latter part 
of March. The complaint was made by a number of lumber- 
men's and coal dealers' associations that in general railroad 
scales are inaccurate and that the weighing is done in a hap- 

hazard fashion by irresponsible men. Probably if given time 
we shall have government weighmasters on all of our roads. 

ed down a ruling on March 24 establishing the principle that 
a railroad must adjust its rates on interstate traffic so that 
no injustice will be done between towns regardless of state 
lines. The case in point was on the St. Louis & South- 
western, which operates in Louisiana and Texas. The Texas 
commission had ordered certain rates between Dallas and 
other points in Texas which were lower than those between 
Dallas and Shreveport, La. It was claimed that this was 
unfair discrimination by the Louisiana commission and its 
contention was upheld by a 4 to 3 vote of the Interstate 
Commerce Commission. The minority held that the ma- 
jority opinion was an usurpation of the powers of Con- 
gress. The decision, however, fixes all the more strongly 
the supremacy of the national commission, for it was held 
that the tolerance of such a condition as above mentioned 
would be to admit that a state could limit and prescribe the 
flow of commerce between states. The powers of the In- 
terstate Commerce Commission with regard to interstate 
commerce were again affirmed in a decision handed down 
by the Supreme Court on April 1 in the case of the Goodrich 
Transit Co. The Commission had sought to compel the 
Goodrich people to make reports covering traffic within 
states as well as interstate traffic. The Commerce court 
held that the Commission could not compel the filing of in- 
trastate reports but the decision of the Supreme Court rec- 
ognizes this right and reverses the decision of the Com- 
merce Court, thereby giving the Commission more author- 
ity over the entire carrying facilities of the country. 

* * * 

THE LOCOMOTIVE ENGINEERS on fifty railroads 
east of Chicago and north of the Norfolk & Western Railway 
on January 22, 1912, presented requests for wage increases 
amounting to 18.63 per cent per annum. A committee of gen- 
eral managers and vice-presidents was appointed to repre- 
sent the railroads in the territory named, and on March 14, 
in New York, the conference committee of managers met a 
committee representing the engineers, for whom W. S. Stone, 
grand chief engineer of the Brotherhood of Locomotive En- 
gineers, appeared as spokesman. On March 14 and 15 Mr. 
Stone presented the case of the engineers, saying in effect 
that the wage increases asked by the engineers were sought, 
not because of the increased cost of living, but because of 
what he termed the increased responsibility placed on the 

Following Mr. Stone's exposition of the case, an adjourn- 
ment was taken until March 25, at which time the formal 
reply of the railroads was given to the engineers. 

Realizing the great public interest in any wage controversy 
involving the railroads in the eastern section of the country, 
and feeling keenly their duty to the public as carriers, and 
also their obligations to their stockholders, the managers 
wish to announce that full and complete information will be 
given by the railroads as the negotiations progress. The 
managers feel that with all the facts in the present con- 
troversy fully understood by the press and the public, the 
prospects of a settlement fair to the interests immediately 
concerned as well as to the public will be improved. 

In view of the above, the managers will give out any in- 
formation available, and inquiries made of the committee 
at Room 580, 50 Church Street, New York City, will meet 
with prompt reply. 

April. 191-2.] 


British Locomotives in 1911 

By. Thos. Reece. 


While depression has been the note of the locomotive build- 
ing industry in the United Kingdom in 1911 owing to the re- 
stricted demand for the machines, things were better than in 
1910 and the number of men employed in thirteen of the 
leading • Scottish works, for example, rose on the year from 
20,274 to 22,503. These figures, however, still show a tremen- 
dous fall from the 1907 figures of 24,450. At the same time 
in other respects the year has been remarkable in the railway 
history of the country. Forward strides have been made in 
the adoption of superheating which now appears to have quite 
passed the experimental stage for several railways. 

With regard to the new and interesting locomotives of the 
year advantage might be taken of an interesting article in a 
Manchester paper to summarize some of these for readers of 
"Railway Master Mechanic." Starting with the Great Western, 

Drummond has signalized this by building some more of the 
heavy and very powerful six-coupled 4-6-0 express engines 
with four cylinders, the first of which type was brought out 
in 1906. These new engines, which are primarily designed 
for the Bournemouth express traffic, are slightly different from 
the earlier ones. They have coupled wheels 6 ft. 7 in. diameter 
instead of 6 ft., and the four cylinders are placed in line below 
the smoke-box, those inside actuating the leading coupled axle, 
whilst the outside pair drive the middle pair of coupled wheels. 
The cylinders are 15 in. by 26 in., and piston valves are used 
with the Walschaert valve gear. The bogie wheels are 3 ft. 7 in. 
diameter, the steam pressure 175 pounds per square inch, and 
the total heating surface 1,920 square feet. The Drummond 
water-tube fire-box is fitted, and the safety valves are over the 
fire-box instead of on top of the dome. The engines weigh in 

Locomotives of Great Central (England), Standard Types. 

this line appears to have dropped the continual multiplication 
of new types of locomotives — a change which became noticeable 
after the building of the large "Pacific" type of engine "The 
Great Bear" two or three years ago. Latterly Mr. Church- 
ward has rather multiplied the number of engines of his most 
successful types, especially of the 4-6-0 type, and he has been 
rebuilding some of the earlier 4-4-0 type and bringing them 
up to date. He has, however, built 20 engines of a mixed 
traffic 2-6-0 wheel arrangement. The employment of the super- 
heater on this line has become common, and a special type has 
been developed known as the "Swindon" superheater. 

On the London and South-Western the complete removal 
of the locomotive works from Nine Elms to Eastleigh . has 
brought about considerable activity in engine building, and Mr. 

working order Q8 l / 2 English tons each and the eight-wheeled ten- 
ders 40 tons (89,600 pounds). 

On the London and North-Western railway there has been 
considerable activity, especially in express passenger locomotive 
building. The three-cylindered passenger compounds may now 
be said to be obsolete, and the four-cylindered are now prac- 
tically restricted to ordinary or fast passenger traffic, the chief 
exception being some of the Manchester-to-Liverpool express 
trains. The express work generally is now being done by Mr. 
Whale's "Precursor" (4-4-0) and "Experiment" (4-6-0) classes, 
and the new engines of a similar type built by his successor, 
Mr. Bowen-Cooke. 

It may be remembered that the "widened" type of passengei 
rolling stock has been generally adopted by the leading lines 



[April, 1912.] 

in this country since it was proved so successful for suburban 
traffic some years ago on the Great Eastern by James Holden, 
at that time the chief mechanical engineer of that railway. This 
widened stock is naturally considerably heavier than the older 
types, and powerful though Mr. Whale's engines are, the con- 
tinually increasing weight of express trains and their high speeds 
made it necessary for Mr. Bowen-Cooke to look still further 
ahead. Accordingly, having dropped the compound system for 
the London and North-Western, he determined to try superheat- 
ing, and in July, 1910, a "Precursor" type of engine of slightly 
heavier build was constructed and named "George the Fifth." 
An extended trial of this engine against another of the same 
type but non-superheated proved so satisfactory that during the 
first ten months of 1911 a continual procession of these locomo- 
tives may be said to have come out of Crewe works. The com- 
pany now owns some fifty of them, and all but about five have 
been built in 1911. So quickly have these engines been put to 
work that most of them are still running in the rough lead 
color which is usually painted over when an engine has done 
its trial trips. 

One of these engines, "Coronation," has attracted much public 
attention, as it figured largely in the royal journeys at the cor- 
onation, and especially at the Prince of Wales' Investiture jour- 
ney to Carnarvon. The engine, moreover, is notable as the 
5,000th turned out of Crewe works, and to mark this it was 
painted in special colors; a good deal of gilding is used in pick- 
ing out the panelling, a brass crown surmounts the nameplate, 
and wheel bosses and buffer-ends are bright steel. The dimen- 
sions of this and the other engines of the "George the Fifth" 
class are as follows : Cylinders, 20^4 in. by 26 in. ; boiler, 5 ft. 
2 in. diameter, length of barrel 11 ft. 9^4 in. ; heating surface, 
1,849.65 sq. ft.; grate area, 22.4 sq. ft.; firebox, 7 ft. 4 in. long 
and 4 ft. 1 in. wide outside the casing. The working steam pres- 
sure is 175 pounds per square inch, and the temperature of the 
steam in the superheater is up to 650 degs. Fahr., or, say, 270 de- 
grees of superheat. The valves are 8 in. pistons working by 
Joy's valve gear. The driving-wheels are 6 ft. 9 in. diameter, 
bogie-wheels 3 ft. 3 in. diameter, the coupling rods 10 ft. center 
to center, and the Webb type of central balance weight is em- 
ployed. The engine in working order weighs 134,064 pounds, 
and the tender with 15,680 pounds of coal and 3,000 gallons of 
water 87,920 pounds. 

The first few days of 1911 saw the appearance also of Mr. 
Cooke's new type of passenger tank engine, which resembles 
largely the "Experiment" passenger engines, just as Mr. Whale's 
large tank engines were practically of the "Precursor" class. It 
was rumored that Mr. Cooke's new tanks were to have been of 
the 2-6-4 type — that is, six-coupled, with a leading pair of "pony" 
wheels and a trailing bogie under the bunker, a novelty for 
Great Britain. Whether this type was contemplated at first 
it is hard to say, but what has been built is a six-coupled engine 
with a leading bogie and trailing pair of wheels of the 4-6-2 
type. The dimensions are : Bogie-wheels and trailing-wheels, 
3 ft. 3 in. diameter; six-coupled wheels, 5 ft. S l / 2 in. diameter, 
the total wheel base being 33 ft. 9 in. The boiler has a working 
pressure of 175 pounds per square inch and a total heating sur- 
face of 1,475 square feet. The cylinders are I8J/2 in. by 26 in., 
whilst the tanks have a capacity of 1,700 gallons of water and 
the bunker three tons (6,720 pounds) of coal. The total weight 
of this engine in working order is 174,720 pounds. A number of 
this class have been built, some of which have superheating 
and one or two have feed-water heating apparatus. They have 
also the water pick-up apparatus so arranged that it can be used 
both when running forward or backward, and this, oddly enough, 
is a novelty on London and North-Western tank engines, though 
the Lancashire and Yorkshire have had it for many years, and 
the water-scoop for ordinary passenger engines was a London 
and North-Western patent and first used in 1859. These tank 
engines have also Belpaire fire-boxes, another innovation on this 

line, only two having been previously fitted on a couple of the 
Webb four-cylindered "Diamond Jubilee" compound class. 

In November Mr. Bowen-Cooke turned out the first of a new 
superheated class of "Experiment" type of six-coupled 4-6-0 en- 
gines named "Prince of Wales." The original engine of this 
name was a 7 ft. 6 in. single Ramsbottom engine, which was 
involved in the terrible accident near Abergele in August, 1868, 
and, being repaired at the time and later rebuilt with a new 
boiler, ran till 1906, when it was scrapped by Mr. Whale. Ten 
of this new "Prince of Wales" class are already running, still 
in lead color, and more will be built. Like the "George the 
Fifth" class, they have slightly larger cylinders and are fitted 
with a mechanical lubricator. Mr. Bowen-Cooke is also still 
converting the 0-8-0 Webb compound mineral engines to two- 
cylinder simple engines, practically all the three-cylindered en- 
gines having been so dealt with, and a number of the four- 
cylindered, and he is also building more new engines of the 
simple 0-8-0 class. Another feature is the number of the small 
2-4-2 Webb tank engines which are being refitted for "motor" 
train service, being now too small for main line work. 

The North-Eastern railway have had some very powerful "At- 
lantic" (4-4-2) express engines built, and, contrary to their cus- 
tom, by outside makers. They are simple engines, but with 
three cylinders all in one caseing, and half the number use or- 
dinary saturated steam and the other half are superheated. The 
former have cylinders 15^ in. diameter by 26 in., and boiler 
pressure of 180 pounds per square inch; whilst the latter have 
cylinders 16H in. diameter by 26 in., and 160 pounds pressure. 
The boiler is 15 ft. 10 J / 2 in. long and 5 ft. 6 in. diameter, with a 
heating surface of 2,340 square feet. The bogie wheels are 3 ft. 
7% in. in diameter, the coupled wheels 6 ft. 10 in., and the 
trailing wheels 4 ft. The engines weigh in working order 172,- 
480 pounds and the tender 100,800 pounds. 

The Great Northern have built some ordinary six-coupled 
goods engines of a previous powerful type but with a super- 
heater, and also some 4-4-0 passenger engines with the same 
boiler as the goods and also having the superheater. 

The Great Eastern, after rebuilding their 4-4-0 express en- 
gines with larger boilers, and also some new engines of the 
same type, are bringing out a new class of 4-6-0 engines. 

On the Midland the policy of rebuilding the later Johnson en- 
gines is still being pursued, and experiments are being made 
with superheating both with the Schmidt and the "Swindon" 

On the Great Central Mr. Robinson has built some new 
eight-coupled mineral engines with a leading "pony" pair of 
wheels, thus making the 2-8-0 type, an unusual one in this coun- 
try. The cylinders are 21 in. by 26 in., the coupled wheels 4 ft. 
8 in. diameter, the working pressure 160 pounds per square inch, 
whilst the boilers have a heating surface of 1,538 square feet. 
The engines weigh in working order 162,400 pounds and the 
tenders 103,376 pounds. The boiler is fitted with a smoke-tube 
superheater of 18 elements, the pipes of which are expanded 
direct into the header, which occupies its usual position across 
the smoke-box and above the tubes, so as to leave the latter 
unobstructed for cleaning. This is now the accepted design of 
superheater on the Great Central Railway. There are 18 large 
tubes 5]4 in. outside diameter containing superheater elements, 
each of which consists of four lengths of 1 3-16-in. bore solid 
drawn steel pipe in series, the return bends being made solid 
and thickened up on Howell's "Torpedo" system. The cylinders 
fire fitted with Robinson's patent pressure release valves, which 
automatically open both ends of the cylinders to the atmosphere 
when steam is shut off and automatically open when steam is 
on if the pressure in the cylinders should rise above that in the 
steam-chest, as might happen if water were present. These 
valves, therefore, fulfill three functions : 

(1) They perform the work of the steam-chest air valves by 
preventing the formation of a vacuum when running without 

[April, 1912.] 



(2) By preventing compression at the end of the piston stroke 
when running without steam they overcome the "knock" on the 
connecting-rod bearings caused thereby, thus doing the work of 
the by-pass ports and cock often fitted to piston valve engines 
for this purpose. 

(3) They are most effective priming valves, opening when the 
cylinder pressure is only a little above that in the steam-chest, 
no matter what the latter may be. In this way they replace 
the usual spring relief valves, which do not open until the cyl- 
inder pressure has risen to something above the working pres- 
sure of the boiler. 

All parts of the engine have been designed to duplicate as far 
as possible with those of existing types. The boiler is the same 
as that used for the "Atlantic" engine, the cylinders will inter- 
change with the "Atlantic" 4-6-0 and 0-8-0 engines, and the 
coupled wheels, axles, motion, etc., are those of the existing 
0-8-0 class. The leading truck is of the swing-link type, having 
a cross-travel of 6 in. which in conjunction with thin flanges 
on the intermediate and driving wheels enables the engine to 
pass five chain curves with ease. 

have built a new 4-6-0 express engine similar to those of their 
other classes, but fitted with a superheater and larger cylinders. 
The North British Railway have again, after some years, re- 
verted to the "Atlantic" type, and have had six of these heavy 
engines built. They have two cylinders 20 in. by 28 in., driving 
wheels 6 ft. 9 in. diameter, and the total weight of the engine is 
167,440 lbs. and the tender 103,600 pounds. Two engines on this 
line have been running with the Phoenix superheater, whilst 
four are being equipped and two new ones built with the 
"Schmidt" type. The Caledonian Railway has seven engines 
superheated, two more are being fitted, and four new engines are 
being built with superheating apparatus. It has been found 
already that engines on this line with steam pressure of 180 
pounds and 200 pounds per square inch can be reduced to 160 
pounds and 165 pounds respectively and cylinders of 19 inch 
diameter increased to 20 inch and 21 inch. The Highland Rail- 
way also has a locomotive fitted with the "Phoenix" super- 
heater and the Great North of Scotland Railway is making 
a trial. The Furness Railway has also tried five engines with 
the Phoenix superheater. The Great Northern of Ireland Rail- 

Locomotives of North Eastern (England), Standard Types. 

Six new "Atlantic" type locomotives have been built for the 
London, Brighton and South Coast Railway similar to the orig- 
inal batch of 1906 but here again with the superheater and with 
cylinders of 21 in. diameter. 

On the Lancashire and Yorkshire a new class of eight-coupled 
0-8-0 mineral engines has been put into service. They have two 
inside cylinders 20 in. by 26 in. and coupled wheels 4 ft. 6 in. 
diameter. The boiler is similar to that fitted to the 4-6-0 ex- 
press engines and has a heating surface of 2,455 square feet 
and a steam pressure of 180 lb. per square inch, and the engine 
has a total weight of 149,632 lbs. The tenders are large for this 
line, as they have eight wheels and weigh 92,960 lbs. It is 
notable that these engines have been built since the Hughes' 
compounds, which latter he built after the other English rail- 
ways had given up the system. The Glasgow and South-Western 

way has some new 4-4-0 express engines with cylinders 18 in. 
by 24 in. and a heating surface of 1,459.5 square feet including 
the superheater surface with which these engines are also fitted. 
The engines weigh 104,160 lbs. total. Some powerful 0-6-0 goods 
engines have been built also with superheaters, cylinders 18 in. 
by 26 in., and 1,672 square feet of heating surface. The con- 
cluding example is a 4-4-2 superheated tank engine on the North 
Stafford Railway. It will thus be evident that while compound- 
ing has been tried and found wanting in the United Kingdom 
superheating is likely to become general. 

As regards passenger rolling-stock, the building of the heavy 
"Widened" stock, corridor and ordinary, for main line trains 
continues to increase as does the luxurious style of fittings. 
Little that is new in construction has occurred — the most notable 
being some new 56 ft. bogie coaches on the Great Central, made 



[April, 1912.] 

of varnished teak, with the match-boarding style of sides instead 
of the usual panelling, the numerals being in raised metal. Also 
may be mentioned the new bogie observation car built by the 
London and North-Western to run between Llandudno and 
Blaenau Festiniog. This car, built as an attraction for tourists 
and widely advertised, is after all only the modern successor 
of a very small one run over twenty years ago by the same 
company and on the same route. 

Some notable retirements from active railway service have 
taken place, the chief being Lord Stalbridge from the chairman- 
ship of the London and North-Western, Sir Ernest Paget from 
the chair of the Midland, Sir Charles Owens from the general 
managership of the London and South-Western, and Mr. Ivatt 
from the position of locomotive and carriage superintendent on 
the Great Northern. 

Through the courtesy of chief mechanical engineers John G. 
Robinson of the Great Central and Vincent L. Raven of the 
North-Eastern, we are able to reproduce illustrations of four 
representative locomotives. 


By Louis Brentnall. • 

In these days a well-equipped office is an important essen- 
tial with every master mechanic. 

Generally, there is little, if any, objection to a master 
mechanic improving his office where he can do so by using 
shop labor and such materials as are in his stock. A new 
floor, new wainscoting and a day v s use of the paint brush 
transforms an otherwise ill-looking office into an acceptable 
working place for office men. A large room may be par- 
titioned, with the master mechanic's portion of the office to 
one side, so that employes on routine business need not dis- 
turb him. An alert chief clerk should be able to handle 
affairs generally, referring only such special matters to the 
master mechanic as require technical knowledge or authori- 
tative dispensation. 

Technical books, charts, blueprints and special data should 
all have a place in a book case or cupboard where they 
can be readily obtained for reference. A chart of the divi- 
sion, in enlarged size, is especially useful where it shows 
the distance between points, the facilities of small shops or 
roundhouses, number of men employed, etc. 

One clerk, preferably the chief clerk, should handle all 
mail, after the office boy has opened it and affixed the office 
stamp. If the master mechanic wishes to know about some 
special case, the chief clerk can tell him its status or hand 
him the papers. 

The old-time practice of running around the shop to ob- 
tain information has become antiquated since the telephone 
has come into general use, and in many shops every fore- 
man can be reached by phone and information obtained as 
to when a certain engine or car will be out of the shop 
without the necessity of the chief clerk or master mechanic 
leaving his chair. In other cases, the office boy may be 
dispatched to the shop with a note. This lessens the num- 
ber of visits to the different departments and facilitates the 
handling of work in both shop and office. 

Today is especially a time when work of all kinds is being 
handled on a cost basis; that is, the cost of every job is 
figured closely, and current figures compared with past data 
to ascertain whether costs are running high. Such costs 
can be computed much better where everything pertaining 
to a weekly or monthly period is put into current reports, 
instead of allowing some of the data to tail over into the 
following months. Office work is facilitated by the chief 
clerk having a list of all reports received or rendered, show- 
ing data of issue, and any other reference required. In this 
way nothing is overlooked. 

In his pocket the master mechanic may carry a small rec- 
ord book containing special information, such as a synopsis 

of the specifications of different engines — sizes of cylinders,, 
drivers, etc., as well as data pertaining to costs, output, 
equipment undergoing repairs, and so on, the data being 
kept up-to-date by the clerks. 

A deficiency in some master mechanics' offices, which 
usually results in handling the office work inefficiently, is 
a limited office force, consisting generally of a timekeeper, 
who is kept busy recording daily the time worked; a distri- 
bution clerk, who keeps track of labor expenditures and 
materials used, and a chief clerk; while general matters con- 
tinually coming up must be handled in connection with the 
rapidly accumulating routine. Where a master mechanic 
needs another clerk he may find a plea for better office facili- 
ties a better course than asking for authority for installing 
another clerk. An adding machine for adding up time re- 
turns, payrolls, distribution and material figures will pay for 
itself in a few months in the average railroad office. Let- 
ters need not be copied in a book, as formerly, for carbon 
copies can readily be made for both the letter-book and bun- 
dle of correspondence. Letter-writing can be shortened one- 
half by first considering the three or four points pertaining 
to a subject, and then writing as briefly as possible on these 
points. Duplicating machines are especially useful in send- 
ing fac simile letters to the foremen at the different points 
on the division or line. Devices which do the duplicating 
by using a special typewriter ribbon are easy to handle for 
small uses, while the mimeograph is essential for making 
a large number of copies of one letter. 

A special file for the master mechanic's desk is a great 
convenience. This may be simply a wooden holder or box 
with an alphabetical index, into which papers may be placed 
in a hurry and found when wanted. A card index tray may 
be used for special memorandums, by writing notes on cards 
and filing them in the tray under dates or special index tabs. 
Loose-leaf books of different kinds are also time-savers or a 
convenience when used for special purposes. 

The work of a well-equipped master mechanic's office is 
greatly facilitated where a dependency is placed upon the 
foremen of different shop departments to supervise the men 
and work, and report to the office promptly all data as due, 
rather than to allow the furnishing of information to run so- 
far behind that it loses some part of its value or purpose. 

Time clocks afford the best means, generally, of register- 
ing men in and out of the shop, as the men register on cards 
and are practically their own timekeeper, while the office 
timekeper records in his time book the time shown on their 

Special forms are almost a necessity in expediting the 
handling of the clerical work of a master mechanic's office, 
these being such as meet individual requirements. Boiler 
repairs may be indicated by having the diagram of a boiler 
printed on a sheet or card, with blank space for writing a 
few words of necessary explanation. The same pertains with 
car repairs, by having a card carry the outline of a freight 
car, with space for showing the number of bolts or boards 
applied. Forms containing columns with special headings 
can be devised to suit requirements by using the mimeo- 
graph or hecktograph. 

A blueprint window in the office or shop facilitates office 
work as well as shop work. A number of officials may wish 
to know what the damage was to certain equipment. A 
rough sketch will show this, and the one sketch answers 
for sending all inquirers, with a few words of explanation. 
Such prints may show estimated cost of repairs, as well as 
other data. 

Messages require prompt handling. Where the master 
mechanic's office is remote from the telegraph office the office 
boy should make trips to it at certain times during the day. 
Incoming messages may be phoned by the operator, but out- 
going messages should generally be delivered at the tele- 
graph office to obviate error. 

[April. 1912.] 



Smoke Abatement Tests at Chicago, A- T. & S. F. Ry. 

(Copyrighted by 

The Chicago Association of Commerce Committee on Smoke 
Abatement and Electrification of Railway Terminals has recently 
issued bulletin number six, giving results of tests made on Santa 
Fe switching locomotives in actual service at the Chicago yards. 
These tests were made by H. B. MacFarland, engineer of tests 
for the Santa Fe and are very comprehensive. 

The subject of smoke abatement has received the attention and 
consideration of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway 
during many years past. Not only has it been desirable on the 
part of the railroad company to eliminate smoke from its loco- 
motives on account of the 'smoke nuisance," so called, but on 
account of the increase in fuel economy and the increase in 
general efficiency and steaming qualities of the locomotive that 
operates without making much smoke. 

During the past eight or nine years a great many smoke con- 
sumption devices have been applied to locomotives in Chicago, 
in order to reduce the smoke. Some of the appliances thus tried 
have been on engines for several years. Of the various apparatus 
applied to the different engines for the reduction of smoke, few 
had any value in reducing the total amount of smoke delivered 
from the stack. Devices were for the most part simply aids for 
the dilution of the smoke made in the firebox. 

The most important apparatus of all applied to the locomotive 
for the reduction of smoke is the brick arch. The arch is of 
value in the reduction of smoke because it aids in maintaining 
uniformity of temperature of the gases in the firebox even 
though there is great irregularity in conditions of operation of 
the locomotive. 

For the complete combustion of coal, two things are necessary : 
first, a sufficient quantity of oxygen; second, a sufficiently high 
temperature. Smoke may be properly defined as the result of the 
combustion of fuels other than those of pure carbon. Smoke as 
generally recognized, however, consists largely of a mixture 
of the products of combustion of carbon and oxygen, such as 
carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy hydro-carbons and 
other gases. 

When the products of combustion contain to any extent free 
carbon as well as a quantity of tarry or hydro-carbon vapors, 
the resultant mixture is usually recognized as smoke. The de- 
gree or grade of smoke depends upon the quantity of tarry 
vapors present in the mixture. 

If, in the burning of coal containing a large percentage of 
volatile matter, the temperature of the resultant gases can be 
maintained sufficiently high and uniform for a considerable pe- 
riod of time, then the tarry vapors in the smoke will be greatly 
reduced. Unfortunately, however, the construction of our loco- 
motives is such that in the same chamber or firebox, the process 
of ignition and combustion of gases is accompanied with the 
extraction of heat from the gases, so that a uniformity in tem- 
perature of gases is not maintained. 

The installation of a brick arch in the firebox results in the 
maintaining of gases at a uniform temperature and also delays 
them from giving up heat to surrounding cooler mediums until 
the process of combustion is complete. 

Tests were made at different times of various smoke devices, 
applied to locomotives. Arrangements were made, about two 
years ago, to supplement these smoke-reducing devices by 
changing the grade of coal so as to reduce the amount of smoke 
issuing from locomotives to a minimum and to keep the smoke 
down, if possible, to such an extent that penalties would not be 
imposed on the part of the municipal government of Chicago 
on account of the density of smoke coming from Santa Fe loco- 

The results of tests made at that time were so favorable on 
account of smoke from the coal that a change was made from 
Illinois coal, then being used on Santa Fe switch engines in 
Chicago, to Pocahontas coal, even though the cost for the Po- 
cahontas coal was 75 per cent greater than for the Illinois coal. 

Horace G. Burt.) 

The object of this test was to obtain an exact record of the 
smoke issuing from a Santa Fe locomotive in regular switching 
service in and around the 18th Street Yards, Chicago. A 
further object of the test was to determine, if possible, the total 
amount and the size of the cinders thrown out by these switch 
locomotives. It was also desired to establish a comparison of 
the results now being obtained with the percentage of smoke 
and cinders that would issue from a locomotive in regular and 
ordinary service if Illinois coal were used as formerly, instead 
of Pocahontas. 

Santa Fe switch engine 2024, in regular switching service in 
the passenger coach yards at 18th Street, Chicago, was equipped 
for comparative tests. This engine is equipped with a brick 
arch. Test runs were made with this engine, using Pocahontas 
coal and also using Illinois coal. The tank was calibrated and 
fitted with water gauges, so that the water consumption could 
be determined. Connections were tapped into the smoke box so 
that samples of flue gas could be drawn off for analysis. 

It was found desirable to determine the character and amount 
of cinders thrown out of the stack by the engine when in opera- 
tion. A specially designed cinder catcher, shown in the illus- 
tration, was used for this purpose. In this apparatus, a portion 
of the stack area, in the form of a sector of a circle, laid off 
to be a definite percentage of the total stack area, is covered 
with a special hood. This hood conducts all of the smoke and 
cinders entering this known area, into a sheet iron hopper where 
the solid matter is separated and collected at the bottom, and the 
smoke is liberated to the atmosphere. The hood was shifted 
about the stack during tests in order to collect an average sample 
of exhaust products. 

Observations were first taken of this engine using Pocahontas 
coal in regular switching service in the 18th Street and Corwith 
Yards, Chicago. Data were secured during two one-day tests. 

All observations were made upon a time basis : A continuous 
log, showing density of the smoke, coal fired, use of injector, 
use of blower, and steam jet operation, was recorded as well as 
the number of cars handled at any given time, starts, stops, 
periods of standing, and any other data bearing upon the general 
performance of the engine. These data have been plotted in 
chart form for a one-day test and are shown in the illus- 

Readings were taken at the time of each change in operation 
and the duration of that operation was noted, so that the plotted 
results show the exact performance and condition of operation 
of locomotive at any given time. This chart then gives oppor- 
tunity for a very complete study of the bearing the various opera- 
tions in locomotive performance have toward one another in the 
production or abatement of smoke. 

Readings of water gauge glasses on tank were taken only at 
time of stops and the evaporation was calculated on the total 
water and coal figures for the day. 

Smoke observations were based upon a comparison with Pro- 
fessor Ringelmann's smoke charts. No attempt was made to 
determine a finer gradation of smoke between densities as shown 
by Professor Ringelmann's charts 1, 2, 3 and 4. i. e., 20, 40, 
60, and 80 per cent, as the transition from one grade to another 
was accomplished too quickly to record intermediate densities. 

Samples of flue gases were drawn every hour during an in- 
terval of approximately ten minutes, regardless of conditions of 
operations so that the results give an average for the entire 
day's run. 

After the completion of the tests with the Pocahontas coal, 
the same engine was fired with Illinois coal and a day's test was 
made, similar observations being made as during the test of the 
Pocahontas coal. 

In making a general study of the smoke density for the pe- 
riod shown in the typical day's test, three classifications are 
made, viz., "smoke," "white," and "clear." The term "smoke" 



[April, 1912.] 

(April, 1912.] 



1 1 










1 1 







1 TJ 









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.. y 

J : 


t -A* 

.1 ) ■- 


- ,e 



-Hh- --*- 

J..... . 


— If- -5, 


t"""r : : 





J ■ 







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- 2 o) -* * w o k ' 

AO^O. Af 

1 1 1 1 1 1 A 

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fcl 0- 


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[April, 1912.] 

includes all grades from vapor to the maximum. By "white"' is 
meant the absence of any color to the exhaust at time of observa- 
tions. When "clear" neither smoke nor exhaust could be seen, 
nothing but a colorless heat vapor being given off. 

Based upon the above classification, a division of the stack 
gases for the day's test with Pocahontas coal, and also with Illi- 
nois coal, shows as follows : The division is based upon the 
percentage of total elapsed time : 
Stack Gases Pocahontas Illinois 

White 34 per cent 18 per cent 

Clear 42 per cent 2 per cent 

Smoke 24 per cent 80 per cent 

During the test with Pocahontas coal no smoke above the 
grade of No. 4 was observed. The average duration of smoke 
was from three to eight seconds, the smoke lasting only from 
four to eight exhausts after a given firing period, the stack 
then clearing up and showing white. The extreme periods of 
smoking occurred at times fire was raked or just after the 
engineer had shut off steam and the locomotive was allowed 
to drift. With the Illinois coal the maximum grade of smoke 
observed was No. 4, no dense black smoke being observed at any 
time. Not only was the duration of smoking periods greater than 
with the Pocahontas coal but the average density of the smoke 
w r as much higher. 

The coal consumption was determined by recording the num- 
ber of scoops of coal fired and multiplying the average weight 
of a scoop of coal by this amount. The average weight per 
scoop was determined by throwing aside an occasional scoop 
during firing periods, and then weighing this amount to deter- 
mine an average weight per scoop. Results obtained were as 
follows : 

During a period of nine hours and forty-seven minutes, 251 
scoops of Pocahontas coal were fired, and during a period of 
nine hours and twenty-seven minutes, 283 scoops of Illinois coal 
were fired. Results obtained were as follows : 

Pocahontas. Illinois. 
Average weight per scoop, pounds. . . 15 15.25 

Total coal fired, pounds 3,765 4,320 

Consumption per hour, pounds 386 457 

Water consumption was determined by means of gauge glasses 
placed at each of the four corners of the tank. The tank was 
carefully calibrated before the tests. An average of the readings 
of the four levels was taken as the true level of the tank. The 
temperature of the feed water averaged about 65 degrees Fah- 
renheit, throughout the series of tests. Allowing 1.5 per cent of 
total water used out of tank as injector overflow, evaporation 
figures are as follows : 

Pocahontas. Illinois. 
Water supplied to injector, pounds... 34,470 29,265 

Water wasted by injector, pounds.... 520 440 

Water delivered to boiler, pounds 33,950 28,825 

Total coal burned, pounds 3,765 3,797 

Pounds of water evaporated per 

pound of coal fired 9.0 7.6 

A composite sample of each of the different coals was ob- 
tained in accordance with standards outlined by the American 
Society of Mechanical Engineers. The heating value of the 
coals was determined by use of a Mohler bomb calorimeter. 
The volatile matter, fixed carbon, ash, etc., were determined in 
accordance with standard methods of the American Chemical 
Society. The proximate analysis follows : 

Pocahontas. Illinois. 

Moisture, per cent 1.76 0.45 

Volatile matter, per cent 17.21 30.87 

Fixed carbon, per cent 74.08 60.99 

Ash, per cent 6.91 7.69 

Sulphur, per cent 1.06 2.34 

Heating value, B. t. u. per pound 14,085 13,331 

A composite sample of ash taken from the ash pan during 
each day's test analyzed with results as follows : 

Pocahontas. Illinois 

Moisture, per cent 0.59 0.61 

Volatile matter, per cent 7.85 3.97 

Fixed carbon, per cent 43.90 48.17 

Ash, per cent 47.65 48.25 

Sulphur, per cent 0.17 0.15 

Heating value, B. t. u. per pound.... 8,241 5,266 

The special cinder hopper was used throughout each day's test. 
This device served to divert 10.87 per cent of the total amount of 
exhaust gases passing out of the stack. The solid matter was 
separated and retained; the smoke was liberated. 

i IJ5D! 


Cinder Catcher, Santa Fe Smoke Tests. 

The position of the hopper inlet in relation to the stack was 
changed from time to time in order to obtain results that would 
reflect an average condition. Knowing the relation of the area 
of the hopper inlet to the area of the stack, the entire amount 
of cinders passing out of the stack could be estimated from the 
amount caught and retained by the hopper. 
The results were as follows : 

Pocahontas Coal. 
Total elapsed time, 9 hours 47 minutes. 

Dry weight of cinders caught, pounds 2.75 

Estimated weight total cinders thrown from stack, 

pounds 29.88 

Estimated total weight cinders thrown from stack 

per hour, pounds 3.17 

The ratio, then, of pounds of coal fired to pounds of cinders 
thrown from stack is 1 to 0.0082. This ratio gives 16.4 pounds 
of cinders passing from the stack per ton of coal fired or only 
0.82 of 1 per cent of coal fired going from the stack in the 
form of cinders. 

In 1910, 22,608 tons of Pocahontas coal were fired in Santa 
Fe switch locomotives in Chicago. At the ratio of 16.4 pounds 
of cinders per ton of coal fired, 185 tons of cinders were thrown 
from locomotives in 1910. 

Illinois Coal. 
Total elapsed time, 9 hours 27 minutes. 
Dry weight of cinders caught, pounds 3.06 


Estimated weight of cinders thrown from stack for number of scoops of coal fired at a time, time injector, blower 

entire day pounds 32 - 65 and sm °ke consumer were on or off direction of travel, number 

Estimated total weight cinders thrown from stack of cars handled, flue gas analysis, etc., are plotted upon a time 

per hour pounds 3 - 46 basis, so that the relation between these various operations may 

, j. . , be studied and their effect on abatement or production of smoke 

The ratio, then, of pounds of coal hred to pounds of cinders determined 

from the stack is 1 to 0.0076. This ratio gives 15.2 pounds of ^ ^ duration q£ smoke when ^ fud . g p ocahontas coal 

cinders passing out of the stack per ton of coal hred or only ^ particularly noticeable in the difficulty experienced in obtain- 

■0.76 of 1 per cent of coal fired going out of the stack in the form .^ photographs tQ represent typical condi tions. An attempt 

of cinders. was ^ rst ma de to secure the photographs as the locomotive 

In 1909, 24,714 tons of Illinois coal were fired in Santa Fe ^^ & ^^ ^.^ but ^ soon became ^.^ ^ ^ Qnly 

switch locomotives in Chicago. At the ratio of 15.2 pounds ot ^ tQ secure photographs that would satisfactorily represent 

cinders per ton of coal fired, 188 tons of cinders were thrown conditionS) was to secure the photographs from some pos i t i n 

from locomotives in Chicago during 1909. upon the locomotive where they could be snapp ed at a moment's 

An analysis of the cinders from the stack was made with the not{ce wjth guch an arrangement the oper ator experienced 

following classification as determined by mesh of sieve. difficulty in catching a given picture at the desired time, owing to 

Pocahontas Illinois the rapJd transit j on of smo k e density from a condition of 
Per Cents "smoke" to "clear" or "white." 
Passing through 100 mesh sieve.... 50.00 62.50 Thg analysis of flue gases shows very complete combustion of 
Passing through 50 mesh sieve.... 14.28 12.50 gageg fof both fudg Thig condition is to be expected on loco- 
Passing through 30 mesh sieve.... 14.28 12.50 motives in this class of service, where the work is comparatively 
Passing through 20 mesh sieve.... 7.14 6.25 Hght and Jt j g nQt found necessary to force the fire at any time 

Coarse cinders 14.30 6.25 during the day 

A proximate analysis of the cinders gave the following re- The large percentage of oxygen present in the flue gases 

su s ■ shows that a large excess of air was admitted so that the flue 

Pocahontas Illinois gaseg are highly diluted This con di t ion accounts for the low 

Moisture, per cent 1.38 1.34 percentage of carbon dioxide. 

Volatile matter, per cent 11.73 6.95 Thfi analygis of the coalg shows a higher calorifk value for the 

Fixed carbon, per cent 27.40 39.41 p ocaho ntas coal. The heating value of the ash, however, which 

Ash per cent 59.49 52.30 formg a smaU per cent of thfi total cQal ^^ ghows & greater 

Sulphur, per cent 0.59 0.26 thermal content in the ash of the Pocahontas coal than that for 

Heating value, B. t. u. per pound. . . . 4,362 6,103 thg nHnois co&1 The higher calorific ya]ue of the p ocahontas 

The figures obtained in this study of cinders thrown from ash may be attributed to the coking properties of this coal, as 

■stack of locomotives in switching service discredit the popular it was, frequently necessary to break up the surface of the fire 

theory of great heat value losses due to cinders passing out of with the hook and a quantity of coke worked through the grates 

the stack. In Goss's "Locomotive Performance," figures are each time. 

given for laboratory tests under various working conditions The calorific value of the cinders caught in the cinder hopper 

of locomotive showing losses in the form of cinders passing out was 42 per cent greater for the Illinois coal than for the Poca- 

of the stack varying from 2.8 per cent to 10 per cent of the total hontas coal. 

coal fired. The results of test on engine 2024 in Chicago Yards, The cinders from the Pocahontas coal caught in the cinder 

show for Pocahontas coal but 0.82 of 1 per cent of the total hopper are slightly coarser than those caught when firing with 

coal fired passing out of the stack in the form of cinders. These Illinois coal. 

cinders contained but 4,362 heat units to the pound whereas the Conclusions 

coal initially contained 14,085 heat units to the pound, so that ,„ N ,_, , , , ,* , , ' , 

*+,» i„„ :„ „:„j • * c .a. , , j ■ i_ (1)1 he recorded results show that the total smoke from 

the loss in cinders passing out of the stack, expressed in heat V , . . , . . . , . „ 

»«;+c ,-o ^„+ not ~t 1 n ^ *. t i.u j. 4. i 1 a j switch engines is much less in intensity from the use of Poca- 

units, is but 0.25 of 1 per cent of the total coal fired. . , ; . , T „. . , 

XKTUn„ fl-; . th; • i 4.u 4. 1 • j r * hontas than from the use of Illinois coal. 

When hnng Illinois coal, the total cinders were 0.76 of 1 ,^ ™, , . , . , . . , , 

nor r»nt ^f *.u„ +„^.„^ „i £ j tu • j i ■ j /. -. ^ (* ) ± " e duration of the maximum density period of smoke 

per cent ot the total coal fired. These cinders contained 6,103 . . . . „ , , _„/ " 

li^of .mite +^ +u„ ~ i u 4-u 1 ■ -4.- 11 .. ■ j ..**„* 1S much shorter for Pocahontas than for Illinois coal. 

heat units to the pound, whereas the coal initially contained 13,331 , nS ™, ^ x . , . . , . , „ 

heat units to the pound, so that the loss in cinders passing out f , (3) , T ^. tota ^T^ ° f Sm ° kC 1S mUCh kSS f ° r Pocahontas 

of the stack, expressed in heat units, is but 0.35 of 1 per cent *" , , J T* , CO , . „ . . „ - r . . 

of the total coal fired ' ^ stack showed white for 34 per cent of the time 

Samples of flue gas were drawn every hour over a period of niinoi!°coar ntaS ^ " ^"^ " Pef "^ ^ ^ timC ^ 

approximately ten minutes. No consideration was given to the \^ S £?* , , . « , ;, , , 

conditions of operation at time of taking samples so that the p ^ ^ ^f ^"t „ ^ T Tr» 

results obtained reflect average conditions for the day. Follow- ^J ahontas coal and onl >' 2 P er cent of the time wlth Ilhno,s 

ing are the average results of hourly analyses made during ,'^ r™ . , , , „ . „ „, 

,,, (6) The stack showed smoke 24 per cent of the time with 

_ , „. . Pocahontas coal as against 80 per cent of the time with Illinois 

Pocahontas Illinois coa j 

r ,. er en s (7) The analysis of the gases showed no per cent of poison- 

Larbon dioxide 8.0 6.8 ous car bon monoxide gas present at anv time for either of the 

Carbon monoxide 0.0 0.0 coals 

XT . ' (8) A large per cent of excess air insuring complete com- 

c'VT" ;:••:; 82A 8L3 bustion was P^ent at all times. 

Sulphur dioxide Trace Trace (9) There were traces on]y of sulphur dioxide |n aU samp , es 

The charts show graphically the typical performance of Santa of gases from both coals. 

Fe switch locomotives in regular service in Chicago Yards. The (10) The evaporation per pound of fuel was greater for 

results as plotted show actual every-day conditions and may be Pocahontas than for Illinois coal, being only 85 per cent as much 

studied as representative of the performance of all switch en- for the latter as for the former coal. 

gines around 18th Street Yards in regular practice. The density (11) The fuel consumption per hour was light, averaging 

of smoke at any time during the day, the time of firing, the 386 pounds for the Pocahontas and 457 pounds for Illinois coal. 



April, 1912.) 

(12) The amount of cinders thrown from the stack was very 
small, being only about sixteen pounds per ton of coal fired. 

(13) The steam jets were rarely -used when burning Poca- 
hontas coal; they were frequently used in order to hold down 
the density of the smoke when burning Illinois coal. 

(14) In general the results of test indicate a very decided 
reduction in total amount of smoke from the use of Pocahontas 
instead of Illinois coal on Santa Fe switch engines in Chicago. 


The Oregon-Washington R. R. & N. is erecting a building 
at Albina, Ore., for woodworking and freight car repairs, 
the dimensions being 150 ft. by 400 ft. The freight car re- 
pair shop is 80 ft. by 400 ft. and the woodworking shop 70 
ft. by 400 ft., the building being of frame construction with a 
concrete foundation. The trusses have 70 ft. and 80 ft. spans, 
with 20 ft. centers, and the height from the top of the rail 
to the under side of the bottom chord of the trusses is 20 
ft., the sash supporting the trusses being 12 ft. by 12 ft. The 
flooring is 3 in. by 8 in. rabbeted plank on sleepers and the 
outside walls have 6-in. studding between posts, are wood 
sheathed and covered with corrugated galvanized iron. The 
roof is of 1 Yz in. by 4 in. fir and is covered with three-ply 
Brooks roofing made by the Jobns-Manville Co. There is a 
clere story 10 ft. wide longitudinally through each section 
and the clere story sash are in series of five and are con- 
trolled by the Harris operating device. At each end of the 
building are four steel rolling doors. There are four tracks 
through building, one through center line of woodworking 
shop and three through car repar shop. There are three 
compressed air main lines through building overhead, one 
through center of building and one on each side of building 
with branch lines running down posts with air cocks 3 ft. 
in. above floor. The machines in the woodworking shop 
are motor driven and an overhead blower pipe system has 
been installed to carry shavings from the machines. The 
building is lighted with enclosed arc lights and incandescent 

chop lights over eacii machine; also on center line of posts 
there are receptacles for extension lights used in working in 
and around cars. Steam heat is supplied by the vacuum sys- 
tem. The toilet and wash room in connection with the 
building are on the car repair side. The Clow automatic 
Lushing water-closets and J. L. Motts double wash trays 
and urinal troughs are being installed. 

The dry kiln is 40 ft. by 70 ft., of frame construction, cov- 
ered with corrugated galvanized iron. The kiln is divided 
into three sections, each 70 ft. long by 12 ft. 6 in. wide, with 
track running through each section; foundations of concrete; 
floor of concrete 2 ft. 6 in. below tracks. They are heated by 
steam with pipe radiation between and below tracks. The 
entrance doors to kilns are of canvas. 

The lumber shed is 50 ft. by 300 ft., with 50-ft. trusses and 
15-ft. centers. The building is open on both sides, but the 
ends are closed in. It is sheathed and covered with corru- 
gated galvanized iron, roof of corrugated galvanized iron; 
tracks either side parallel and longitudinal of building. The 
contractor in charge is W. N. Concannon, of San Francisco. 


The illustration shows one of an order of 60 express re- 
frigerator cars recently built and put in service by the East 
Rochester, N. Y., shops of the Merchants Dispatch Transpor- 
tation Co. They are equipped for passenger service as well 
as freight service, have continuous buffers, 12 in. air brake 
equipment, signal apparatus and steam conveyor. Fox trucks 
with an especially designed swing-motion for this service are 
used, together with solid steel wheels and Miner friction 
draft gear. Steel underframes built at the steel plant o 
Merchants Dispatch are used and the cars have outside steel 
roofs. They are of 40 tons capacity, with an ice capacity of 
11,000 pounds, and a total weight of 62,800 pounds. The 
length over all is 41 ft. 5% ins. The East Rochester shops 
have a capacity of 15 to 16 cars of this type per day. 

Refrigerator Car for the Merchants Despatch. 

lApril, 1912.] 





One of the most important of the world's electrification 
projects is that of the London, Brighton & South Coast Ry. 

The following information with respect to the electrically 
operated rolling stock of this road with the illustrations is 
taken from Engineering (London). 

Although the mechanical features of a single-phase roll- 
ing-stock do not necessarily differ from those of a direct- 
current one, there are, none the less, apart from the electri- 
cal equipment, many details in the stock which has been 
built for the Brighton Railway which distinguish it from 
the type which has become familiar in connection with elec- 
tric traction in England. Of these the most immediately 

passengers wishing to board the train at intermediate sta- 
tions running from door to door looking for an empty com- 
partment, since a passenger entering by any door may 
afterwards walk along the corridor and select a seat when 
the train has started. The coaches are arranged so that a 
third-class compartment seat can accommodate four people 
side-by-side, and a first-class compartment seat three. All 
of the first-class coaches are arranged as trailers. The over- 
all dimensions of the stock are 60 ft. long by 9 ft. wide. 

On the extension of the electrified lines to the Crystal 
Palace a new type of coach had to be introduced, since 
various permanent features of the line, and more particular- 
ly the Crystal Palace tunnel, would not allow of the use 
of a coach 9 ft. wide. A new design, 8 ft. wide and 56 ft. 

CarUaxJ, lVij->. 

Elevation and Plan of Third Class Motor Coach, L. B. & S. C. Electrification. 

obvious is the arrangement which has been adopted for the 
positions of the doors and distribution of the seats in the 
coaches used. The employment of the American type of 
coach, with end doors and a central corridor, on the London 
Underground Railways, the Mersey Railway, the Liverpool 
and Southport line, and elsewhere, has caused it to become 
associated with electrical working in the minds both of the 
public and engineers in this country, although it, of course, 
has no essential connection therewith. The American type 
of coach has been held to possess advantages over the usual 
English side-door type in the handling of large numbers of 
passengers on a service with many stops, while for tube 
service, in particular, it allows of the very necessary con- 
trol of the doors by the train staff. On the Brighton line, 
however, it was considered that a side-door construction 
would be better, especially from the point of view of quick 
emptying at terminals and a special type of coach was ac- 
cordingly designed. 

Two types of coach, differing in the seating arrangements, 
are in use on the electrified part of the Brighton Railway. 
Of these, one is confined to work on the South London 
line, while the other deals with the traffic to the Crystal 
Palace. The first type of coach has side doors, exactly as 
in ordinary compartment stock, but at the same time is made 
open throughout, except for a partition dividing the smok- 
ing and non-smoking sections. Ope.n side-corridors are pro- 
vided, the arrangement of which will be clear from the 
plan, and it will be obvious that the design gives the large 
number of doors which facilitate quick emptying at termini, 
and, at the same time, does away with the necessity for 

long, of the pure. compartment type, was accordingly intro- 
duced. The third-class compartments of this stock are ar- 
ranged to carry five passengers on a seat, and the first class 
four. The carrying capacity of a third-class motor-coach 
is 70 passengers, and of a composite first and third trailer 
74 passengers, of which 24 are first-class and 50 third-class. 
As before, all first-class compartments are arranged in trailers. 
In addition to this new stock, some old coaches have been 
re-formed and adopted as trailers for the Crystal Palace 
service. These are all composite first and third-class coach- 
es, and carry 16 first-class passengers and 60 third-class. 
These re-formed coaches are 50 ft. long. 

On the first opening of the South London line- the trains 
were made up of two third-class motor-coaches and one 
first-class trailer; but experience proved that this arrange- 
ment did not give the correct, train-unit, and some com- 
posite first and third-class trailers, equipped with controlling 
gear, have now been built. These coaches allow the trains 
to be made up of one motor and one trailer, or two motors 
and two trailers. On the Crystal Palace extension the new 
stock allows the trains to be made up with any number of 
coaches from two to six. All trailers are fitted with control 
gear, and a three-coach train has one motor-coach and two 
trailers, while a five-coach train has two motors and three 
trailers. Trains made up of two, four, or six coaches have 
equal numbers of trailers and motor-coaches. It will be 
noted that on the South London line at least one motor- 
coach is required with each trailer, but that on the exten- 
sion one motor-coach can deal with two trailers. The reason 
for this lies in the more powerful motors which are fitted 



[April, 1912.] 

to the new stock. The original South London motor-coach- 
es have four motors, each capable of giving an output of 
115 force-power for one hour, this size being determined on 
since it was the largest available motor which had stood 
adequate commercial tests at the time the stock was 
equipped. When, however, the coaches for the extension 
were built, advantage was taken of the more extended ex- 
perience and motors of 150 horse-power were accordingly in- 

All of the coaches are built of wood, in accordance with 
the railway company's usual practice; but in order to pro- 
vide a complete earthed electrical circuit throughout and 
to eliminate the possibility of any part of a coach becoming 
charged by leakage from the- bow collector, the roof and 
sides of each coach are covered with sheet aluminum, which 
is bonded to the underframe. The aluminum sheet, after 
fixing, has been painted in the usual way, and an excellent 
finish has been obtained. The flooring of the coaches is 
double, and between the two layers of planking a space is 
left, which has been filled in with incombustible slag-wool, 
while underneath the lowest floor a 54-in. layer of uralite 
has been fixed, which in turn is backed up on its lower side 
with a sheet of aluminium. This arrangement gives an ade- 
quate fire-proof protection between the passenger compart- 
ments and the wiring and other electrical apparatus carried 
beneath the body, while the sheet-aluminium protects the 
uralite and completes the earthed metallic sheathing which 
embraces the coach. 

Standard Train on L. B. & S. C. Ry. After Electrification. 

As stated above, each South London motor-coach is 
.equipped with four 115-horse-power motors, and each Crystal 
Palace motor-coach with four 150-horse-power motors. 
They are all of the Winter-Eichberg compensated repulsion 
type. It will be remembered that in this class of motor a 
rotor wound like the armature of a direct-current motor is 
used, and that the main brushes are short-circuited. The 
•current supplied from outside to the motor passes through 
a circuit containing the main stator coils and a small aux- 
iliary exciter transformer. The low-tension part of this 
transformer is connected to a circuit containing the exciting 
coils, and passes to the rotor through exciter brushes, which 
are independent from the main brushes. The transformer- 
like action between the stator coils and the rotor produces 
a current in the rotor which exercises a torque on the rotor 
in virtue of its relation to the field produced by the exciter 
coils. Speed regulation is carried out by varying the volt- 
ages supplied to both the stator coils and the exciter cir- 
cuit. The motors have four poles, each with six slots, and 
two compensating coils are set in the middle of two-pole 
faces of opposite polarity. 

Each motor has six sets of brushes, of which four sets 
are for the short-circuit current of the rotor, and the re- 
mainder for the exciter current. The short-circuit brushes 
are placed opposite the middle of the pole-face, and the 
exciter brushes at the point of diversion of two adjacent 
poles. The rotor has a partly hollow shaft, the hole through 
it being employed for the entry of ventilating air, which is 
drawn through by the centrifugal action of an aluminium ring 
at the opposite end of the rotor from the commutator. The 
air-gap is 3 mm. The synchronous speed of the motor is 
750 revolutions per minute, but it is capable of developing 
torque at speeds higher than this. The normal starting 
torque is 182 kilog.-m. (1317 pound-feet). The gear ratio 
is 4.24 to 1. Although the above particulars apply specifically 
to the 115-horse-power motors in use on the South London 
line, they apply other than numerically to the newer 150- 
horse-power motors on the Crystal Palace line. 

Each pair of motors works in conjunction with a 220-kw. 
main transformer, so that there are two of such main trans- 
formers on each motor-coach. While, in addition, each pair 
of motors has an exciter-transformer of the auto transformer 
type. Starting and speed control are carried out by varying 
the voltage which is supplied both to the stator and exciter 
circuits. The main transformer steps down from the 6600- 
volt supply pressure to a maximum of 750 volts on its 
secondary side, and by means of contactors, connected to 
form tappings, the volts supplied to the motor may be made 
either 450, 580, 640, or the full 750. The voltage of the ex- 
citer auto-transformer may also be varied by means of two 
contactors. It will be, clear that the full voltage of the stator 
circuit is not applied to the commutator, since this latter is 
short-circuited on itself, so that a relatively high voltage is 
allowable across the secondary of the main transformer. 
This is, of course, inherent in the type of motor used, and 
has the advantage that owing to the relatively high secondary 
main voltages that can be employed, the currents which have 
to be handled by the contactors are relatively small. 

The operation circuits may be divided into three groups, 
consisting of the high-tension circuits, the control circuits, 
and the low-tension power circuits. The high-tension cir- 
cuit, which enters the coach from the collector bow, and on 
the diagram begins at the lower right-hand corner, passes 
first through a choking-coil, to the overhead line side of 
which a spark-gap and carbon resistance lightning-arrester 
is connected. The choking-coil serves the usual purpose of 
diverting any high-frequency oscillations which may appear 
on the line, and causing them to pass through the lightning- 
arrester to earth. The coil does not introduce any appreci- 
able impedance in the 25-period supply circuit. After passing 
through the coil the high-tension current comes to a bifurca- 
tion in the circuit, and part of it passes to the main trans- 
former, the remainder going to a small auxiliary transform- 
er which supplies the control, pump and lighting circuits. 
This auxiliary transformer circuit is protected by a high- 
tension fuse, which can be seen in the diagram. The main 
transformer circuit passes through a main fuse, a current- 
transformer, a main automatic oil-switch, and then through 
the isolating switches, which may be used to cut off either 
one or both of the two main transformers on the coach. 
The remote ends of the main and auxiliary transformers are 
connected to earth. The opening of the main oil switch does 
not break the circuit through the auxiliary transformer. This 
arrangement is made since it is important at all times to 
maintain the control and lighting circuits, even if the main 
circuit be interrupted. 

Power for the control circuit, as stated above, IS obtained 
from the auxiliary transformer, which has a secondary volt- 
age of 300, one end of the secondary being earthed. The cir- 
cuit as it issues from the transformer divides into five 

'[April, 1912.] 



Truck for Third Class Motor Coach, L. B. & S. C. Ry. 

branches, two of these being carried to the pump and light- 
ing circuits respectively. 

The diagram that the master-controller is dividing into 
two parts, one part consisting of the drum which operates 
the contactors, and which is moved by means of the driving- 
handle, and the other part operating the reversing contacts, 
and which is moved by means of a small loose handle which 
can be removed. The two parts of the controller are con- 
nected by means of a small bridging-piece, which is operated 
by means of the so-called "dead man's" handle. This bridg- 
ing-piece must be held down during the whole of the time 
that the train is in motion, as when it rises the power cir- 
cuit is interrupted, and the train is automatically brought to 
a stop by the brakes. The "dead man's" handle is intended 
primarily as a safeguard in the event of an accident occurring. 

The brakes are of the Westinghouse type, which is the 
standard of the Brighton railway. 

Each motor-coach is arranged with a driver's compartment 
at one end. The high-tension control apparatus, together 
with the master-controller and other driver's gear, is carried 
in this compartment. The contactors, main transformer, and 

brake-gear are slung below the coach. The roof of the com- 
partment and the guard's van has been made lower than 
that of the rest of the coach; this has been rendered neces- 
sary owing to the limited space available for the bow-gear. 
The high-tension gear in the driver's compartment is, of 
course, quite independent from the driving-gear, and is fitted 
in a separate cubicle. This cubicle contains the lightning- 
arrester, the main fuses, the isolating switches, the main 
oil-switch, and the auxiliary and current-transformers, which 
have been already mentioned, together with current and po- 
tential transformers for the integrating wattmeter and the 
voltmeter and ammeter which are fitted on the coach. The 
door of the cubicle is interlocked with the bow-gear in such 
a way that when the door is opened the bow leaves the over- 
head wire, so that no access can be had to the high-tension 
gear when it is alive. The interlocking arrangement is a me- 
chanical one, and consists of two arms, which are connected 
to the bow mechanism in such a way that they foul the 
cubicle door and prevent it from being opened when the 
bow is in its lifted position. In addition to the mechanical 
interlock, however, there is an arrangement by which the 

COKltlil ll'i l ■■ 

t^, . - Gauge 





Sections of Third Class Motor Coach, L. B. & S. C. Ry. 



[April, 1912.] 

opening of the door releases the an - from the underside of 
the cylinders which hold the bows in their upper position. 
As an additional precaution over these arrangements, the 
opening of the door automatically earths the whole of the 
gear in the high-tension cubicle. 

In addition to this high-tension cubicle there is a low- 
tension cupboard in each compartment, which contains the 
lighting-circuit switches, a switch controlling the operation 
of the main oil-switch, and the connecting-box and cut-out 
switch for the contactor circuits. This cupboard was origin- 
al^ fitted with a Nernst resistance connected in series with 
the lighting circuits and intended to maintain constant volt- 
age on the lamps. It has been found, however, that the 
feeding arrangements of the railway are sufficiently adequate 
to render any such lamp regulation unnecessary, and the re- 
sistances have been done away with. The motor-man's gear 
contained in the driving compartment is fitted around a win- 
dow situated at the left-hand side of the front of the train. 
The window is fitted with a squegee for use in wet weather. 
The gear consists of the master-controller with its speed- 
control and reversing barrels, an ammeter, voltmeter, and 
wattmeter, the red signal-lamps to indicate when the main 
oil-switch opens, a dead-section switch which enables power 
to be obtained from the rear bow when the front is on a 
dead section or vice versa, and the brake-valve, pressure- 
gauge, and whistle-valve and cut-off cocks for the bow cylin- 

The collector-bow is of much interest on account of the 
difficult conditions with which it had to be designed to com- 
ply. There is a variation of 6 ft. between the highest and 
lowest positions of the overhead conductors, and as a con- 
sequence, of course, it was necessary that the bow should 
have a working range of 6 ft. In addition to this condi- 
tion, however, the lowest position of the conductor is such 
that there is only just over 11 in. clearance between the roof 
of the coach and the bow and its framework, which are alive 
at working pressure, and this clearance was only gained by 
fixing the bow above the guard's van and driver's compart- 
ment, and lowering the roof, as before mentioned. Each 
set of mechanism contains two bows, one being used for 
each direction of running, and the two being so operated by 
their reversing switch and air-cylinder mechanism that on 
reversal in the direction of running of the train the bow in 
the top position automatically comes down, and that in the 
lower position rises. The falling bow does not, however, 
leave the overhead conductor until the rising one comes in 
contact with it. 

Each set of mechanism has two air-cylinders mounted on 
the centre line of the coach, as shown, and connected to the 
live part of the gear through insulators, one air-cylinder serv- 
ing for the operation of each bow. The spiral springs con- 
nected to the levers, which are mounted on the shafts which 
carry the lower ends of the bows, tend to keep the bows in 
their lowered positions, and the bows are lifted and held in 
their upper position by the pressure in the air-cylinders, 
which oppose the springs. The effect of this arrangement, 
of course, is that the failure of the air-supply causes the bows 
to come down. The springs and air-cylinders are propor- 
tioned so that when the train is standing with the bows on 
an overhead conductor, fixed 10 ft. above rail-level, a weight 
of 12 lb. attached to the main collector strip, and a weight 
of 8 lb. attached to the trailing strip, will just bring the bow 
off the wire. The springs and air-cylinders are also arranged 
so that the upward pressure of the bows does not substan- 
tially vary over the range of their travel. The collector- 
strips on the top of the bows are made from aluminium, and 
are formed each with a longitudinal groove, which is filled 
with a mixture of vaseline and black-lead. This is found to 
give a very satisfactory lubrication, and under normal con- 
ditions the strips are found to run from 5000 to 6000 miles 

without requiring renewal. The overhead conductors are 
staggered to prevent grooving of the strips, and it is found 
that there is little appreciable wear on these conductors. The 
collecting-strips are 3 ft. 1%. in. wide, and the bow over-all is 
5 ft. 2 in. wide. The object of the trailing-strips is to en- 
sure continuous and good contact between the bows and the 
overhead wires, as any inequality which might momentarily 
throw off the leading strip would not, as a rule, affect the 
trailing one. At the same time the use of two strips naturally 
reduces the amount of current to be carried by either, and 
the use of the two ensures that no strip shall, under the 
worst conditions, have to collect more than 50 amperes, while 
the normal average is about 30 amperes. While it is probable 
that these arguments in favor of two strips are valid, it is a 
matter of interest that it is found that the bows will operate 
quite satisfactorily with the railing-strip removed. 

The whole of the electrical apparatus for the coaches was 
built and supplied by the Allgemeine Elektricitats Gesell- 
schaft, of Berlin. This firm acted as main contractors for all 
electrical equipment on the South London line, and. as main 
contractors for the electrical equipment of rolling-stock on 
the Crystal Palace extension. The general design of the 
coaches was worked out jointly by Mr. D. Earle Marsh, M. 
Inst. C. E., the locomotive superintendent of the railway, 
and Mr. Philip Dawson, the consulting engineer for the elec- 


A letter ballot has recently been taken among the mem- 
bers of the Chief Interchange Car Inspectors & Car Fmns. 
Association for the purpose of changing the date of the an- 
nual convention which had been set for August 20, 21 and 
22, 1912. This vote favored the change and official notifica- 
tion is given by the secretary with the approval of the presi- 
dent and chairman of the board, that the annual convention 
will be held August 27, 28 and 29, at Chicago, 111. 




av, 1 

Three thus 

14' i 

? Thus' 


-4'6» — - 



^Z«0as Pipe 

7=tf= -D 





Pipe Rack, G. R. & I. Ry. 


The accompanying sketch shows a neat and substantial pipe 
rack in use at the shop of the Grand Rapids & Indiana Ry. 
at Grand Rapids, Mich. The uprights are formed of 2-in. 
gas pipe and the cross pieces of lJ4-in. pipe which provide 
adequate strength and stability. The sketch is self-ex- 


The Bettendorf Axle Co., Bettendorf, la., has distributed 
a most elaborate calendar for the year 1912. This calendar 
is meant to take the place of that issued for 1911 and is 
fitted with snaps and rings for suspension from the truck 
frame model. The familiar chart of dismounting operations 
is included as a part of the illustration. 

[April, 1912.] 



By W. L. Saunders, Pres., Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

A traveler who encircles the globe learns to appreciate the 
value of American railways. He also learns to prefer rail- 
way traveling, when long distances are concerned, to travel- 
ing in ships. One who visits Japan from the United States 
goes nearly half way around the globe, and if he is in a 
hurry to get home, appreciates comfort and likes to visit 
new scenes, he is better off coming home by way of Siberia, 
Germany, France and the Atlantic Ocean rather than to sub- 
ject himself to the monotony of the broad Pacific. He may 
also save a few days, if he makes his connections. 

The broad Pacific is interesting only in the contempla- 
tion of its expanse. No one can conceive of greater solitude 
than to be afloat on the Pacific Ocean. Its wave motion is 
usually moderate, with a broad expanse between the undulat- 
ing crests. It is smooth on the surface and there are no 
signs of life, save an occasional flying fish, a rare encounter 
with porpoises and a whale now and then, whose antics are 
as welcome to the voyager as sunshine is to the Londoner in a 
November fog. 

Recent railway construction and much improvement in 
equipment and operation add greatly to the comfort of the 
Trans-Siberian journey. Until recently one either crossed 
the Japan Sea, about a three days' journey, or took a more 
distant route to Port Arthur, and then made his way toward 
the Russian railways. But now it is simply necessary to 
travel by the Government railway of Japan to the ex- 
treme south of the Islands, Shimenoseki, then across the 
narrowest body of water in that section which separates the 
Continent from Japan. This is a one night trip only, in 
comfortable boats, landing one at Fusan, Korea. A word 
or two might be said of the railways in Japan. All the 
principal lines are owned by the Government, and this is 
always bad. It makes for inefficiency, bad management and 
lack of the best accommodations. Furthermore the railways 
in Japan are narrow gage roads, which seem to serve the 
purpose very well in a small country where the people are 
personally small in stature, and where furniture and ac- 
coutrements, such as we enjoy, are rare. These narrow gage 
railways are very well equipped for narrow gage railways. 
The trains go at considerable speeds and except in over 
night service one is reasonably comfortable. 

The road from Fusan northward through the center of 
Korea is of broad gage with modified Pullman accommoda- 
tions, under Japanese management, and an improvement on 
anything experienced in Japan. This road runs continuously 
through Seoul to Mukden, thence northward on the eastern 
Chinese Railway to the junction of the Trans-Siberian road 
at Harbin. 

These railroads are patrolled by Japanese soldiers and op- 
erated by Japanese workmen. The soldiers do their duty 
in a manner above criticism, but it evident that the Japanese 
are not naturally mechanical and that operating railroads is 
a service of great difficulty to them. They have in Japan, 
for instance, copied American and European types of loco- 
motives and so far as the reproduction is concerned it is 
perfect, but if anything goes wrong, if a connecting rod 
should work loose or a hot box trouble occur, the Japanese 
workman shows little initiative and skill. He is very apt 
to try the very same experiment he tried when a previous 
trouble arose, though the causes may be quite different. I 
have seen six or eight men puzzle for an hour or more over 
a simple case of hot box, trying all sorts of remedies and 
showing a lack of clear knowledge of the theory of the 
trouble. A Japanese mechanic laboriously learns to do a 
certain thing and when he masters it he can do that thing 
well, but if you shift him or introduce a new element in 
his work he is ill at ease. A simple illustration of this 
occurred on a Japanese railway where the clasp holding 

a lady's traveling bag was pulled out. Both the conductor 
and brakeman puzzled for at least twenty minutes in an 
effort to repair the damage, when the lady herself (a girl 
of twenty years of age) impatiently took the bag from their 
hands and fixed it. 

The Trans-Siberian Railway runs from Vladivostok to 
Moscow, a journey of from eight to nine days. The equip- 
ment, especially on the International train which runs once 
a week, is first class, with comfortable cars and good food. 
In the extreme east coal is burned on the locomotives, but 
as one reaches the interior of Siberia, where wood is plenti- 
ful, the engines are all wood-burning. The gage of this 
railroad is five feet, which adds to the size and comfort 
of the cars. The staterooms are large, — some with two beds 
and others with four. These cars are all of the Russian 
type, the same as used on the Nord Express, which runs 
from St. Petersburg to Paris, and on the Orient Express 
from Paris to Constantinople. The speed averages a little 
more than twenty-five miles an hour, generally about thirty, 
and at times even faster. Stops at stations are not as in- 
frequent as one would suppose, but occur in periods of two 
or three hours. The country itself is not a barren waste; 
there is no desert land in view, but it resembles Canada or 
a portion of the western United States. There are times 
that one would suppose the train was going through the 
Coeur d'Alenes in Idaho, or northward through the Cobalt 
District in Canada. The country is rolling, mountainous only 
around Lake Baikal and at the Urals there is much evidence 
of forests, burned for the purpose of clearing. 

There is really less inconvenience, less friction and more 
real comfort of travel in a trip from Vladivostok to Moscow 
than from Paris to London. This statement is made de- 
liberately by one who has had experience. Railway travel- 
ing becomes tiresome and excites one's nervous system in 
proportion as the trains wabble around curves, as the cars 
are crowded and as changes are required, while making a 
journey. This little trip from Paris to London involves all 
the difficulties of travel. The trains in France and in Eng- 
land are always crowded. There is a rush to look after 
one's baggage, the cars are light, the tracks laid in curves, 
the speed high, and one is apt to reach the end only to find 
it necessary to scramble on to a little bateau with few, if 
any, comforts, and a passage by water which is either rough 
or extremely dull. On landing the same • experience is re- 

One learns to appreciate the Pullman car, which through 
its heavy weight, wide berth and open construction is su- 
preme over anything abroad. While the road beds of Eur- 
ope are fairly good, little irregularities are more plainly 
felt through the light equipment used there, hence car sick- 
ness is more frequent. The dining car service is satisfactory 
only in that the food is good. There is little variety about 
it as it is table d'hote and is served in a perfunctory manner, 
with a rush and clatter of dishes exceeding anything experi- 
enced in an American diner. 



The greater attention given to British locomotives, with 
consequent economies in coal consumption ranging up to 20 
per cent, has led to a great improvement and simplification 
of earlier designs. Foreign types of superheaters have been 
used, but there is said to be a growing disposition among 
British railway engineers to employ their own designs. The 
Robinson tube superheater, the invention of the chief me- 
chanical engineer of the Great Central Co., has given satis- 
factory results. Although it has been in use for only a few 
months, nearly 200 Great Central engines already are being 
equipped with it. It is also being adopted by the Great 
Northern, North Eastern, Caledonian, South Eastern & Chat- 
ham, Tilbury, and other railway companies. — London Times. 



[April, 1912.] 


As noted in our last issue, the Delaware, Lackawanna & 
Western R. R. is giving considerable attention to instruct- 
ing its employes in giving first aid to the injured, with the 
hope that if any one is hurt on this line there will be some 
one nearby who is competent to render first aid. This work 
has been in progress at the Scranton and Hoboken shops 
longer than at other points, and at these places there are 
regular teams of five or six men each who are thoroughly 
instructed in the methods and who hold diplomas from the 
American Red Cross Society. Courses are also being given 
at Bangor, Binghamton, East Buffalo, Elmira, Gouldsboro, 
Kingston, Oswego, Stroudsburg, Syracuse, Utica and Wash- 


Station - 


Name of Injured Person- 
Address . 

Pagaenser Ejiiploye 


Cause of Accident - 
Nature of Injury 

Final Disposition of Injured Person - 

(Send thn card to Superintendent. 
who will foraiih new packet.) 

'See Other Side) 



Index Card for First Aid Packets. 

ington. The first aid packets which are distributed in and 
about all stations, yards, trains and shops are placed in a 
sealed cardboard box about 3x5 inches in size and contain 
one-half yard of plain gauze compress, one plain gauze 
bandage Yz in. x 3 yds., and one printed triangular bandage 
with safety pins. Conductors, station agents, yardmasters 
and foremen are required to have at least two of these 
packets in their possession while on duty. An index card, 
shown in the illustration, is included in the packet, and when 

the contents are used the card is filled out and sent to the 
superintendent, who files the data and who in turn mails it 
to the chief surgeon. At a number of the more important 
points there are large tin boxes filled with supplies and 
materials enough to provide for a large number of people, 
in case of a train wreck or a similar accident. A course 
covering a series of three lessons is given on certain even- 
ings and records are kept of those attending. Lectures and 
demonstrations on a living model are given in the shops 
once a month and the photographic reproduction shows first 
aid instruction being given by Dr. Shields of the American 
Red Cross at the Scranton shops. 


The electrification of the Butte, Anaconda & Pacific Ry. 
has been started and the work is to be pushed as fast as pos- 
sible, with the expectation of completing it within a year. 
The road operates through the mining district between Butte 
and Anaconda, Mont., and handles a large amount of ore 
traffic. It has at present 27 steam locomotives and the 
length of single track to be electrified is about 95 miles. 
The electrical equipment is being furnished by the General 
Electric Co. and the installation will be notable in that the 
locomotives will operate on 2,400 volt direct-current circuit. 
Fifteen 75-ton electric locomotives for freight service will 
be furnished, each equipped with four G. E. 1,200 volt motors 
connected in series for 2,400 volts, and the control will be 
of the Sprague, non-automatic, type M, being arranged for 
double end operation. The air brakes will be of the straight 
and automatic type and will be operated at 600 volts, the 
compressors being operated from the dynamotor. Two 
2,400 volt passenger locomotives are to be furnished, which 
will be the same as the freight locomotives except for higher 
gearing. Power will be furnished by the Butte Electric & 
Power Co. at 2,300 volts, 3 phase and 60 cycles. There will 
be two sub-stations located 26 miles apart, each equipped 
with two 1,000 K. W., 2,400 volt synchronous motor-genera- 
tor sets. Overhead trolley construction of the catenary type 
will be used. 

First Aid Class at Scranton Locomotive Shops, D., L. & W. R. R. 

[April, 1912.] 




One of the most interesting of the locomotives shown at 
the Turin Exhibition, according to The Engineer, is an en- 
tirely new type of goods engine, with ten wheels coupled, 
built by J. A. Maffei, of Munich, for the Bavarian State Rail- 
way. Most of the locomotives exhibited embody nothing 
novel in their cylinder arrangement or their motion. For 
the most part they have the cylinder arrangement and rocker 
arm transmission for one pair of valves introduced by the 
late Mr. Webb in his four-cylinder compound type. This 
system of rocker arm in front of the cylinder is now con- 
sidered a first-class arrangement for simple engines, as it 
saves two valve gears. At Turin, the only locomotives not 
so fitted are the complicated French engines and the Bava- 
rian engines now under consideration. In 1889, Mr. de 
Glehn, some years prior to Webb, proposed to use rocking 
arms as a simplification on the Nord compound locomo- 
tives, but these, being rejected, led to the complicated engine 
with one complete valve gear for every cylinder, now the 
standard practice in France. 

steam pipes, or else forked pipes equivalent thereto; in either 
case a complicated steam piping arrangement in the smoke- 
box is involved. Two simple steam pipes suffice, however, 
with the new valve. The simplicity realized is considerable. 
Mechanically there is a gain represented by the reduction 
of four valve motions and valves to two. Not only does this 
save in the matter of first cost, but obviously there is a 
saving due to the reduction in the weight and frictional re- 
sistance of the moving parts. Again, receiver pipes are 
done away with, and the parts in the smoke-box are reduced. 
Thermally, the arrangement steams-jackets part of the valve 
chest and the interior of the valve itself, the steam pressure 
that is constantly maintained therein being from one-fourth 
to one-third of the initial pressure of the first expansion. 
For example, with saturated steam having an initial pressure 
of 1610 lb. the average back pressure in the small cylinder 
— say 45 lb., or 293 deg. Fahr. — will be the average pressure 
maintained in the annular receiver and in the interior of the 
piston valve; and when this valve opens to the low-pressure 
steam ports the initial cylinder pressure therein will be be- 
tween 45 and 40 lb., or about 290 deg. Fahr. The drop in 
pressure and temperature is thus very minute, and a prac- 
tically continuous expansion is the result. From a fitter's 
standpoint the single outside valve — there is no valve motion 
of any sort whatever in between the frames — is said to be 
found remarkably easy of access for inspection, erection, or 
taking down. 

Fig. 1 — Cross Section Through Cylinders. 

Valve and Valve Gear of Balanced Compound Locomotive. 

In the new Bavarian engine these rockers are avoided al- 
together, and a valve distributing steam simultaneously to 
two cylinders is employed instead. This of itself is not a 
novelty, previous applications of the principal having been 
made by du Bousquet in 1888 and by Vauclain in 1902, while 
in 1899 Plancher combined the double valve with a receiver. 
In the new Maffei design, however, a voluminous receiver is 
neatly contrived within the space embraced by the two 
heads of the piston valve, and in this we have a distinct 
novelty. To secure, this result, annular steam receivers are 
formed around the barrel of the valve chest. These receivers 
are always in communication with the interior of the piston 
valve, and, in addition, with the high pressure exhaust when- 
ever this is opened by the valve. 

The two annular receivers are in intercommunication 
through a 2^-in. pipe, thus assuring equality of steam pres- 
sure in the two low-pressure cylinders. The volume of each 
receiver being approximately that of the high-pressure cyl- 
inder, their combined volumes are equal therefore to twice 
that of one high-pressure cylinder — a somewhat low pro- 
portion, but in this case the piston speeds are not very high, 
and the steam is superheated. 

With this arrangement no receiver pipes are required. In 
simple engines with four cylinders there are either four 

Figure 3 shows the construction of the valve and gear; 
while the distribution of the steam passing through the valve 
is shown diagrammatically in Figure 4. In the latter en- 
graving the valve is represented as being much smaller than 
the cylinders. In reality the valves are 15-34 ms - diameter, 
and the high-pressure cylinders 16J4 ins. Excellent results 
are said to be obtained by the use of very large piston 
valves, and there is a general tendency further to increase 
the dimensions of such valves in common with a radical 
amplification of the ports and pipes leading to the blast. In 
Austrian locomotives valves 18^4 ins. diameter are used for 
17% ins. diameter cylinders. The smoke-box cross section 
brings out the true proportion of the parts as adopted on 
the Bavarian Railways. 

The back pressure of the final exhaust is reduced by pro- 
viding a voluminous exhaust pipe at each extremity of the 
valve chest. These pipes unite just under the smoke-box, 
and their common exit is connected to one limb of the in- 
ternal branched exhaust pipe. 

Such details as those described above have been proved by 
numerous experiments in recent years to be of the utmost 
importance as regards both the efficiency and the speed of 
the engine. With the progressive increase in the size of 
boilers all the steamways to. and above all from, the cylin- 



[April, 1912.] 

ders have undergone a continuous amplification. This is 
notably so in the case of the valve chests, the steam and 
exhaust ports, the clearance volumes, the lead to exhaust on 
the valves, the blast pipes and blast nozzles, etc. The en- 
gravings accompanying this article show the ample, short 
and straight steam outlets typical of modern locomotives. 
The proportions, as seen from the cross section, appear quite 
abnormal relatively to less advanced engine designs. On 
the other hand, the chimney sectional area is small, this cir- 
cumstance being necessary with superheated steam in order 
to maintain an adequate smoke-box vacuum. A protective 
casing for the hot chimney conceals externally its slender 

The adoption of the balanced compound system for freight 
engines is quite an innovation in Bavaria, where, until now, 
they have been built for simple expansion. Following the 
example of other European railways, the Bavarian State, 
which has for years employed the compound system ex- 
clusively for all its express passenger engines, has not con- 
sidered the question of steam economy to be so important in 
goods engines. Indeed, statistics show the gain directly 
due to double expansion to be less in the course of a year 
with goods engines than with high-speed engines — and this 
for various well-known reasons. 

The new engines will directly succeed certain simple-ex- 
pansion engines of the 2-8 wheel type, known as class 4000, 
and having outside cylinders 21J4 ins. in diameter by 22 ins. 
stroke. To surpass the power of these simple engines with- 
out exceeding the gauge limits necessitated the introduction 
of multiple cylinders; and, given four cylinders, there was 
nothing to gain, but considerable to lose, from the contin- 
uance of simple expansion. Mechanically, no four-cylinder 
non-compound locomotive yet designed has been made so 
effectively simple as the compound engine now under notice. 

Expansion curves. 
Events to follow. 

Flfl. 4 — Distribution Diagram. 

It should be noticed, however, that with equal pressures of 
saturated steam in both the old and new Bavarian freight 
engines, the increase of cylinder power is not so great as 
would appear to be the case judging merely from the com- 
bined volumes of the four cylinders. In the first place, the 
high-pressure cylinders in the new engines are 28 per cent 
less voluminous than the cylinders of the simple engine. 
Secondly, a deduction of about 25 per cent from the full 
power of the smaller must be made if the second expansion 
is to develop the same horse power as the first expansion. 
With these allowances the effective power of the first ex- 
pansion of the compound is much less than in the simple en- 
gine, as shown by the following statement, in which the unit 
of volume multiplied by pressure in the simple engine is 
taken at 100: 

Simple pound 
Class Class 
4000. 5800. 

Volume X pressure of one cylinder 100 72 

Back pressure, 5 per cent simple, 25 per 

cent compound 5 18 

Effective volume X pressure 95 54 

The full compound expansion is thus: H. P. 54 + L. P. 

108 — 95 

54 = 108, representing an increase of only = 12 


per cent in power over class 4000. The steam consumption, 
estimated from the longest running cut-off — 50 per cent 
simple expansion and 60 per cent compound expansion — is 
0.50 X 100 = 50 for the simple and 0.60 X 72 = 43.2 for the 
compound. This shows a difference in favor of the com- 
pound of 13 per cent while developing 12 per cent more 
power, or otherwise the compound develops 25 per cent 
more power on a given steam consumption. 

In the engines of class 5800, the power is further increased 
by employing a very high steam pressure, 227 lbs. per square 
inch. The boiler capacity is increased by superheating the 
steam to about 650 deg. Fahr. and augmenting its volume 
correspondingly without that increase in fuel consumption 
which the generation of a like volume of saturated steam 
would entail. Using this steam, the high-pressure cylinders 
are made rather larger in volume than would be those de- 
signed to develop the same power with saturated steam at 
the same cut-off. This has decreased the ration of cylinder 
volumes to only 1:2.45, or the correct proportion for econom- 
ical results with saturated steam at 174 lbs. pressure. It will 
be observed that the disposition of the cylinders and valves, 
clear above the frames, allows the greatest freedom in de- 
signing the cylinders. Hitherto Bavarian practice has fa- 
vored the casting of the group of cylinders in three pieces; 
in this case there is a return to the American arrangement 
of two-piece castings bolted together at the middle line of 
the smoke-box saddle. For the conservation of the heat in 
the steam the whole design of the cylinders and their skort 
transverse steam connections appears admirable. 

Bar frames, milled on both sides, are employed, but the 
front ends are forged out in the form of slabs. The whole 
of the machinery of the engine, from the cylinders to the 
crank axle, is simultaneously visible to anyone standing on 
the ground under the running boards; even the rods and 
cranks right out on the opposite side of the engine are par- 
tially visible from the same standpoint. This ease of in- 
spection and attendance is particularly remarkable. The 
exceptional lightness of the frame enables the makers to 
build powerful engines for light roads which forbid the use 
of heavy locomotives. 

The new freight engines are required to maintain a speed 
of 15 to 16 miles per hour when ascending gradients of 1 in 
100 to 1 in 90 of 30 miles in length with numerous curves, 

[April, 1912.] 



pggff = 

Fig. 2 — Balanced Compound Locomotive, Bavarian State Rys. 

and while drawing a car load of 800 tons, or 928 tons with 
engine and tender fully loaded. The tractive effort under 
these circumstances is about 13 tons, and for this an ad- 
hesion weight of 77.5 tons maximum is provided. The re- 
volving masses are very nearly perfectly balanced, and this 
enables the engines to run very smoothly at speeds up to 
37 miles per hour with heavier trains on the level s.ections. 
To facilitate the taking of curves, the first and fifth axles 
are allowed a certain amount of play in their axle-boxes and 
side rods, while the third pair of wheels has its flanges 
turned thinner than the rest. For the even distribution of 
the weight the first and second and fourth and fifth pairs of 
axle springs are equalized with balance levers. 

The specimen engine exhibited at Turin was noticeable for 
the severity of its finish, the dull lead color contrasting with 
the brilliant color and varnish of all other locomotives save 
the Swiss. The effect of this was to divert one's attention 
from the boiler exclusively to the machinery, of which more 
was visible to the passerby than in any other locomotive 

Table of Dimensions. 

Steam temperature About 650 deg. Fahr. 

Test pressure 228 lbs. per square inch. 

Cylinders, H. P., diameter 16^4 ins. 

Cylinders, H. P., stroke 24 ins. 

Cylinders, L. P., diameter 25^ ins. 

Cylinders, L. P., stroke 25 A ins. 

Driving wheels, diameter 4 ft. 2 in. 

Heating surfaces, water 2,217.45 sq. ft. 

Heating surfaces, steam 508.07 sq. ft. 

Heating surfaces, total 2,725.52 sq. ft. 

Grate area 38.83 sq. ft. 

Weight, empty 69.5 tons. 

Weight, fully loaded 77.5 tons. 

Total wheel base 19 ft. 8 in. 

Rigid wheel base 10 ft. 6 in. 


The General Foremen's Association will held its next an- 
nual convention in Chicago, at the Hotel Sherman, July 23 
to 26, 1912, inclusive, with the following papers as subjects: 

No. 1 — How Can Shop Foremen Best Promote Efficiency, 
continuation paper No. 1 of 1910 convention, by Wm. G. 
Reyer, general foreman, N. C. & St. L., Nashville, Tenn. 

No. 2 — Shop Supervision and Local Condition, W. W. 
Scott, superintendent shops, P. M., Saginaw, Mich. 

No. 3— Shop Specialization Work and Tools, W. T. Gale, 
demonstrator, C. & N. W., Chicago. 

No. 4 — Round House Efficiency, Wm. Hall, general fore- 
man, C. & N. W. Ry., Escanaba, Mich. 

Special Paper No. 1 — Re-claiming of Scrap, by C. H. 
Voges, general foreman, Big Four, Bellefontaine, O., and 
C. Ogden, general foreman, A. T. & S. F., Las Vegas, N. M. 

Special Paper No. 2— The Relation of Tests to Shop Effi- 
ciency, by J. S. Sheafe, engineer of tests, and L. A. North, 
general foreman, Illinois Central, Chicago. 

A novel fluid motor has been invented by John A. Van 
Deventer, of the Buffalo Forge Co. It consists essentially 
of two herringbone gears rolling together in a casing and 
is called the "Spiro" motor. The casing follows the curva- 
ture of the gear closely up to the point of contact, at which 
place steam or some other fluid is introduced through an 
opening, as the gears roll toward it. The steam enters at 
the center of the gear where the opposing curvatures meet 
and the width of the opening at the center determines the 
cut-off of the engine. After cut-off the steam continues to 
expand as the V shaped tooth grooves continue to roll apart 
and when these grooves have rolled around so that the teeth 
in the other gear no longer close them the steam exhausts. 
The difference in pressure between the grooves is slight, so 
there is practically no leakage between them and the casing. 
There is also a decrease in friction. 



[April, 1912.] 


By Thos. Reece. 

One of the first decisive steps in what will probably pro\3 
to be a new phase in railway traction in England was taken 
by the Great Western Railway recently when a petrol-electric 
railway car built by the British Thompson-Houston Company 
was run from Leamington to Slough. The photographs give 
an idea of the external and internal appearance of this car. 

The car has been produced by the British Thompson-Hous- 
ton Company to the united design of its own staff and the 
Great Western officials, the latter having, at the instigation 
of the late general manager, made the new system a matter 
for study, until the present vehicle has been evolved. 

Although, with one exception, the system has not been 
previously tried for railway purposes in this country, it is 
in common use on the continent, being, in fact, on one rail- 
way system in Hungary practically the only tractive power 
in use, and has also been the subject of experiments in road 

riding at the opposite end, and attending to the engine if re- 
quired, he also being in a position to stop the car in case of 

The new system should prove, for the above reasons alone, 
in the case of small cars, considerably more economical than 
steam power, and with these advantages the further develop- 
ment of certain sections of the line which have hitherto not 
presented the likelihood of paying loads, should be possible. 

The car is at present running between Slough and Wind- 
sor completing a series of tests. 


The question of gauge cocks is one that has received much 
attention by some railroads, and is always a subject of much 
interest, especially where power is operated in districts with 
bad scale forming water. The Illinois Central R. R. has 
on trial a new gauge cock, which has so far proven most 
satisfactory. It is the invention of W. M. Baxter, general 
mechanical inspector of the road. The salient features 
claimed for it are its extreme simplicity of construction, 





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Petrol- Electric Car for Great Western Ry. (England). 

The car which has just been received by the Great Western 
Railway was built for experimental purposes, and weighs 
only 31,360 lbs. The power is supplied by a 40 H. P. Mauds- 
lay petrol engine, which drives a dynamo, which in turn, 
transmits power to two electric motors on the axles of the 
rail car. 

Notwithstanding the light weight of the vehicle, it accom- 
modates 44 passengers, and this in itself is one large advan- 
tage of the petrol-electric system, the weight of the car, en- 
gine, dynamo, etc., per passenger, working out to only 700 
pounds as compared with about 1,512 pounds for the steam 
rail cars in use on the Great Western. 

A further advantage is that the fuel is contained in a 
very small area, the petrol tank, which is carried underneath 
the experimental car, holding sufficient petrol for between 
200 and 250 miles running. 

The car is divided into three compartments: 

(1) Containing petrol engine, dynamo and controller. 

(2) Passenger compartment. 

(3) Conductor's compartment, also containing electrical 
controller and brake control, the car being driven from either 
end, according to requirements. 

, Only one man is required at the driving end, the conductor 

low cost of maintenance, and absolute tightness in both 
steam and water. It is self grinding, non-packed, scale free- 
ing, and the seat may be blown off under pressure. There 
are no threads on the valve stem to be stripped by mis- 

Referring to the illustration, the construction is as fol- 
lows: The body A has screwed into it a bonnet B which 
contains a rotary valve E having a composition seat D in 
which are three equally spaced ports, one of which is 
seamed at H registering with an outlet K to the tit M. 
This valve is held on its seat in the bonnet B by boiler 
pressure exerted against the rotary E. This composition 
seat becomes soft enough under temperature to conform to 
any unevenness which may exist on the brass seat of the 
bonnet B. This insures a tight fit at all times. When there 
is no pressure on the boiler the spring F holds the seat 
tight in order to prevent the water in the boiler from 
trickling out at M. If it is desired to blow the seat off 
under pressure all that is necessary is to force the valve in 
with the hand compressing the spring G. This separates 
the seats and steam and water pass over their surfaces, 
washing them free of any scale or grit. The guard C is 
placed on the valve stem to protect the hand during this 

[April, 1912.] 



Baxter Gauge Cock. 

process, as some steam escapes around the stem when 
the valve is off its seat. In repairing this gauge cock, the 
body A of the valve remains in the boiler, and only the 
bonnet B is removed, as this contains the valve itself. This 
makes it possible to maintain a standard size of gauge cock 
tap for all locomotives on the system as the body of the 
cock is not removed, and the hole is therefore not tapped 
out to larger sizes, in order to effect a tight joint when the 
gauge cock is replaced in the boiler head. The only part 
that will wear much is the composition seat D; these will 
ordinarily last six months and will cost 6^ cents each. 
They can be readily replaced in ten minutes' time by re- 
moving the bonnet and hand wheel. The valve stem is 
then removed and the old seat taken out and a new one 
applied. All this can be done by unskilled labor, as there 
are no delicate parts to be ground into a steam joint. The 

ports in the rotary will not scale or plug up as the valve 
is always immersed in water or steam, therefore, any scale 
forming precipitate which may lodge in them will remain 
plastic, and be blown out when the valve is operated. 


The Central of Georgia Ry. on March 1, 1912, estab- 
lished an educational bureau for the benefit of its employes. 
The educational work is to be identical with that on the 
Union Pacific and the Illinois Central railroads. D. C. Boy, 
a special representative of the educational system now in 
vogue on the Union Pacific and Illinois Central lines, is 
in Savannah mapping out the preliminary work incident 
to the organization of the new department. Mr. Boy, for 
the present, will have charge of this work on the Central of 

An educational system is the latest step taken by the 
Central of Georgia to promote the efficiency of its employes, 
and eventually the improvement of its service. This new 
department should at once appeal to the ambitious employe 
because it affords him an excellent opportunity to better 
himself. The educational plan is in line with the road's 
progressive policies, which are being applied by its pres- 
ent management. 

Thomas Beaghen, Jr., has been appointed master car build- 
er of the Union Tank Line, with office at New York. 

Interior of Petrol- Electric Car. 



[April, 1912.] 

Car Shops of the Hocking Valley Railway 

By C. A. 

For a number of years the Hocking Valley Railway Com- 
pany did practically all its car repair work in its South 
Columbus shops; but the facilities there were inadequate 
for the constantly increasing demand for work of this char- 
acter and, after a careful consideration of the various details 
involving the location of a plant to effect economical oper- 
ations and accomplish the greatest efficiency, a plant mod- 
ern in every respect was built at Logan, Ohio. This town 
represents the most advantageous distributing point for the 
equipment, inasmuch as it is the central station for the 
four divisions of the Hocking Valley Railway and is also 
the distributing point for coal cars, which represent 80 per 
cent of the company's business. The heavy coal tonnage 


Saw Shop. 

At the southeast end of the crane runway is located the 
saw shop or mill. This structure, 200 feet long, 70 feet 
wide, is built of paving brick on concrete foundations, and 
as much of the walls is given to windows as is consistent 
with strength. The roof, supported by steel trusses, is 
equipped with eighteen large sky-lights glazed with wire 
inserted glass. A monitor runs the length of the roof, also 
to give light and ventilation. Inasmuch as by far the largest 
percentage of repair work done is on the wooden coal 
cars, naturally the greatest amount of power utilized is in 
the saw shop. 

In this building all the lumber used in the reconstruction 

Saw Shop Showing Individual Motor Drive on Rip Saw and Cut-Off Saw. 

necessarily made repairs for the coal carrying equipment 
a large item, but with the shops at Logan the Company 
effects a considerable saving in the transportation of cars; 
and, further the fact that the cars can be taken directly 
from the shop and distributed to the various coal properties 
was another factor in deciding on this location. After de- 
termining upon the site, the officials of the Hocking Valley 
Railway made a careful inspection of the most modern 
practice in the United States, with a view to building a 
plant not to be surpassed in design and equipment. 

The works consist of eight buildings of brick and steel 
construction, as follows: 

Car repair and assembly shop, saw shop, office and store 
room; blacksmith shop; wheel, axle and air brake shop; 
lumber storage building; power house and oil house. 

These are concentrated along a traveling crane runway, 
which serves all of the main buildings beginning with the 
saw shop buildings or mill, main repair or erecting shop, 
blacksmith shop, store room and material platforms. This 
crane runway is r,oo feet long, and the traveling crane 
which runs upon it is capable of lifting a load of five tons. 

of the cars is worked into the necessary shapes and sizes. 
To accomplish this the shop is equipped with a swing cut 
off saw, tenoner, two boring machines, gainer, crosscut saw, 
timber planer and matcher, rip and band saws, together 
with the necessary grinding machines. These tools are 
all connected to 60 cycle, 3 phase, induction motors, fifteen 
motors in all being employed in this capacity as follows: 

One cut-off saw belted to a 15-h. p. 1130 r. p. m. motor. 

One timber sizer direct connected to 50-h. p. 900 r. p. m. 

One swing saw belted to a 5-h. p. 1130 r. p. m. motor. 

One tenoning machine belted to a 15-h. p. 1130 r. p. m. 

One mortizer belted to 15-h. p. 1130 r. p. m. motor. 

One rip saw, one gainer, one wood worker and one tenoner 
grouped on a 15-h. p. 1130 r. p. m. motor. 

One self feed rip saw belted to 15-h. p. 1130 r. p. m. motor. 

One gaining machine belted to 15-h. p. 1130 r. p. m. motor. 

Two three-spindle boring machines, one single band saw, 
one automatic knife grinder belted in group to 20-h. p. 
1130 r. p. m. motor. 

[April, 1912.] 



50 H. P. Allis-Chalmers Motor Direct-Connected to Timber Sizer. 

One planer and matcher direct connected to a 50-h. p. 
900 r. p. m. motor. 

One gainer belted to 15-h. p. 1130 r. p. m. motor. 

One gainer belted to a 10-h. p. 1130 r. p. m. motor. 

One three-spindle boring machine belted to 10-h. p. 1130 
r. p. m. motor. 

All of the motors, as well as the power house machinery, 
were supplied by Allis-Chalmers Co., of Milwaukee, Wis. 

The arrangement of this machinery leaves practically 
nothing to be desired and was greatly facilitated by appli- 
cation of the electric drive. The timber is received in 
the rough at the east end of the shop and delivered in a 
finished condition at the west end ready to go to the dry 
lumber shed, which is located some distance west of this 
shop, or to the main car repair shop, which is located just 

An extensive dust conveying system has been installed 
throughout the shop. To each machine is attached a re- 
ceiver, into which the shavings, dust, etc., are drawn by a 
fan belted to a 40-h. p. motor located on the roof trusses. 
All the dust is then transmitted in the usual way back to 
the boiler room and fed into the ovens as fuel. At the end 
of the saw shop is located a relay fan to help in the trans- 
mission, being driven by a 50-h. p. motor. The building is 
well lighted with arc lamps and each machine has one or 
more incandescent lamps. 

Power House. 

The power house is 94 feet by 40 feet and is located in 
such a manner that extensions can be made without in- 
terfering with the track layout and, therefore, additional 
equipment can be installed at any time. The power equip- 
ment consists of two 200-kw. 60 cycle, 3 phase, alter- 
nating current generators, direct connected to engines. The 
exciters are driven directly from the fly wheels of the en- 

gines, as shown in the illustration. In the engine room is 
also installed one compound steam driven air compressor 
to supply necessary air for the pneumatic tools, painting 
machines, etc. 

The switchboard consists of five panels; two genera- 
tors, one exciter and two feeder panels. The power load 
for each shop is controlled directly from the power house, 
as is also the lighting. 

Boiler Room. 

The boiler room equipment consists of three 200-h. p. 
water tube boilers furnished with Jones underfeed stokers, 
and the boilers are equipped with forced draft, the fan of 
which is steam driven. 

Oil Storage. 

In a small isolated building adjacent to the power house 
is the oil storage house, which is 20 by 40 ft. This building 
is equipped with automatic oil feeders and contains all the 
inflammable material, as also all the paints, etc., used. 

Round House. 

The round house located along the right of way has a 
small auxiliary machine shop, which is driven by a 15-h. p. 
belted type motor. The round house was for a time 
equipped with its own boiler and engine plant as the water 
storage tanks are also located at this point; however, this 
plant has since been discontinued and the pump is now 
driven by a 15-h. p. direct-connected motor. 

Induction Motor Driving 3-Splndle Boring Machine. 

Power House Equipped with Allis-Chalmers Machinery. 

Wheel, Axle and Air Brake Shop. 

The designation, wheel, axle and air brake shop, signifies 
the nature of the repairs carried on in this building. It is 
90 ft. long and 50 ft. wide and is characteristic of the other 
buildings in respect to light, ventilation and heating. Four 
motors, aggregating 92^2-h. p., drive the various machines 
installed in this shop. 

The equipment consists of one hydraulic wheel press 
driven by a 7H-h. p. geared motor, which is mounted on 
the top of the press. 

On axle lathe, one boring mill and one small pipe cutting 
machine are driven in group from a 40-h. p. 900 r. p. m. 

One vertical drill press and one double end emery grinder 
are driven in group from a 5-h. p. 1130 r. p. m. motor. 

Car Assembling and Repair Shop. 

The car assembling and repair shop which is 500 ft. long 
and 160 ft. wide, is so located that the material from all 
the other buildings naturally gravitates to this section of 
the works. It is of steel construction with a tar and 
gravel roof. The sides of the building are sheathed with 
corrugated iron and are so designed that every other panel 
is a roller door or a window. In the summer the windows 
may be opened and the doors rolled up so that practically 
the sides of the building are opened. The natural lighting 



[April, 1912.] 

of the building is increased by wire inserted glass skylights 
and a monitor running the full length of the building, the 
windows of which for ventilating purposes are regulated by 
a system of levers. 

The building contains three ten-ton cranes to assist in 
the erection work. In front of the building and under a 
canopy is located a ten-ton crane which is free to travel in 
front of the blacksmith shop and the saw shop and convey 
the heavier parts to the car assembling shop. It is also ar- 
ranged to take care of the wheels and axles after they come 
from the wheel shop. The car shop has a capacity of sev- 
enty cars, distributed on six tracks running longitudinally. 
There are also four larry tracks, on which push cars may 
be operated to increase the facilities for handling material. 

The heating system of this building includes two blowers, 
each driven by belting from 50-h. p. motor. 

circuits, and they have special advantages for operation in 
plants of this kind, having no moving electrical contacts and 
consequently causing no fire risk. They also start under 
load, run at approximately constant speed regardless of load, 
and if the load is suddenly thrown off no racing can occur. 
They are extremely simple in construction, having no com- 
mutator or brushes, and this, as above intimated, insures ab- 
solute freedom from sparking, flashing or burning. The volt- 
age in the rotating part is so low that insulation breakdowns 
do not occur. Furthermore, an induction motor, when start- 
ed, does not require synchronizing and, on account of its 
simple construction and absence of all auxiliary devices, ex- 
cept starters, the cost of maintenance and attendance is less 
than for any other type of electric motor. 

There are installed in this plant twenty-three constant 
speed induction motors with a combined capacity of six 

Blacksmith Shop, Hocking Valley Shops. 

Blacksmith Shop. 

The blacksmith shop, 160 ft. long and 70 ft. wide, is similar 
in design and construction to the saw shop. All machines in 
this building are arranged in groups, as much as possible, and 
driven from line shaft. There are eight heavy forges in- 
stalled, the air for which is supplied by a fan belted to a 
40-h. p. motor. One combination punch and shear and a 
bulldozer are driven in a group from a 30-h. p. 900 R. P. M. 
motor. One double emery wheel, one grinder, one two-drill 
press and other light tools are driven in a group from a 15- 
h. p. 1130 R. P. M. motor. 

Three triple bolt threaders, one punch, and one emery 
grinder, one "I" bending machine, one 7^-inch bolt header 
and one guillotine shears are driven in a group by a 30-h. p. 
motor. All these motors are mounted on the walls of this 
shop, about six feet above the floor line, so they consume 
practically no space and are not high enough to be injured 
by the smoke and dirt, which naturally exist in such a shop. 

The blower heating system for the shop is driven from a 
15-h. p. motor. 


Induction motors are, in all respects, the best type of ma- 
chine for general power distribution on alternating current 

hundred and three horsepower, not including the three. ten- 
ton cranes, which are each equipped with 35 rated horse- 

The Webster vacuum heating system is installed in the 
entire plant. 

The Logan shops of the Hocking Valley Railway represent 
an investment of $350,000 approximately, but it will readily 
be realized that the company has improved its service to a 
far greater degree than that shown by these figures. The 
shops will employ 450 men and will turn out 5000 heavy re- 
pair cars each year. They were originally designed to take 
care of 50% in excess of their present requirement, and, 
while they were built primarily as repair shops for wooden 
cars, they are also laid out with a view to taking care of the 
steel construction work later on. 

The information and illustrations for this article were se- 
cured by courtesy of the Allis-Chalmers Co. 

It is reported that the New Iberia, Lafayette & North- 
eastern is planning building from Eunice, La., southeast 
via Church Point, Lafayette and St. Martinsville, to New 
Iberia, about 60 miles. F. N. Welch, president; H. A. Ge- 
nung, chief engineer. New Tberia. 

[April, 1912.] 




A new overspeed limit device for rotary converters and 
motor-generator sets has been developed and will be fur- 
nished on all Westinghouse rotary converters built in the 
future, and, when especially ordererd, on motor generators. 
One of the illustrations shows the application of the new 
device to the end of a rotary converter shaft and the draw- 
ing illustrates the details. Advantageous features of the 
new device may be enumerated as follows: (1) Positive 
action, (2) few parts, (3) rugged construction, (4) compact- 

The operation of the mechanism will be apparent from a 
study of the drawing. Normally, the trip lever is held in 
the position shown in full lines by the trip-spring. If the 
speed of the machine exceeds the value (usually 15 per cent 
overspeed) for which the device is set, the trip lever, due to 
its centrifugal force, flies outward positively and quickly, 
and, knocking over the switch arm, closes the switch. A 
most interesting and important point in connection with its 
action is its positiveness. If the trip lever starts to fly out, 
the speed remaining constant or increasing, it will continue 
until it strikes the stop. This action is due to the propor- 
tions and disposition of the trip spring and the trip lever. 

The point on the trip lever that strikes the switch arm is, 
approximately, at the center of percussion of the lever, a 
fact which insures an effective blow being struck by the 
lever. Normally the switch arm is held in the open position 
by a toggle spring. The relation of the spring to the lever 
is such that the resisting torque of the spring is a minimum. 
When the trip lever strikes the switch arm it forces the 
arm past the center point of the toggle mechanism and the 
switch, under the spring's tension, closes of itself. 

It is only necessary for the trip lever to move the arm a 
small distance, possibly 3/32 inch, to insure that the switch 
will close. The relation of the parts is such that, when the 
arm is in the closed position, the contacts are forced against 
the contact blocks with considerable pressure — much more 
pressure than is required to trip the switch. 

To reset the switch it is merely necessary to move the 
switch arm back to the normal position by hand. This can 
be readily done at any time whether the machine is run- 
ning or not and without opening the switch box. 

That very few parts are involved is evident from an in- 
spection of the illustration. Obviously, the fewer parts in 
a mechanism the better it is, other things being equal. The 


Shaft Extension 

Overspeed Limit Device Installed on Rotary Converter. 

minimum diameter for any bearing pin is Yz inch, and the 
other parts are correspondingly strong. Adjusting screws 
are provided whereby the position of the trip lever can be 
closely regulated so that it will act at the predetermined 
speed. The sensitiveness of action of the switch arm can 
also be regulated by an adjusting screw. 

Electrical connections for the new device will be the same 
as those used for the former Westinghouse standard over- 
speed trip arrangement. If the converter attains an over- 
speed the trip lever flies out, the switch arm forces its con- 
tacts against the contact blocks and an auxiliary circuit is 
closed. With the usual scheme of connections, the closing 
of this circuit energizes the solenoid of a tripping device 
(on the alternating-current circuit breakers), which- operates 
and opens the breakers, cutting the machine from its source 
of supply. 

In addition to the overspeed limit switch illustrated, 
which must reset manually, another switch has been devel- 
oped which can be reset by a solenoid arranged within the 
switch box. A circuit extends from the solenoid to the 
switchboard and the equipment is so designed that, after the 
switch has been tripped, it can be reset by closing the 
solenoid circuit with a contact button located at the switch- 
board or any other convenient point. This electrical reset- 
ting arrangement is not standard and is furnished only 
when specified by the purchaser. 

Bushings for Switch Conductors 

Fiber Terminal Block 
Assembly of Overspeed Limit Device. 


The Pere Marquette R. R. was thrown into the hands of 
receivers by action of the Michigan State Railway Com- 
mission, April 4, in denying the road's request for permis- 
sion to make a $4,000,000 bond issue. 



[April, 1912.] 

By J. W. Harkom, Consulting Engineer, Melbourne, P. Q. 

The substitution of steel for iron, which west of the At- 
lantic had practically superseded theuse of copper in inside 
fireboxes, brought with it a beginning of boiler troubles 
from which the earlier types of locomotives had been al- 
most entirely free. 

The cracking of side-sheets was a very serious item of 
expense and crippling of power, boxes would crack without 
any apparent cause. 

The manufacture of steel plates for boiler construction 
was then in the experimental stage, and it was some time 
before it became common knowledge that the troubles 
arose more from chemical impurities in the metal than the 
actual manufacture and application of the steel plates. 

Many of us can remember the reputation "Otis" steel 
obtained as superior to all other makes, due largely to its 
comparative freedom from sulphur and phosphorous. 

When this trouble was about understood and met, then 
the demand for heavier locomotives brought about increased 
diameters of barrel shells which, with the introduction of 
coal as fuel, carried with them, in addition to the side 
sheet difficulties, trouble by breakage of staybolts. 

The increased diameter of the shells necessitated a swell- 
ing out of top or saddle-sheet, producing a form known as 
the O.G. 

Efforts were made to overcome breakages by increas- 
ing the size and strength of the stays, connecting the inner 
box with the casing or outside sheets. 

This did not overcome the difficulty and the writer about 
that period formed the conclusion that the value of a stay- 
bolt, which, of necessity, must possess the requisite strength 
to retain the two sheets in the positions desired, lay rath- 
er in flexibility than excess of strength through increased 
diameter and consequent stiffness. 

The cause of breakage evidently was the vibratory move- 
ment of the stay bolts due to increase of expansion of the 
inside box over the outside. 

Repeated movement by expansion and contraction of the 
fireboxes caused the breakage, and as the movement of the 
sheet was greater at the top of box than at the bottom, 
the bolts at the point above referred to were subjected to 
a greater angle of vibration than those at the bottom, being 
of the same length by reason of the box being confined 
between the frames. 

The amount of vertical movement of the inside box as 
compared with that of the outside box or casing varied 
with the height of firebox and its temperature. 

Fireboxes which were not confined to the width between 
frames were about that time built, doing away with the 
O.G., not only for the reason above indicated, but to give 
more grate area and facilitate a reduced rate of fuel com- 
bustion per square foot of grate surface, which was in- 
creased in some cases over sixty per cent. 

This latter, particularly, was done where the smaller 
sizes of anthracite coal were available as cheap fuel, but 
carried with it other difficulties of general construction 
which it is not proposed to deal with here, merely remark- 
ing that boilers with tubes too close to the grates do not 
give good results. 

Some relief was afforded from the staybolt troubles, but 
it was for a very short period, as further demands for in- 
creased power, necessitating higher pressures and increased 
diameters of boiler shells, the O.G. staybolt troubles were 
generally as acute as ever. 

Attempts have been made, and we are told with some 
success, to ameliorate the conditions by particular shapes 
and styles of staybolts, but the removal of the cause of the 

k From a paper read before the Canadian Railway Club. 

trouble has not yet to any very great extent been success- 
fully made in general practice. 

As previously mentioned, staybolts broke where the 
angle of vibration was greatest, and this was taken into 
consideration by the writer when studying how best to meet 
the trouble. 

The conclusion come to was that if the length of stay- 
bolts could be increased in the same proportion as their 
movement with the inside box the same angle of vibration 
would result with the upper as with the lower staybolts, 
and the breakage would be less likely to occur. 

This, of course, could not be attained, but in designing 
some fireboxes it was made imperative that a gradual in- 
crease in length should occur with every staybolt as it 
neared the O.G., and the length at that point was made as 
great as compatible with the general design and conditions. 

The result was very satisfactory in the reduction of fail- 
ures of staybolts, as confirmed very recently, after over 
five years' service. 

One engine having this particular firebox, and repaired 
in January last, had only ten staybolts renewed after a 
year's work. 

The increase in water space afforded materially assisted 
the boilers as regarded priming, the behavior of those en- 
gines being good in a bad water district. 

With regard to the staying of firebox crown sheet of this 
boiler, by the sling stays at front end. 

A criticism is offered re this to the effect that it is not 
carried far enough back, as in the writer's opinion sling 
stays with vertical freedom should entirely cover that part 
of firebox which is the first to be heated, therefore before 
pressure is developed that part of crown sheet is subjected 
to a strain which would be relieved by opportunity to ex- 
pand upwards. The application of such slings at all is an 
admission of the correctness of the theory of such move- 

A noticeable feature of the firebox and casing is the sin- 
gle sheet forming the sides and crown sheet of inside box 
and the same for sides and saddle sheet of casing. 

The writer adopted this plan some years ago, and the re- 
sults have been satisfactory. 

To the objection offered, "What if you have to put in a 
new crown sheet or sides," the answer was and is, "It is 
time enough to cut that sheet when you have to, and as 
easy to cut a clear sheet as a spliced one and a better chance 
to make a fresh joint." 

If any careful examination of the exterior contour of a 
boiler is made when cold and compared with the same after 
steam is up an interesting study will be afforded the exam- 

While considering the staybolt question it is offered in 
conjunction with the conclusion regarding flexibility that 
the ideal staybolt would be not a bolt but a chain, which 
would give the freedom for vibration and yet tie the two 
sheets together. 

Another and very fruitful source of trouble is leaky tubes. 

The difference in longitudinal expansion of the firebox 
and tubes from that of the shell of the boiler to which they 
are rigidly connected presents a very difficult problem. 

The setting of tubes in tube-sheets has been the subject 
of much experiment and careful observation, but it is fully 
clear that leakage occurs to tubes (when carefully set) at 
the firebox end only; where the exoansion of the tube rear- 
wards is met by the expansion of the firebox forwards, the 
results naturallv beinc? the destruction of the joint formed 
when the boiler was cold. 

The increased lencth of both fireboxes and tubes has 
greatly aggravated the trouble and when careless handling 
of engines without fires takes place the shrinking of tubes 
in their diameters at firebox end accentuate the trouble 

[April, 1912.] 



which the subsequent restoration of equal temperatures of 
firebox and tubes cannot overcome. 

This careless handling can, in the writer's view, be only 
partially met, but much can be done by use of substantial 
brick arches in firebox and the reduction of uncontrolled air 
admission, with the allowance of sufficient time for cool- 
ing when necessary. 

The general construction of the latest types of boilers 
for heavy service, as illustrated in the technical journals, 
shows restrictions due to the large size and the necessary 
clearances, but the greatest change is in the flexible boiler 
due to the necessity for increased length to accommodate 
the motion of the whole vehicle over the roadbed, including 

To successfully maintain the efficiency of locomotives of 
the- power recently developed, the writer believes that the 
articulated system must be followed with each set of cylin- 
ders and their drivers operated on the same truck wheel 
base, as first exemplified in the Fairlie and lately in the 
Mallet type. 

That the boilers of such engines are too long to conven- 
iently do this without being flexibly connected is apparent, 
and to those charged with the development of this necessity 
the writer gives his best wishes for success. 

In the details of internal construction of boilers, the writ- 
er felt a few years ago that sufficient advantage had not 
then generally been taken of the improvements in forging 
machinery to dispense with many of the smaller members 
in the way of joints where upsetting of material and forg- 
ing at even less expense than the older practice would re- 
duce the number of parts and ensure better work. 

That this is not now true may well be, and the writer 
does not offer these remarks as now justified, a correction 
being what he would like to hear from the members. 

The increase from 140 lbs. pressure to 200 lbs. and over, 
with the accompanying increase in temperatures, and the 
increase in dimensions at all points, was undoubtedly the 
cause of most of the troubles in maintenance which may 
be in recent practice reduced chiefly to breakage of stay- 
bolts and leaky tubes and perhaps insufficient or incorrect- 
ly designed staying. 

The reversion to pressures of under 180 lbs. in some recent 
designs proves te a certain extent the correctness of the 

With such reduced pressures and the advantages accruing 
from the use of super-heated steam, equally good results 
may be confidently looked for without some of the troubles 
attending the higher pressures. 

With 63" drivers and 32" stroke, as in the case of the 
Mikado above referred to, a fairly high efficiency as regards 
fuel may be reasonably expected, provided the power is not 
wasted by high speed and light trains. 

The introduction of superheating on locomotives, when 
not carried too far, cannot injure the boiler structure, and 
tends to fuel economy. 

An interesting feature in development of modern boilers 
is the disappearance of the old wagon top and flat sides. 

The only modern approach to it is the Belpaire, and many 
have been the tribulations attending them before the advent 
of flanging presses of sufficient size and power to success- 
fully form the corners, which as intimated above, gave so 
much trouble. 

The desire to provide storage for dry steam was the rea- 
son offered for these types of construction, but superheat- 
ing has obviated that necessity. 

The writer advocates the use of a steel casting covering 
the whole surface to be stayed, thus eliminating the use of 
a doubling plate as frequently practiced. 

On this casting the attachments for stays project, and 

when the casting is made, say 34" thick, the flat surface is 
better reinforced, with better opportunities for riveting and 
clearances for mountings. 

The facing of the side of casting next to face plate gives 
a true surface and prevents any distortion of the face plate. 

The writer recently saw in a technical journal that a lo- 
comotive engineer of repute had said it was better to make 
a narrow butt-strap for a joint than a wide one, by making 
the narrow strap thicker to gain the strength of joint need- 

Excess of stiffness anywhere in a boiler is undesirable. 

Too wide a joint and too many rivets are certainly ob- 
jectionable, but that designer is respectfully referred to the 
rules for joints as promulgated by the British Board of 
Trade for marine service, which, when intelligently followed, 
give the highest efficiency, and are applicable to all boilers, 
and scientifically correct. 

Some time ago the writer was consulted as to a boiler for 
which certain inspectors had on examination of the draw- 
ings reduced the intended working pressure. 

The builders thought they had done just about all they 
could to get what they wanted, but on examination of the 
drawings the writer found there were too many rivets in 
the joint and that by leaving out half those on the outer 
rows of the joint (a butt-strap design) the pressure should 
be, and was later allowed. 

The recent issue by our railway commissioners of regu- 
lations for inspection and testing of locomotive boilers do 
not entail a very great amount of additional work or re- 
sponsibility, outside the clerical work of reports, on Canadi- 
an railways. 

The record of those railways in general is good, and that 
good record doubtless due to their conscientious efforts to 
secure efficiency and safety. 

Some little points of indefiniteness as regards location of 
responsibility occur which should be cleared up as if any 
attempt is made to place responsibility it should be made 
clear in a thoroughly practical manner. 

It also seems to the writer that by the number of reports 
and their frequency the Commission is taking on itself too 
much responsibility for regulating the conduct of the rail- 
ways in detail. 

If not promptly and invariably followed up where viola- 
tions of instructions are apparent, and check inspections 
made, the result will be a worse state than before. 

Heavier penalties for failure involving risk or actual dam- 
age to life and property would seem likely to... be more ef- 

Discussion by A. A. Maver. 

There is a statement to which I take exception, and that 
is this, "in the use of steel for these parts (boilers) it is 
certain that the United States practice led the way, etc." 
The first boiler built entirely of steel plate was made in 
Canada in the shops of the old Great Western Railway of 
Hamilton, Ontario. This road is now part of the Grand 
Trunk System. It created considerable interest at the time 
among railway mechanical men, both in Canada and the 
United States. This first steel boiler was made by Mr. 
Richard Eaton, who afterwards became Mechanical Super- 
intendent of the Grand Trunk Railway. 

With reference to the writer's suggestions that the stay- 
bolts would be increased in strength if they were gradually 
increased in length, as they rise afterwards from the mud- 
ring. Years ago I saw fireboxes built in this manner, the 
water space increasing in width towards the top, but the 
reason given for this was not so much for the purpose of in- 
creasing the strength of the staybolts as for improving the 
water circulation, although I have no doubt it would also 
have the effect suggested by the writer. 



[April, 1912.] 

As you all know, the expansion "of a sheet is from the cen- piece. This was practiced twenty- live years ago, to my 

ter outward but the side sheets must expand vertically up- knowledge, not only on the inside shell but on the outside 

ward, because they are held rigidly at the bottom by the as well. 

mudring, therefore all the expansion is upward, and the ex- Referring to the suggestion made by Mr. Harkom that the 

treme movement is along the "O.G.," as stated in the paper, sagging of the tubes might be prevented by placing a bridge 

and it is there we experience the trouble with broken stay- or a carrier tube sheet to carry the tubes at the centre. That 

bolts, and also due to the horizontal expansion of the sheets idea occurred to us, but after thinking the matter over and 

we have breakages of the bolts at the extreme back and considering that in the course of time there tubes would be 

front vertical rows, also in the upper corners back and front, encrusted with perhaps one-quarter of an inch of scale, and 

the staybolts in these corners being subjected to a vertical, as each tube would have to be drawn out of its own hole, 

as well as a horizontal movement. This is what is known we gave up this idea. 

as the "breaking zone," and some two years ago we put flexi- 

ble staybolts in a number of our boilers in this breaking 

zone, in order to overcome the trouble experienced by the PACKING CUTTING MACHINE. s 

breaking of these staybolts, and up to the present time we A machine for cutting up sectional packing rings at the 

have had none of these flexible staybolts break. Beech Grove shops of the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & 

End View. 
at A-B 

Auxiliary head used on Lodge & Shiply laf/res 

- Gas? Iron. 

dectior? A-B. 

Machine for Sawing Packing Rings, C. C. C. & St. L. Ry. 

I note what is said in regard to leakage of tubes due to St. Louis Ry. is shown in the sketch herewith. The table 

■expansion. I hardly think we have leakage due to this is semi-circular in shape with a radius of 12 inches, and a 

cause, but rather to shrinkage. The longer the tube the 6x3/32-inch Brown & Sharpe saw runs in a slot at one side, 

greater the sag, and expansion would simply increase this The clutch or lever clasps the packing and moves it to posi- 

sag, but it must be borne in mind that the expansion of the tion on the saw. The right lengths, or sections, are obtained 

tube is relieved by the expansion of the barrel of the boil- by pegs set in the table, divided similar to a dividing head 

er. In large boilers the barrel will expand probably 54 of on milling machine. 

an inch between tube sheets. On the other hand if shrink- The sawing operation may be followed through in this 

age takes place it will be relieved by the straightening of manner. The handle on the table, as shown in the sketch, 

the sag. If shrinkage still continues the tubes will start in is in position to lay the packing ring on the table and saw 

the sheet and leakage will occur, so I attribute leakage to the first slot. The clutch on handle is then released from 

shrinkage rather than expansion. the packing ring and the handle is moved against a peg in 

The writer states that the crown sheet, being the first part one of the holes in the table at the left. This certain hole 
heated, it should be allowed freedom to rise. In my opinion is determined by the diameter of the packing ring, as shown 
this shfeet does not rise until the side sheets are heated. It on the sketch. The clutch is applied again and the packing 
is the side sheets which create the vertical movement, and ring is moved to the original position and sawed the second 
by the time they are heated the outside shell is also heated, time. These operations are continued till ring is sawed in 
thereby giving more freedom to the vertical movement of the the required number of sections. It requires 10 to 12 sec- 
crown sheet. onds to saw a slot in a packing ring, or the entire ring may 

With reference to the side and crown sheets being in one be sawed in less than a minute. 

[April, 1912.] 



Baldwin-Westinghouse Locomotive for Piedmont Traction Co. 


Recently the East Pittsburgh works of the Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Company completed equipping a 
high voltage electric locomotive for the Piedmont Traction 
Company, which will operate an extensive railroad system 
in the Piedmont section in North and South Carolina. This 
locomotive is one of six to operate at a pressure of 1,500 
volts direct-current. This voltage is said to be the highest 
direct-current voltage used by any electric railway in the 
United States. 

The mechanical parts were built by the Baldwin Works, 
Philadelphia, Pa. The locomotives weigh 55 tons each and 
are equipped with four Westinghouse motors which have a 
rating of 180 horsepower. Each locomotive is able to haul 
40 freight cars weighing 45 tons each with load, at 20.5 miles 
per hour on a straight level track, or nine cars at the same 
speed on a 1 per cent grade. 

The motor equipment is controlled by the Westinghouse 
electro-pneumatic unit switch type of control. 

Steel construction is used throughout. The underiraming 
is built of steel channels and the cab-sheets are mounted on 
a steel angle-iron frame. 

All-Steel Street Railway Train. 


PITTSBURGH RAILWAY'S STEEL CAR TRAINS. numerous. The chief botanical orders are: Euphorbiaceae, 

On the previous page is shown what is believed to be the Apocynaceae, Urticaceae, and Compositae. 

first steel surface street railway train operated in this conn- ° f the Euphorbiaceae, the most important is the genus, 

try. The train is in daily service- on the Frankstown Avenue Hevea, from the species Hevea-brasiliensis, of which about 

line of the Pittsburgh Railways Company. The motor car 60 P er cent of the world's total output of rubber is obtained, 

is equipped with four Westinghouse No. 306 interpole mo- lt is predominant over large tracks of South America, in the 

tors. 50 h. p., and HL control. The car has been in operation Amazon valley particularly. In the natural state it is a 

since January 20, 1911, and has averaged approximately 130 lar §' e tree growing to the height of 100 ft. and a diameter up 

miles daily since. There have been no control failures of to i0 ins - Jt has been frequently stated that not more than 

any consequence during the period. a sma11 proportion of the trees in the vast forests bordering 

The motor car is of Brill Manufacture and is of a unique the Amazon, the Rio Negro and Rio Madeira, etc., have been 

design developed by the railway. Its weight, including exploited. 

trucks and equipment, is 46.000 lbs. The seating capacity, The trees are ta PP ed b ^ means of a sma11 iron hatchet, 

including that of the folding seat on the rear platform, is having a blade about 1 in. broad, making incisions, deep cuts 

61 persons, giving the low weight per seated passenger of and oblique lines. There are a large number of methods of 

754 pounds. Important features of the car are the door tapping. About 35 consecutive daily tappings are necessary, 

opening devices on which patents have been granted to Mr. Small collecting cups are fixed to the tree by means of moist 

P. N. Jones, general superintendent of the company. The clay. The rubber runs out then in the form of a white milk 

hand-operated rear door opening device is so arranged that or latex into these cups. An average annual yield in the 

the doors open inward over a stationary step. There is no Amazon is 5 lbs. of dry rubber, although very variable. The 

folding step with hinges to cause accidents or to wear out latex is then transferred from the collecting cups into pails 

and there is no grab handle or step exposed when the door and from the latter into a flat basin and then it is coagulated 

is closed. No part of the door extends beyond the side of by means of the smoking process. 

the car. The front door slides, is air operated and is con- A fire is made of a material giving a rich, dense smoke, 

trolled by a small valve just above the hand brake wheel. particularly the fruit of the Urucuri palm. A small quantity 

Accidents with these cars have been reduced to a minimum of the latex is poured on a long pole which is rotated in the 

due to the fact that the steps are entirely enclosed while smoke until it is dried or "cured," then a fresh quantity is 

the cars are moving. poured on and the rotation continued, and this operation is 

The most noteworthy feature of the steel trailer is that repeated until a biscuit or ball of rubber weighing from 20 

the boarding step of the center door is very low, which to 100 lbs. is formed. This ball consists of innumerable thin 

facilitates rapid loading and unloading. The train is used in layers and forms the fine para of commerce. Other com- 

the evenings as a "Theatre Special" to carry passengers from mercial varieties are: Cameta, coarse, Mollendo, etc. 

theatres in the city to Wilkinsburg, one of the suburban There are many grades of rubber produced in Africa, which 

boroughs. belong to the order, chiefly Apocynaceae, of which the main 

genera are: Funtumia, Landolphia and Clitandra. The Fun- 

ATLANTIC CITY SPECIAL TRAIN tumia yield grades of rubber known in the trade as Gold 

Coast lumps, Ivory Coast lumps, Niggers and some of the 

The Pennsylvania R. R. has announced a special train for CongQ and Cameroon varieties. It is a mature forest tree 

the Atlantic City conventions. This tram will leave Chi- with a circurnference of about 40 ins. and rises to a height 

cago at 3 p. m., June 10, reaching Atlantic City at 2 p. m., of from 4Q tQ 50 ft The Landolphia varie ties are creepers 

June 11. It will be made up of the usual Pullman sleepers, and vines up to 6 ins in diameter> an d give among others the 

compartment diners, library, smoking, and observation cars. wdl known commercial brands of the Congo varieties, red 

and black, Upper Congo balls, Equateur, Madagascar, etc. 

The latex is coagulated in a variety of ways, sometimes by 

KU.o.Bli,K. smearing the latex on the body and allowing" the natural heat 

The many uses for rubber in railway operation call for a to evaporate the water and, subsequently, stripping the rub- • 

more than ordinary knowledge of the subject on the part of her; sometimes by boiling and smoking. Some of the ball 

the railway mechanical official. rubbers are obtained by applying a coagulant, such as chalk. 

The following is taken from a paper by Dr. W. C. Geer or by cutting the vine and drawing the thread of rubber thus 

before the Cleveland Engineering Society: obtained to form a core, subsequently winding more and 

more thread around the core until the ball is obtained. The 

Crude Rubber. . ,.„. .^ . . j , , . , ., 

vines are difficult to tap and, consequently, they are generally 

The first historical reference to rubber was in 1525, by a cut down and D l e d to death. 

Spanish writer, who described some rubber ball playing seen T . . B . . T , 

. 4 . . ■», . t , t, • a , ,- -. . The Rubber Latex. 

by him in Mexico. In 1731, the Paris Academy of Science TT , ,, .. . , , a . , ... . 

3 . . ' J Under the microscope it consists of a fluid with mnumer- 

sent an expedition to South America to obtain certain geo- , , ,. , c , . . , t-i ,-, , 

1 . a able particles of globular shape. 1 he constituents are va- 

graphical measurements and they brought back specimens . , ,,. , , , • . _ , ■ „,. „ . 

b L ,,«'•,. • rious sugars, crystalline substances which are derivatives of 

of rubber. They found a tree called Hevea by the natives, , , • . A . • , 

J ....... ... ' oxygen, enzymes, water, rubber, resin, etc. A tvpical average 

winch gave forth a milk-white liquor which hardened and , . , , . e rr u -r •> • r \ \ ~i 

& . , , r . analysis of a latex from Hevea-brasiliensis Leylon showed: 

blackened in the air. They found the natives coating linen T? ,, QO __ . 

. ,. . . JvUDDer i^.uu per cent 

with this material and making watertight boots. Samples v> nr .-~ „ A , _„. „„♦ 

Jvesin <v.u.j per cent 

came into England about 1770, and Priestley, the chemist, Proteid 2 03 per cent 

recommended it for the purpose of erasing pencil marks; »». '. .. _ „„ ^ „ _. 

. Mineral matter 0.00 per cent 

hence, the name rubber. Since it came through the West c n „„ „ „ „„„. 

T ' . ,, , T ,• , , . 1 , , • Sugars 0.00 per cent 

Indies, it was called India rubber, although tins term is to- ,., , »_ KC „ „„. 

Water 55.56 per cent 

Coagulation involves physical and chemical changes not 

Sources of Crude Rubber. yet f u ]] y l <llown . 

Rubber bearing plants are found in considerable tracts Chemistry of Crude Rubber. 

of tropical and sub-tropical zones in South and Central The chemistry of crude rubber divides itself naturally into 

America, Asia, Africa and Australia. The species are very two divisions: 

I April, 1912.] 



(a) That of the rubber hydro-carbon. 

(b) That of the secondary constituents. 

On analysis the rubber hydro-carbon has been found to 
contain carbon and hydrogen in the proportions of the form- 
ula, C10H10, that is, it has the same ultimate chemical compo- 
sition as the fundamental constituent of turpentine and of a 
vast number of other bodies known as "terpenes." It is a 
colloid and probably to its colloidal character may be as- 
cribed its value. A great deal of work has been done during 
the past few years on the synthetic production of the rubber 
hydro-carbon. The literature contains a large number of 
articles and the patent literature is now becoming extended. 
It has, however, as yet not advanced to the stage when it 
may be called a large commercial proposition. 

The chemistry of the secondary constituents includes 
those of the resins, which are found in the crude rubber. 
This term is a broad one to include substances which may 
be extracted from crude rubber by means of acetone and 
similar solvents. The amount of such resin varies in dif- 
ferent crude rubbers and indeed varies in different 
lots of the same crude rubber. There is also con- 
tained, in very small quantities, certain mineral matters and 
numerous other, rather complicated, organic chemical bodies. 

Crude rubber, as it comes into the market, includes both 
the pure hydro-carbon and secondary constituents as one 
body together. The specific gravity is about 0.90. It softens 
in the neighborhood of 245 degrees Fahr. and becomes clear 
liquid at about 370 degrees Fahr., although these figures are 
very variable, depending upon the particular grade of crude 
rubber that is examined and the treatment that the rubber 
has received up to the time that the test is made. Rubber 
swells and forms pseudo solutions with petroleum and coal- 
tar hydro-carbons, carbon bisulphide, carbon tetrachloride 
and other solvents, although it is insoluble in alcohol, ace- 
tone, and groups of solvents of a similar character. It is a 
soft, sticky, rather plastic material, possessing, when washed 
and dried, and sheeted together, but little tensile strength, 
it can be easily molded, the color is variable from the light 
yellow crepe Ceylon and plantation rubbers, to the red from 
Africa and the black of other grades of African rubber, dark 
green Guayule from Mexico, amber brown of the Fine Para 
from South America, in its washed and dried condition. 
When a fresh biscuit is cut and the surface exposed to the 
air for the first time, the rubber is usually white in color. 
This white color rapidly changes to brown, or black on being 
exposed to the air. 


The rubber industry was not an industry and probably 
would not have become one of any size had it not been for 
the remarkable discovery of the process of vulcanization by 
Goodyear in 1839 and again by Hancock in 1844. These 
gentlemen found that sulphur unites chemically with rubber 
and gives more highly developed properties than were pos- 
sessed by the original unsulphured material. 

To accomplish the process of vulcanization, the rubber 
and sulphur are mixed together by any method, usually, 
however, by two mixing rolls, then made into any desired 
form and finally heated to temperatures varying from 250 
to 320 degrees Fahr. for a chosen length of time. After this 
heating it is found that the rubber has united with the sul- 
phur and it is said to be vulcanized. 

Vulcanization is also possible by means of the liquid sul- 
phur monochloride (S2CI2), which was discovered by Parkes 
in 1846, and by means of which rubber in thin sheets can be 
vulcanized at the ordinary room temperature. This, how- 
ever, forms but a relatively small division of the rubber in- 

Other differences between vulcanized and unvulcanized 
rubber are numerous. Generally speaking, vulcanized rub- 
ber tends to deteriorate more rapidly than the unvulcanized 

rubber under similar conditions. Preserved in the dark and 
where cool, both vulcanized and unvulcanized rubber can be 
preserved for periods of many years. But* at temperatures 
around 160 degrees Fahr., or over, they harden appreciably 
with age in a short time, and when exposed to the light, 
they undergo rapid oxidation. Dilute acids and alkalies do 
not attack them appreciably, but strong sulphuric and strong 
nitric acids cause very rapid decomposition. Numerous oils 
cause a softening and weakening of the composition. 

There are other physical and chemical properties of vul- 
canized rubber which, however, will be passed over, since 
they are details. 

Raw Materials of the Rubber Industry. 

Crude rubber and sulphur have been spoken of as two 
essentials. That is very true. However, in rubber mixings 
a large number of different materials of various kinds are 
used. Of these, reclaimed rubber occupies quite a promi- 
nent position. Reclaimed rubber is made from old vulcan- 
ized rubber, freeing it from the cloth made into the article 
and softening it. Numerous patented processes for this pur- 
pose are in vogue. It forms a very valuable material for 
rubber mixing of different purposes. 

Rubber substitutes made by the oxidation or sulphuriza- 
tion of different drying oils are used to a limited extent. 

Such dry mineral pigments as zinc oxide, lithopone, bary- 
tes, whiting, litharge, etc., have their own particular uses. 

The rubber composition for any purpose, therefore, is 
not a mixture of rubber and sulphur alone, but of rubber, 
sulphur and those other materials which will give the high- 
est service and the best value for the purpose for which they 
are intended. 

There is a great deal of misinformation prevailing upon 
the subject of. the rubber compounding materials. It is per- 
haps generally believed that dry pigments are used merely 
for the purpose of cheapening and most people, when they 
hear of reclaimed rubber, consider it merely a matter of 
old scrap that is thrown back into the compound in order 
to increase the profits of the rubber manufacturer. This, 
however, is far from the actual truth. It is the purpose of 
the rubber* manufacturer to produce articles which will serve 
the purpose in the best way, give the longest life and have 
the best value. One might desire to use mahogany for a 
building material, but it would scarcely be considered good 
judgment; on the other hand, pine is an excellent building 
material. Mahogany has its particular uses, oak has its par- 
ticular uses, and pine has its particular uses. It is the same 
way with rubber. Each article is manufactured from a mix- 
ture that will give the best service and the best value. Of 
the large number of rubber articles, hose, belting, packing, 
tires, water bottles, etc., each has certain definite uses and, 
consequently, the rubber compound or mixtures must be 
made according to the service for which each is to be put 
and the rubber manufacturer reaches his highest skill in so 
combining the different raw materials and manufacturing 
them into articles which will give the highest efficiency in 

Specifications for Rubber Articles, Chemical Analysis and 

Physical Examination to Determine Whether the 

Article Will Meet the Specifications. 

The Chemical Analysis of Vulcanized Rubber. 

A sample of vulcanized rubber to be analyzed must first be 
ground or cut into very fine pieces. It is then, (1) submit- 
ted to the action of acetone which extracts resins, some 
oils and free sulphur. The free sulphur is then determined 
by standard chemical methods and the difference between 
that and the total amount of the extract is usually computed 
as resins. The residue is then, (2), extracted with pyridine 
which dissolves tar, pitch, bitumen, etc. The residue is then 
extracted, (3), with alcoholic potash which dissolves oxidized 
and sulphurized oils which are saponifiable. This shows, in 



[April, 1912.] 

other words, rubber substitute. The residue from the alco- 
holic potash extraction is then treated, by some chemists, 
with, (4), nitro-naphthaline which "extracts rubber, gutta 
percha. balata, etc., and the final residue, sometimes, is ex- 
tracted in, (5), boiling water to dissolve starch, sugar, etc., 
which leaves, (6), mineral matter, free carbon, cotton fibers, 
etc. Separate estimations are made to determine total sul- 
phur. The methods of chemical analysis are, however, no- 
tably unreliable, and there is a vast difference between the 
figures obtained by processes such as these and those ob- 
tained by gravimetric and accurate volumetric determina- 
tions. It is an impossibility to distinguish between reclaimed 
rubbers and crude rubber. Consequently, no methods of 
chemical analysis can definitely prove or disprove the pres- 
ence of any kind of crude rubber. 

Physical Tests of Rubber Articles. 
The most important division of the testing of rubber ma- 
terials is the physical tests, of which tensil strength in 
pounds per square inch is, perhaps, the most trustworthy. 
It is unnecessary to enter into the details of physical testing 
methods before engineers. The details are worked out to 
suit the peculiarities of the rubber, namely, a relatively low 
tensile strength, ranging from 100 to 4,000 lbs. per square 
inch, and a very high elongation at the point of rupture, the 
elongation being from 150 to 1,500 per cent. The permanent 
elongation measured, usually 10 minutes after rupture, is a 
valuable property. 

The size and shape of the test piece is of moment. In 
the railroad specifications, pieces are usually cut 1 in. wide 
throughout the entire length, but practical experience and 
scientific study has demonstrated that it is just as necessary 
in testing rubber samples to have enlarged ends as it is in 
testing steel samples. The influence of small irregularities, 
pieces of dirt, etc., which are inevitable in any rubber goods, 
have such a tremendous influence upon the tensible strength 
that it is necessary that the part of the test piece held in the 
jaws of the machine be large. In Germany a very popular 
testing method is in the form of small rings, something sim- 
ilar, but smaller in size to the jar rings used in preserving 
fruits. It has the disadvantage, however, of a very small 
size and consequently a very low actual breaking strength. 
The influence of irregularities is very much more marked in 
pieces of this size than in larger pieces. 

To determine the length of time by aging tests which a 
rubber article will last is important and much study is under 
way in this direction. 

Service tests, such as steaming for steam hose, treating 
with oils, etc., or materials to be subjected to those com- 
pounds are carried out only to a limited extent. This field, 
however, is of great value and will, undoubtedly, be extended 
in the future as a means of determining the value of articles. 

You will, I am sure, be interested in some remarks upon 
the writing of specifications for rubber goods, for, I think, 
that those of you who are familiar with this branch of the 
industry will agree with me that there is no side of the rub- 
ber business which is so crudely worked out, nor one upon 
which accurate and reliable work can be done to greater 
advantage. When you or I desire to buy an article, it is 
quite natural that we, knowing the use to which it is to be 
put, should establish a set of specifications. These specifi- 
cations are intended to establish a standard for the article 
to which each purchase must measure to give us a uniform 
quality of the material or article. The importance of this 
matter is so great that it is of moment to determine the 
kind of specifications to draw and the kind of tests to pre- 
scribe. Obviously such specifications and debts must be de- 
veloped in the light of knowledge of the material to be 

There are two extremes of specifications: 

(1) Specifying chemical composition, physical tests and 
services as is done in some United States navy specifications. 

(2) The other specifying by one physical property which 
is done in the Master Car Builders' specifications for air 
brake hose. 

Neither of these extremes will give the best article or the 
best value. 

To obtain correct specifications, all mention of chemical 
composition should be eliminated. Based primarily upon 
the fundamental principle that the percentage of crude rub- 
ber cannot be positively determined and the influence of the 
different mineral matters, etc., are known to the rubber manu- 
facturer chiefly, the specification of a percentage of pure 
Fine Para is at best uncertain. Strictly speaking, pure Fine 
Para is the crude rubber obtained in the smoking process 
on the Amazon and tributaries. The term "Pure Fine Para" 
should include not only the rubber obtained from the Ama- 
zon, but also rubber from the tree Hevea-brasiliensis, made 
anywhere in the world. The term "Para" is derived from 
the town Para, but practically applies to rubber from the 
foregoing tree. In view of the fact that Para rubber, Congo 
rubber, etc., differ from each other in their crude state by 
the percentage of acetone usually found, chemists have been 
in the habit of stating that pure Fine Para is present when 
the acetone extract is low and not present when it is high. 
Here specifications are uncertain and testing methods unre- 
liable since this test does not prove nor disprove the pres- 
ence of any grade of rubber and much depends upon the 
analyst's judgment. 

The only determination today made is that of rubber hy- 
dro-carbon, and since this varies in properties, tensile 
strength, aging properties, etc., it is useless to attempt to 
specify it. 

In the same way the specification of sulphur of mineral 
matter or any other kind of added material is not warrant- 
ed. Any attempts by buyers or consumers to make specin- 
cations covering these matters would be, at best, uncertain. 
The best way, therefore, is to specify that the article must 
comply with certain physical requirements and leave it whol- 
ly to the manufacturer to decide on what chemical composi- 
tion will meet these specifications. 

Physical Properties. 

The buyer can establish physical properties and lay out 
tests to determine them which will show the value of the 
article for his purpose. They should be made severe, but 
well balanced. Tensile strength, elongation and recovery 
should be specified in terms that will give the highest pos- 
sible value as required for the aritcle in question. 

You buy vanadium steel, high carbon steel, bronze, etc., 
not because of their respective composition, but because that 
composition has been shown to have certain valuable prop- 
erties. It is, after all, the properties that we buy. 

Service Tests. 

Comparative service and aging tests should be required. 
The objection has been frequently raised and probably will 
be raised by some of you that it is a difficult matter to place, 
under any conditions, an article and then age it so that in a 
short time it is possible to deduce the effects of long use. 

However, granted that the difficulty is great, it is not in- 
surmountable. What is desired is not so much that the rub- 
ber be completely used up in a service test as that the rate 
of deterioration be determined. Given then the rate of de- 
terioration of hose, the quality of which in service is well 
known, and it is perfectly possible to predict from a curve 
the comparative aging value of the unknown. 

If consumer and producer will co-operate, these service 
tests can be developed and to the advantage of all concerned. 

[April, 1912. J 



C. A. Leavitt succeeds A. Ashcraft as master mechanic of 
the Arkansas Central, with office at Paris, Ark. 

S. L. Tracy has been appointed general foreman of the 
Bangor & Aroostook at Houlton, Me., succeeding A. J. 

H. H. Shepard has been appointed general superintendent 
of the Charlotte Harbor & Northern, with office at Boea 
Grande, Fla. 

H. G. Love succeeds C. J. Wymer as general car inspector 
of the Chicago & Eastern Illinois at Danville, 111. 

J. J. Murphy has been appointed shop foreman of the Chi- 
cago & North-Western at Fremont, Neb., to succeed W. 

G. S. Wilber has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Burlington at St. Joseph, Mo. H. S. Mored has been ap- 
pointed to fill a similar position at Ottumwa, la. H. C. 
Turner has been appointed road foreman of engines at Bur- 
lington, la. 

J. T. Dollarhide succeeds A. Guempilein as locomotive fore- 
man at Kansas City, Mo., on the Chicago Great Western. 

Edward Thomas succeeds J. H. Watson as foreman of the 
Oregon-Washington R. R. & N., with office at La Grande, 

T. E. Cannon has been appointed general master mechanic 
of the Lake district of the Great Northern, with headquar- 
ters at Superior, Wis. Nels Osgard succeeds Mr. Cannon 
as master mechanic at Superior. S. J. Fero succeeds C. E. 
McLaughlin as master mechanic at Breckenridge, Minn. 

Geo. Langton has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Texas & Pacific at Marshall, Texas, succeeding O. A. Clarke. 

Geo. H. McCutchin succeeds F. McGehee as master me- 
chanic of the Hayneville & Montgomery, with office at 
Hayneville, Ala. 

Thomas Edwards has been appointed master mechanic of 
the Holton Interurban, vice C. W. Buckle, with office at El 
Centro, Colo. 

W. H. Wheeler succeeds A. Newby as master mechanic of 
the Louisiana & Pine Bluff, with office at Huttig, Ark. 

J. B. Kenison has been appointed foreman of the Maine 
Central at Calais, Me. 

F. E. Ballda has been appointed master mechanic of the 
New York, New Haven & Hartford at East Hartford, Conn., 
to succeed J. M. Collins. 

G. H. Huntley succeeds J. B. Beaird as master mechanic 
of the North Louisiana & Gulf. His office is at Hodge, La. 

E. G. Dunn has been made acting superintendent of trans- 
portation of the Pacific & Idaho Northern, vice P. G. Wil- 
liams, with office at New Meadows, Idaho. 

F. E. Sullivan succeeds R. H. Moore as general manager 
of the Pajaro Valley Consolidated, with office at Spreckels, 

A. T. Mauldin has been appointed foreman of car repairs 
of the Southern at Selma, Ala., and B. F. Rucks has been ap- 
pointed to a similar position at Birmingham, Ala. 

J. C. Arbogast has been appointed general manager of the 
Tennessee & North Carolina, with headquarters at Philadel- 
phia. He succeeds F. F. Robb. 

H. E. Passmore has been appointed master mechanic of 
the Toledo & Ohio Central and Zanesville & Western Rys., 
with office at Bucyrus, O. He succeeds J. T. Luscombe, who 
has been appointed master mechanic of the Big Four. 

E. E. Backus succeeds E. J. Cordova as purchasing agent 
of the Vera Cruz Terminal, with office at Vera Cruz, V. C, 

J. B. Kilpatrick, superintendent of motive power of the 
Rock Island at Davenport, la., has had his office moved to 

H. E. Passmore. 

Des Moines, la. W. M. Whitenton, general manager of the 
first district, and F. J. Easley, general superintendent, have 
also had their offices moved to Des Moines. 

W. R. Ladd, formerly assistant superintendent of the Ore- 
gon-Washington R. R. & N. has been appointed master 
mechanic of the shops at Albina, Ore. W. H. Dressel has 
been appointed assistant superintendent to succeed Mr. Ladd 
at Portland. J. H. Watson has been made division fore- 
man at Seattle, Wash., to succeed Mr. Dressel. Edward 
Thomas has been appointed division foreman at La Grande, 
Ore., succeeding Mr. Watson. 

S. G. Strickland has been appointed assistant general mana- 
ger of the Chicago & North Western at Chicago to succeed 
W. E. Morse, retired on account of ill health. W. J. Towne 
succeeds Mr. Strickland as general superintendent at Chi- 
cago. H. H. Decker, formerly division engineer at Winona, 
Minn., succeeds Mr. Towne as engineer maintenance of way 
at Chicago. Numerous other changes have taken place in 
the operating and engineering departments. 

Willard Kells. 

Willard Kells has been appointed assistant general super- 
intendent of motive power of the Atlantic Coast Line, with 
office at Wilmington, N. C. Mr. Kells resigned as master 




[April, 1912.] 

mechanic of the Lehigh Valley in December, 1910, to accept 
the position of assistant to the general superintendent of mo- 
tive power of the Atlantic Coast Line and has held this 
position until his recent appointment. Mr. Kells was born 
in 186S at Dennison, Ohio, and has come up through the 
mechanical department, starting at the bottom as an appren- 
tice in the Susquehanna shop of the Erie. He filled various 
positions, arriving at the position of master mechanic in 
1896. In 1903 he went to the Lehigh Valley to accept a 
similar position and remained with this road until 1906. 

J. D. Wells has been appointed district master mechanic at 
Farnham, Que., on the Eastern division of the Canadian Pacific. 
He succeeds A. YV- Horsey. E. Eley succeeds T. Harris as 
division car foreman at North Bay, Ont, on the Lake Superior 

P. P. Mirtz has been appointed mechanical engineer of 
the New York Central Lines West, with office at Cleve- 
land, O. Mr. Mirtz was born in Scranton, Pa., in 1883. 
In 1899 he entered service of the American Locomo- 
tive Co. as draftsman apprentice and in 1901 entered 
the service of the Central of New Jersey as mechanical 
draftsman. In 1903 he accepted a similar position with 
the N. Y. C. & St. L. at Cleveland and in 1905 en- 
tered the service of the Erie R. R. at Meadville, Pa., as 
mechanical draftsman. Mr. Mirtz came to the Lake Shore 
in 1906, in 1907 he was appointed assistant chief draftsman 
at the Collinwood shops, was made chief draftsman at Elk- 
hart in 1909 and in 1910 was appointed assistant engineer 
of motive power which position he held until his present 

Geo. K. Stewart. 

George K. Stewart has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Missouri Pacific-Iron Mountain system at Coffeyville, 
Kan. Mr. Stewart was born Aug. 5, 1869 at Ottawa, Kan., 
and was educated in the public schools there. In 1889 he 
entered the Topeka shops of the Santa Fe as a machinist ap- 
prentice and remained with this road until 1898 when he 
entered the service of the Missouri Pacific system as a ma- 
chinist and has been in the employ of this road continuously 
since that time. He served three years as a roundhouse 
foreman at Coffeyville, Kan., and in 1909 was appointed 
division foreman at Wichita, Kan., where he remained until 
March 4, 1912, when he was appointed a master mechanic 
and transferred back to Coffeyville. 

Nels Osgard has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Great Northern at Superior, Wis. Mr. Osgard received a county 
school education and started at the bottom in October, 1887, as 

Nels Osgard. 

engine wiper for the Great Northern (then the St. P. M. & 
M.). In 1890 he was advanced to fireman and in 1896 was 
given an engine. In April, 1906, he was appointed traveling 
engineer and with a brief exception during the interval of 
depression, he served in this capacity until March 15, 1912, 
when he was appointed division master mechanic of the 
Superior and Mesabe divisions as noted. 


R. F. McKenna, formerly master car builder of the Dela- 
ware, Lackawanna & Western, died at Philadelphia on March 
16. Mr. McKenna was born at Scranton, Pa., in 1868, and 
spent practically all of his railroad career on the Lackawanna, 
entering the Scranton shops in 1884 as an apprentice. He 
became chief draftsman of the car department in 1891, and 
during 1892 was connected with the Buffalo Car Wheel Co. 
He returned to the Lackawanna as foreman of the Scranton 
car shop. In 1899 he was appointed a general foreman and in 
1903 was made superintendent of the car shop. In 1904 he 
was appointed master car builder and continued in this ca- 
pacity until he resigned in 1909 on account of ill health. His 
death came as the result of an operation. Mr. McKenna was 
a former president of the Master Car Builders' Association 
and of the Central Railway Club. 

R. F. McKenna. 

[April, 1912.] 



■prig" OP Rfefflufacturcns 


The Bury Compressor Co., Erie, Pa., has placed on the 
market a variable volume compressor driven by belt from 
a band wheel on the compressor. The capacity of this ma- 
chine is 1,500 feet displacement per minute and it was in- 
stalled recently in the Erie Malleable Iron Co.'s plant. The 
machine was started off under load immediately upon com- 
pletion and it is said to have been carrying full load since, 
and is maintaining terminal air pressure at the required 

Bury Air Compressor. 

point under the varying load of that part of the large plant 
where the various machines and tools are located, operated 
by air from this compressor. 

This machine is also built to be driven by a synchronous 
motor mounted directly on the shaft. The Bury Com- 
pressor Co. has four large machines of this type now under 
construction going through its shop, and in its January or- 
ders has been favored with large 10-inch and 16-inch stroke 
machines from the Anheuser-Busch Brewing Association, 
St. Louis, Mo.; Lord & Burnham, Irvington-on-the-Hudson; 
North & Judd Co., New Britain, Conn. 


A special bulldozer adapted for splitting up old ties and 
timbers is shown in the illustration. This is one of the reg- 
ular machines of Williams, White & Co., of Moline, 111., 
which has been fitted up for this purpose and has proven 
to be a very useful machine. Heavy steel knives have been 
bolted to the sides of the jaws and these cut the wood off 
into lengths of from two to three feet. In addition to this 
there is a horizontal knife at the front of the machine which 

splits the piece of wood through the middle. As a number 
of blows are necessary to cut off a piece of timber, this 
horizontal knife crushes and splits the wood into a half 
dozen or more pieces before the operation is finished. 

The C, M. & St. P. Ry. has one of these machines driven 
by a 20 h. p. gasoline engine and mounted on a platform 
so that it can easily be placed on a flat car. When a pile 
of old timbers has accumulated at some point along the line, 
the bulldozer is loaded on a car and shipped out to that 
point where it quickly makes kindling wood of everything 
in sight. It then proceeds to the next point along the line 
which is in need of kindling wood. This wood is very use- 
ful at round houses for starting fires under boilers and this 
bulldozer furnishes it quickly and cheaply. 

The March issue of "Small Motors," issued by the indus- 
trial and power department of the Westinghouse Electric 
and Manufacturing Company, Pittsburgh, is devoted to elec- 
tric motor vehicles. Considerable valuable information is 
contained therein with reference to the operation of these 
vehicles and their production of revenue to the central 

"Lea high-duty turbine pump" is the title of a recent bul- 
letin of the Lea Equipment Co., of Philadelphia, Pa. It 
illustrates and describes in very good style the several types 
of centrifugal pumps made by this firm. The general offices 
of the Lea Equipment Co. have recently been moved to the works 
at Wayne Jet. 

* * * 

Bulletin B of the Vixen File Co., of Philadelphia, shows 
a large assortment of Vixen files together with complete de- 
scriptions. The preface says that Vixen files cut three hun- 
dred to five hundred per cent faster than ordinary files. 

* * * 

The Crucible Steel Co., of Pittsburgh, has issued an in- 
teresting little booklet on "Steels and alloys for special pur- 
poses." It contains considerable data and other interesting 
matter on the subject of steels in general. Description of a 
number of tests are given, together with tables and curves 
showing the results. A liberal number of illustrations are 
scattered throughout. 

yf. y^ 5p 

A catalogue of Homestead valves has recently been issued 
by the Homestead Valve Mfg. Co., of Homestead, Pa. In 

it is shown a large assortment of these well known valves. 

* * * 

The Independent Pneumatic Tool Co., of Chicago, has 
issued a large and comprehensive catalogue of Thor pneu- 
matic tools which include drills, flue rollers, grinders, ham- 
mers and staybolt drivers. It is bound between heavy cov- 
ers and is well arranged in every way. A large number of 
illustrations showing Thor air tools in actual use in locomo- 
tive shop, are given. The same firm has also recently issued 
a special booklet on stone cutting tools. 

Wood Splitting Bulldozer. 


A new drill socket has been brought out by Scully, Jones 
& Co., of Chicago, called the "Wear-ever." It is made of a 
special steel, heat treated, hardened and ground, and is of 
standard taper, both inside and out. It will be noted in 



[April, 1912.] 

Views of the Wear-ever Socket. 

the illustration that there is an inner key and an outer 
keyway which is of considerable advantage inasmuch as it 
distributes the strain evenly on the sockets. The socket 
has a collar, a reinforcement around the base, which greatly 
strengthens it at a point where it is needed as it is quite 
common for most sockets to flare at the base after heavy 
usage. This collar also provides a means of separating 
nested sockets with a considerable saving in time. That 
is, with the ordinary socket, if a bunch of them are nested, 
it is necessary to start at the top and separate the sockets 
one at a time until the desired one is reached. With the 
"Wear-ever" sockets, the holes for inserting the drift are 
not covered up but are on the outside and the drift can be 
immediately inserted between any two sockets. They can 
be nested with any socket made and drills can readily be 
adapted to them by grinding a flat on the shank. 


A number of installations of hot water boiler washing 
and filling systems have recently been built by the Cowles- 
MacDowell Engineering Co., of Chicago. Their system works 
on an automatic vacuum principle of the closed type and 
enables higher and more constant water temperature to be 
maintained. It also insures a more constant circulation and 
enables all condensation to be delivered to the heaters. 

The arrangement of the heater and tanks is shown in the 
illustration. Blow-off water and steam pass first into the 
blow-off basin, from this basin the steam passes to the first 
end compartment of the main heater, then through the tubes 
to the opposite end compartment of the main heater. Con- 
densation, resulting from the steam imparting its heat to 
the refilling water surrounding the tubes, is discharged into 
the main heater, where it adds to the quantity and heat of 
the refilling water. Clean water for refilling is taken from 
the railroad company's supply, passed through the main heat- 
er, where its temperature is raised by the blow-off steam; 
from the main heater the refilling water passes to the re- 
ciprocal heater, where its temperature is raised to 180 deg. 
and above, and then goes to the round house. The heat 
for raising the temperature of refilling water in the recipro- 
cal heater is that from the exhaust steam principally, sup- 
plemented by the surplus blow-off steam and by live steam at 
times when there would be a deficiency of exhaust and blow- 
off steam. Steam enters one end compartment of the re- 
ciprocal heater, passes through the tubes and imparts its 
heat to the refilling water surrounding the tubes and 
is condensed and discharges into the other end compart- 
ment of the reciprocal heater and from there it is conveyed 
to the main heater, adding an additional amount to the quan- 
tity and heat of the refilling water. From the end of the 
refilling line there is a return line to the reciprocal heater 
which completes loop for circulation; or when a separate re- 
filling pump is installed circulation is maintained through 
the automatic circulating valve on pump. 

Cowles-MacDowell Boiler Washing and Refilling Installation at Council Bluffs, la., C. & N. W. Ry. 

[April, 1912.] 



Blow-off products are held in the blow-off basin, where 
the heat is extracted under a vacuum in the form of a 
vapor, which passes into the main heater, as described above, 
after which the dirty water passes to the sewer through the 
siphon in the valve pit, the sludge can be washed to the 

the pipe lines for the usual purposes, and a vent 
pipe with a back pressure valve set at about 3 lbs. 
leads to the atmosphere and constitutes the main 
relief or safety valve. The pumps are controlled by govern- 
ors in the usual way. The heaters are built for 135 lbs. 

Refilling loop main 

"£>js Washout main 

To round house 


Blow- off 
Milling loop main 



Back Pressure valve j/j 

-C\ 1 



Oil Separator 

Relief valve 

% reservoir 

r\ Qpjjjb^z- Live sti 

n °|p > 'Pressure reducing 

& "£; T 'Safety 

r n n \ „1 Valve 


Reciprocal heater 

Main heater 

Condensation tt> 

Automatic temper- 
ature regulator \ 



Xsd refilling supply vt^XM & receiver « 

Blow-off basin 


Valve pit 

of concrete, Cast iron, or steel as 
local conditions determine 


j^ Relief valve 
o dt=»-»- To reservoir 

Washout heater 

, To receiver 



Washout pump 


To sewer 


Washout a other waste 
water from roundhouse 

water reservoir 

Vacuum W^- 1 

To vac. pump 

■„-*-- -U>: ! ;-V ■ V; 1 .?- ■;'"«- *%<?■ '■**&?*£■ 

"A "Is autpmafic 
circulating valve 

J- To sewer 

Pump suction to cold 
water line when reservoir 
is not installed. 

Washout water res- 
ervoir omitted where, 
water is cheap and 

Arrangement of Cowles-MacDowell Boiler Washing and Refilling Apparatus. 

sewer through a sludge pipe in the bottom of the basin, or 
removed through manhole. The objects of the siphon are 
to seal the basin for insuring a vacuum therein and for dis- 
charging the dirty water to the sewer. The washout pump 
takes its supply from the washout reservoir and passes it 
through the washout heater, where its temperature is raised 
by the heat from exhaust steam, surplus blow-off steam and 
live steam which circulate through the tubes in the heater. 
Live steam is used only when there is a deficiency in the 
other heat supplies. The temperature of the washout water 
is maintained at about 130 deg. by means of a Sylphon tem- 
perature regulator. Circulation is maintained through the 
automatic circulating valve on pump. The water used for 
washing out returns to the washout reservoir. The vacuum 
pump maintains a vacuum in the tubes and end chambers 
of the washout heater which insures efficient circulation of 
steam through same. The condensation from the washout 
heater is discharged into the main heater. 

The vacuum pump maintains a vacuum in the end com- 
partments and tubes of the main heater, the blow-off basin, 
and the blow-off main to the valves on the lower ends of the 
post drops. While the vacuum in the blow-off main is de- 
stroyed when engines blow-off, the back pressure against 
the blow-off steam and water is practically destroyed by the 
counter effect of the vacuum, thus insuring material reduc- 
tion in the time of blowing off, particularly at the later end 
of blowing off when the steam pressure is low. The vacuum 
is the means by which the blow-off steam is passed into the 
heaters. The vacuum pump discharges all condensation into 
an automatic pump and receiver, which discharges into the 
main heater. 

Globe, check, pressure relief, and other valves are set in 

working pressure. The plant is practically automatic in 
operation and constitutes a continuous feed water heating 



The following is an account, by Arthur M. Waitt, consult- 
ing engineer, of a test, made by him, on the "Gold Ideal" 
pressure regulator made by the Gold Car Heating & Light- 
ing Co., New York: 

On Monday, February 19th, 1912, I made a severe test of 
the operation of the "Gold Ideal" pressure regulator in the 
yards of one of the large railway systems running out of 
New York. 

The regulator was applied to a standard passenger loco- 
motive, which was then coupled to a train of five average 
sized modern passenger coaches. A steam gauge was con- 
nected with the train supply pipe from where it was at- 
tached to the regulator and it constantly indicated the 
pressure maintained at that point. After coupling the steam 
hose between all the coaches steam was furnished to the 
train pipe, as far back as the rear of tender, by opening the 
regulator sufficiently to furnish a pressure of 30 lbs. on the 
train supply or outlet side of the regulator. With this set- 
ting of the regulator steam was admitted first to the train 
pipe and radiating pipes of the coach next to the locomotive. 
After waiting several minutes until steam showed at the 
drip on this coach the steam was admitted to the train and 
radiating pipes of a second car and it in turn was heated 
until steam showed at the drip. Next three more coaches 
were at once added to the train being heated. After allow- 
ing steam to be on the entire five cars for over five minutes 



[April, 1912.] 

Sectional View of Gold Ideal Pressure Regulator. 

the hose on the rear end of the rear coach was fully opened 
allowing steam to blow freely from train pipe. After allow- 
ing the rear hose to be open full for two minutes, the cars 
were all cut off at once by closing the cock on the front 
end of first car. 

The next test was the severest possible one. The hose 
connection was broken between the tender and first car and 
steam at full supply pressure allowed to freely pour out from 
tender hose. 

During all of the above changes in the demand on the lo- 
comotive steam supply, no readable variation could be noted 
on the train supply gauge on the locomotive, from the 30 
lbs. at which the regulator was set. The only noticeable 
movement in the gauge hand was when the rear hose on 
the trains, and the rear hose on the tender were opened full 
for steam to blow out. In these instances a slight unmeas- 
urable vibration of the gauge hand was produced, showing 
the rapid alternate slight opening and closing of the con- 
trolling valve in the regulator. 

As a final trial the regulator was set to furnish a pressure 
of 40 lbs. and the hose on the rear of the tender left wide 
open. With this severe trial the supply pressure at the train 
supply side of regulator was maintained absolutely steady. 
During the tests the locomotive boiler pressure varied be- 
tween 200 and 205 lbs. but this variation produced no effect 
on the train supply pressure furnished. 

In brief the result of my examination and testing of the 
Gold Ideal Regulator showed that under the simplest and 
under the most severe and adverse conditions this regulator 
delivered steam for the train supply pipe at uniform and 
fixed predetermined pressure. 

Operation of Regulator. 

The operation of the Gold Ideal Pressure Regulator is 
readily understood by reference to the sectional view 

By screwing down handle W until V is sufficiently com- 

pressed to allow the required and predetermined delivery 
pressure to be furnished at the outlet side of regulator (left 
hand side), the controlling valve is opened. Steam at boiler 
pressure comes into the inlet side of regulator (right hand 
side) and passes up through the small passage to the space 
under bottom of the controlling valve and through the open 
valve to a small annular groove above valve and thence 
through a small connecting passage (shown in dotted lines) 
downward to the space above the large diaphragm Q. The 
pressure exerted on this diaphragm presses it downward, 
opening the main supply valve, thereby admitting a flow 
of high pressure steam from the inlet to the outlet side of 
the regulator, the steam at the same time passing upward, 
through an opening provided, into chamber under main 
diaphragm Q, and also upward through small passage into 
the chamber under the controlling diaphragm R, presses 
against these diaphragms until it just balances the pressure 
exerted on their upper sides. If the draft on the steam 
on the low pressure side of the regulator is increased, it 
tends to reduce the pressure there. This reduction of pres- 
sure is at once transmitted to the under side of the controll- 
ing diaphragm R and the fixed compression in the spring 
V at once causes this diaphragm to depress and the con- 
trolling valve is opened, thereby allowing high pressure 
steam to pass through this valve to the top of the main 
diaphragm Q producing a further opening of the main supply 
valve and an immediate increase of the supply of high pres- 
sure steam directly to the low pressure side of the regulator. 
If for any reason the supply or boiler pressure is reduced, 
the resultant pressure on the outlet or train supply side of 
regulator would be momentarily slightly reduced and the con- 
sequent pressure in chamber under the controlling diaphragm 
R would be lessened and at once the controlling valve would 
open slightly, thereby in its turn causing the main supply 
valve to open farther and give the added volume and pres- 
sure from the boiler supply side necessary to keep the train 
supply side up to the predetermined pressure. 

If, from any cause, the pressure on the train supply side of 
regulator is increased, as might be produced by a reduction 
of number of cars to be supplied with steam, the increased 
resultant pressure on the under side of the main diaphragm 
Q would at once cause main valve to close and at the same 
time this increased pressure under the controlling diaphragm 
R would hold the controlling valve tightly closed until such 
time as the pressure on the train supply side of regulator 
was reduced to a point below the predetermined train supply 

The controlling valve will always be closed when the train 
supply pressure reaches the predetermined amount, and will 
at once be opened automatically when it reduces below this 

In case of any small leakage of steam through the control- 
ling valve to the space above the large diaphragm, such leak- 
age will pass through the small leakage plug opening at Z 
into the train supply side of the regulator, thereby causing 
no opening movement of the main supply valve. 

Kfastri&l iNotes 

The Moore Locomotive Ashpan Co., Montgomery, Ala., 
has been incorporated with a capital of $32,000. 

The Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co., has 
purchased an eight-wheel, radial truck, steam locomotive 
crane with a lifting capacity of 15 tons. The locomotive 
will be used for excavating, dredging Turtle Creek and 
handling coal. 

The American Steel Foundries Co. will improve its shops 

[April, 1912.] 



for making the Davis car wheel. About $140,000 is to be 
spent for improvements. 

The Joseph Dixon Crucible Company of Jersey City, has 
just put on the market a new chain graphite, especially in- 
tended for lubricating the chains of motor trucks and pleas- 
ure cars. 

Mr. C. C. Owens has recently been placed in charge of 
the Detroit Sales Office of the Westinghouse Co. with the 
title of district manager. For the last eight years he has 
been connected with the New York Sales Office, having had 
charge of the Industrial and Power division for the two pre- 
vious years to his transfer to Detroit. 

S. T. Fulton, former assistant to the president of the 
Rock Island, has been appointed general sales agent for the 
Railway Steel Spring Company. Mr. Fulton's office will be 
in New York. 

S. T. Fulton. 

Judge Day of the United States district court at Cleveland 
on March 4 rendered an opinion dismissing the suit of the 
Railroad Supply Company against the Elyria Iron & Steel 
Company for alleged infringement of the Wolhaupter patents 
on railway tie plates. 

Frederick Maley, formerly with the Baldwin Locomotive 
Works, Philadelphia, Pa., has been made superintendent of 
the oxy-acetylene department of the Alexander Milburn Co., 
Baltimore, Md. The Milburn company has recently equipped 
several locomotive cranes for the Maryland Steel Co., Spar- 
rows Point, Md., with its new steam acetylene generator, 
which utilizes waste steam from the boiler, operating a num- 
ber of searchlights and allowing night work to be carried on 

The Lansing Co., of Lansing, Mich., recently purchased 
the entire hoist building plant of the Butcher & Gage Co., 
Jackson, Mich., and in the future will manufacture "Wol- 
verine" hoists in Lansing. 

The John F. Stevens Co. has been incorporated under the 
laws of the state of New York, U. S. A. It will execute by 
contract, or supervise, under any terms that may be mutual- 
ly agreed upon, the construction of railways — whether steam 
or electric, canals, river and harbor improvements, irriga- 
tion projects, water power developments, etc. 

Philip H. Ryan has resigned his position in the mechanical 
department of the New York Central & Hudson River to 
enter the railway department of the American Steam Gauge 
& Valve Manufacturing Co., Boston, Mass. 

Mr. H. R. Setz, who has been chief engineer of the Struth- 
ers Wells Co., of Warren, Pa., has accepted the position of 

chief engineer with the Otto Gas Engine Works of Phila- 

The United States Steel Ry. Tie Co., with offices in the 
Oliver building, Pittsburg, is arranging for the location of a 
plant in the Pittsburg district through the Pittsburg Indus- 
trial Development Commission. R. E. L. Maxey is manager 
of the company. 

The Bucyrus Co., South Milwaukee, Wis., has taken over 
the manufacture of the Atlantic type shovel, heretofore built 
by the American Locomotive Co., and it is the expectation 
of the company to continue to build all of the sizes previously 
built, and to eventually have a complete line of Atlantic wire- 
rope shovels, in addition to a complete line of Bucyrus chain- 
type shovels. 

Cornell S. Hawley, formerly president of the Consolidated 
Car Heating Co., Albany, N. Y., has been made president of 
the Laconia Car Co., Boston, Mass. The Laconia Car Co. 
was recently organized to take over the Laconia Car Com- 
pany Works. The company is capitalized at $2,000,000, con- 
sisting of $1,000,000 7 per cent cumulative preferred stock 
and $1,000,000 common stock. 

R. T. McCormick has resigned as manag